An Anthology of
Wisdom & Common Sense
On the personal and social changes required to achieve
freedom, peace, justice, enlightenment, progress & prosperity in our time
Index - E
(1973 - 2012)
ECCENTRICITY: No society in which eccentricity is a matter of reproach, can be in a wholesome state.” - John Stuart Mill, On Liberty. - Most States are characterized by tolerating eccentricity in relatively trivial matters while suppressing it regarding the most important affairs - in which they enforce territorial uniformity, in accordance with their own monopolized decision-making. - J.Z., 8.4.89 & 29.5.00. - DIVERSITY, VARIETY, NON-CONFORMISM, DECENTRALIZATION, INDIVIDUALISM, FREEDOM, LIBERTY, ODDBALLS, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, FREE CHOICE, GOVERNMENTS, TERRITORIALISM VS. EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY OR PANARCHISM
ECOLOGY & PANARCHISM: Ecology among naturally grown and maintained human societies: Panarchism provides an ecology for the natural “life” forms of voluntary communities. Through various panarchies, all supported and run by volunteers only, all forms of community life can either be conserved, indefinitely, by their supporters or rejected by and for their dissenters and replaced by other communities that are more viable for them. - Human beings, like other animals, do also have their “herds” and “swarms”, which are natural to them, all without compulsory members and all without a territorial monopoly. - J.Z., n.d., 28.4.12.
ECOLOGY & PANARCHISM: Why should panarchist ecology exist only for the birds, plants, insects, other animals and microbes but not for human individuals and their voluntary organizations? – J.Z., 25.1.05. - Q., EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY FOR VOLUNTEERS RATHER THAN COMPULSORY TERRITORIAL MONOPOLIES!
ECOLOGY: there began a movement which has now become the Religion of Ecology. It was the idea that we should submit to the supposed laws of nature. (Were they true laws of nature, we would have to submit to them. That's what a law of nature means.)” - DIAGONAL RELATIONSHIP 10. - It might also mean: Take account of undesirable and unexpected side-effects. Do not disturb a natural balance more than you have to. - J.Z., 7.6.80. – Ecologists should start exploring the ecology for humans and their societies, starting with their genuine individual rights and liberties, which would eliminate the destructiveness and murderousness of any form of territorial despotism (under whatever cover or propaganda term), violent revolutions, civil wars and conventional wars. It would even prevent nuclear wars. (As I hope to have proven in my An ABC against Nuclear War, 1975, online at www.butterbach.net - At least no refutation of it has ever reached me. – J.Z., 28.4.12.) – Alas, they are, all too often, more concerned about preserving some plants or frogs than human beings. – J.Z., 16.11.10. – [As if wild-life refuges, natural parks, zoos and botanical gardens as well as special private gardens and animal shelters as well as seed banks had not yet been invented and spread. – J.Z., 28.4.12.] - RELIGION OF ECOLOGY, NATURE & THE LAWS OF NATURE, PRIVATE INITIATIVES VS. STATISM
ECONOMIC EMANCIPATION: President Ford, our first unelected President, came up with a real gem in his Lincoln's Day speech on February 12, 1975, when he said: "We are confronted with the need to achieve economic emancipation." - REPORT ON FREEDOM, 3/75. (Liberty Amendment Committee.) - Alas, like "political emancipation", it is subject to many interpretations and misunderstandings. - J.Z., 31.5.00. – E.g., the extreme protectionists, the autarchists, claim the same aim for themselves! – I doubt that any US President ever clearly stood up for monetary and financial freedom or even merely Free Trade or voluntary taxation. Not one of them favored individual and group secessionism from their rule and exterritorially autonomous competition by communities of volunteers. - J.Z., 3.12.08, 28.4.12. – LEADERSHIP, PRIME MINISTERS, PRESIDENTS
ECONOMIC FREEDOM & ECONOMIC EXPERIMENTS AMONG VOLUNTEERS: All the suspected defects of the economic establishment would be quickly eliminated if others were allowed to go ahead with more economical methods." - F. A. Hayek, THE DAILY TELEGRAPH, Aug. 26, 1976. - Alas, even Hayek was still, in spite of such utterances, merely an advocate of limited governments. For him, territorial and limited governments are still to have a monopoly for the supply of certain "public services". - J.Z., 8.4.89. – Instead: Laissez-faire, laissez-passer – not only in economics but in all spheres, for all peaceful, productive and voluntary activities that do at most only wrong and harm their voluntary participants, trying, in vain to make their errors, prejudices and dogmas work for them rather than against them. Freedom to choose a condition under less than all genuine individual rights and liberties for oneself – as long as one wishes to put up with the results. – J.Z., 28.4.12.
ECONOMIC FREEDOM: As (Aaron) Director said: 'the bulk of mankind will for the foreseeable future have to devote a considerable fraction of their active lives to economic activity. For these people, freedom of choice as owners of resources in choosing within available and continually changing opportunities, areas of employment, investment, and consumption, is fully as important as freedom of discussion and participation in government.” - R. H. Coase, The Market for Goods and the Market for Ideas, p 2. – The market for consumer goods is already reasonably well developed but the market for competing “public” services and that for ideas and talents, is still woefully underdeveloped. – J.Z., 3.12.08. – IDEAS ARCHIVE, SUPER-COMPUTER PROJECT, PANARCHISM, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, FREEDOM OF ACTION, VS. TERRITORIALISM
ECONOMIC FREEDOM: Economic freedom is inseparable from political freedom. - J.Z., n.d. - If economics is comprehensively understood as embracing the provision and distribution of all goods and services, then it covers all rightful, i.e., all voluntary political activities as well and it condemns all wrongful and involuntary political activities as it condemns them in all the other economic spheres. - J.Z., 1.6.00. - & POLITICAL FREEDOM
ECONOMIC FREEDOM: Economic freedom means the right that each of us should have to decide how he is to earn his daily bread.” - Earl Zarbin, THE FREEMAN, 6/73. – That right requires, among other things, mostly, full monetary and financial freedom – and the right to secede from any territorial State or other compulsory and monopolistic organization. – J.Z., 3.12.08.
ECONOMIC FREEDOM: Economic freedom or free enterprise denotes a set of circumstances in which the participants in the process of production are able to decide for themselves whether and on what terms they will exchange an asset, be it the capacity to work or a sum of purchasing power, or a portion of space and / or resources, for another asset which they need or want, be it a wage or salary, a share in profit, a sum of interest or any other object of their need or want. This freedom is not an absolute freedom. It is contingent upon there being at least two parties to the transaction and that there is a two-way flow of satisfaction.” - H. S. Ferns, The Disease of Government, 53/54. - As if that did not apply also to every other individual right or liberty! - J.Z., 31.5.00.
ECONOMIC FREEDOM: Economic freedom requires, primarily, that we free and fully mobilize the exchange of goods, services and labor, while respecting property rights. Capital can be mobilized under monetary and financial despotism only to a limited extent and its volume remains also all too limited under these conditions. But once the turnover-credit potential is fully mobilized, then and then only, can capital come fully into its own potential. All remaining financial despotism, starting with taxation and the control and regulation of capital markets, with its “guaranties”, prohibitions and subsidies, should also be fully destroyed. Except for such restrictions still maintained among volunteers, believing in them, within their own communities. Freedom for prejudiced, ignorant and foolish people to do their own things to themselves. But also full capitalism for its advocates. Then, sooner or later, the remaining under-informed ones, or at least most of them, will come to realize its rightfulness, rationality and usefulness. That has already been partly achieved in most countries formerly ruled by dogmatic communists. – J.Z., 16.9.99, 6.10.08, 28.4.12. – PANARCHISM, VOLUNTARISM, FREE EXCHANGE OR MERELY MOBILIZATION OF CAPITAL UNDER MONETARY DESPOTISM? FINANCIAL FREEDOM
ECONOMIC FREEDOM: Every free man may choose the work he likes, to specialize in it, to trade his product for the products of others and to go as far on the road to achievement as his ability and ambition allow.” - THE AUSTRALIAN G.P., Sept. 1974. – Also: the economic, social and political system that he prefers for himself! – J.Z., 3.12.08. - PANARCHISM
ECONOMIC FREEDOM: Freedom for ‘capitalist acts between consenting adults’.” – Robert Nozick. – Any condition of un-freedom or statism or governmentalism, between consenting adults, as well – as long they manage to prefer it for themselves! – We only demand that they remain free to secede as soon as they become disappointed with their all too flawed choices for themselves. - J.Z., 3.12.08. - CAPITALISM, CONSENT, PANARCHISM, META-UTOPIA
ECONOMIC FREEDOM: Freedom is the right of anyone to do anything, so long as it is peaceful. Government is freedom's peace-keeping agency; its role is limited to codifying and prohibiting all unpeaceful or destructive activities. - Given this freedom arrangement, each citizen is free to produce anything he pleases, to exchange on mutually agreeable terms with whomever he pleases, to do as he chooses with what is his own and without trespass against others. - We have in this ideal situation only willing exchanges, whether of goods or services. Each citizen gains in his own judgment or he would not make the exchanges. Each owns; no one is owned. There is neither thievery nor enslavement; both are impossible. Each is behaving toward the others as he would have them behave toward him. In a word, the Golden Rule is observed as freedom is practiced. - How to own rather than be owner? Learn the freedom philosophy and how to live by it!” - Leonard E. Read, Having My Way, p.147. - - Territorial government, not even in its limited form [remember what the USA developed into!] is not a rightful or efficient peace-keeping agency, either. Here a monopoly, compulsory membership and centralization (in short, territorialism), are as wrongful and harmful, if not more so, than in all other spheres, precisely because security, protection and jurisdiction are very important services. - Read never learned to live and teach the freedom philosophy quite consistently because of his notion of a supposedly ideal territorial limited” government, one not subject to market competition, free enterprise, free trade, free pricing, voluntary membership, consumer sovereignty and individual secessionism. - J.Z., 31.5.00. - & LIMITED GOVERNMENT OR PANARCHIES
ECONOMIC FREEDOM: Freedom of worship is an empty thing if we are denied the financial freedom to erect churches, pay our clergy, print religious literature and propagandize for our faith. Freedom of the press means nothing if we are deprived of the means to buy presses, type, and newsprint. And what meaning can be attached to free speech if we know that we must speak in a certain way or else lose favor with those who control the food, clothing and shelter which we need to survive? Unless we have full freedom in the economic realm we cannot have full freedom in any other.” - Admiral Ben Moreell, Log I, 148. - Especially the political sphere should not be excluded from the principles and practices of free market economic institutions and relationships. - J.Z., 31.5.00m 28.4.12. – After all, only another kind of either wanted or unwanted services is involved. There is no right to a territorial domination over a whole population, regardless of the false pretences of aristocrats, absolute monarchs and territorial democratic or republican governments and their parliaments, however limited they imagine themselves to be, otherwise. – J.Z., 3.12.08, 28.4.12. – PANARCHISM
ECONOMIC FREEDOM: Fundamental values - Enlightenment values - were involved in the issue of economic freedom, most notably man's right to determine his own fate, his right to be treated not as a ward of supremely wise government but as an autonomous being.” - Peter Gay, quoted by Chris R. Tame, The Revolution of Reason, JLS, Sum. 77, p. 219. - ENLIGHTENMENT, INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS, INDIVIDUAL SOVEREIGNTY, INDIVIDUAL SECESSIONISM, SELF-GOVERNMENT, SELF-RESPONSIBILITY, PANARCHISM
ECONOMIC FREEDOM: I view economic freedom as the freedom to determine and to seek to satisfy one's own wants as he sees them.” - Darryl R. Francis, FREEDOM, 10/75. - Pirates, highwaymen and modern thieves and robbers, including politicians and bureaucrats, do that, too. So there must be more to a sound definition. Leonard E. Read's "Release all creative energies!" is a much wider and also much more limited concept of economic freedom, because it already includes the concept of equal freedom for others. - J.Z., 31.5.00. It excludes arbitrary, coercive and legally sanctioned monopoly actions at the expense and risk of non-consenting others. – PANARCHISM, EQUAL RIGHTS & LIBERTIES – TO THE EXTENT THAT VOLUNTEERS WANT THEM AMONG THEMSELVES.
ECONOMIC FREEDOM: If a regime of complete economic freedom be established, social and political freedom will follow automatically; and until it is established neither social nor political freedom can exist. Here one comes in sight of the reason why the State will never tolerate the establishment of economic freedom. In a spirit of sheer conscious fraud, the State will at any time offer its people 'four freedoms,' or six, or any number; but it will never let them have economic freedom. If it did, it would be signing its own death-warrant, for as Lenin pointed out, 'it is nonsense to make any pretence of reconciling the State and liberty.' Our economic system being what it is, and the State being what it is, all the mass verbiage about 'the free peoples' and 'the free democracies' is merely so much obscene buffoonery." - Albert J. Nock, Memoirs of a Superfluous Man, now available in the Mises Institute Store. If the State is really a service organization then it should fall under all the natural rules, rights, liberties and practices of genuine free market economics, with e.g. fully free enterprise to offer any or any package deal of its services and full freedom of contract, including free choice of consumers between all competitively offered public services, in other words, complete consumer sovereignty towards them and fully free enterprise for them. – However, then even State-socialist communities would be possible for those, who still believe in it and as long as they do. That would at least help to get them off our backs. - J.Z., 1.11.07, 28.4.12. - POLITICAL FREEDOM, STATE, HUMAN RIGHTS, PANARCHISM, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY, VOLUNTARISM
ECONOMIC FREEDOM: In a spirit of sheer conscious fraud, the State will at any time offer its people "four freedoms", or six, or any number; but it will never let them have economic freedom. If it did, it would be signing its own death warrant, for as Lenin pointed out, "it is non sense to make any pretense of reconciling the State and Liberty." - Albert Jay Nock. – Isn’t it high time to replace all the governmental declarations of “rights” and “liberties” by an ideal one, privately compiled, discussed and published? As a start in this direction I offer over 130 private drafts of human rights, online as part of a CD of mine, reproduced by C. B. on www.butterbach.net. – Will anarchists and libertarians finally demonstrate sufficient interest and initiative in this direction? – J.Z., 3.12.08. -STATE & FREEDOM, PANARCHISM, LAISSEZ FAIRE, TOWARDS AN IDEAL DECLARATION OF INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS & LIBERTIES
ECONOMIC FREEDOM: Individual liberty cannot in the long run survive unless the economic base of society is independent and separate from the State and firmly buttresses the brittle self-restraint of men in power.” - Philip van der Elst, in the anthology edited by Dr. Rhodes Boyson: 1985, p.132. - Men are in power only if their "services" are not subject to market discipline, i.e., competition, free pricing, free contracts and full consumer sovereignty, which includes ignoring or boycotting them, refusing to pay them taxes or seceding from them. The territorialist notion of a coercive monopoly state, however otherwise "limited", is a spook remaining in the heads of all too many libertarians, unable to apply economic principles and practices to the "government" "service" suppliers. - J.Z., 31.5.00. – TERRITORIALISM, LIMITED GOVERNMENT, POWER
ECONOMIC FREEDOM: It rests with men whether they will make the proper use of the richer treasure which this knowledge provides them or whether they will leave it unused. But if they fail to take the best advantage of it and disregard its teachings and warnings, they will not annul economics, they will stamp out society and the human race.” - Ludwig von Mises, quoted in SOUTHERN LIBERTARIAN MESSENGER, 9/81. - If it really "rested with men", with individuals, then via individual secessions and exterritorial minority autonomy, economic freedom could be almost generally realized, after first being only realized by and among freedom lovers. - J.Z., 25.3.82, 31.5.00. - SURVIVAL, EXTERRITORIALISM VS. TERRITORIALISM
ECONOMIC FREEDOM: Libertarians say that personal and economic freedom go hand in hand; they are inseparable.” - From a leaflet of the Society for Libertarian Life. - Freedom has not separate economic, personal, social and political spheres, even though we might use terms, ideas and definitions that seem to indicate such a separation. Freedom is a continuum. - J.Z., 31.5.00. - Panarchism for all political, economic and social systems, all only practised among volunteers and exterritorially! – J.Z., 16.11.10. - PERSONAL FREEDOM, POLITICAL & SOCIAL FREEDOM & RIGHTS
ECONOMIC FREEDOM: No amount of political freedom will satisfy the hungry masses.” - Nikolai Lenin, Draft of Bolshevik Theses, March 17, 1917. – (*) That is why we need economic freedom, too, as a choice for those who want it for themselves and as a teaching example to others. Every other system tends to produce hunger for the masses. How many would have left Lenin’s State socialist despotism if emigration had been free? How many would have left it if individual and group secession had been free and if there had been no restrictions upon volunteer communities that are only exterritorially autonomous? How long would State socialism have lasted in the USSR if it would have had to compete internally against all other systems, tolerantly practised among volunteers, including one system with full free market freedom for its members, e.g., without any monetary despotism and coercively levied tributes upon capital, earnings, goods, services and labor? History would certainly have taken another course. – (*) As if that statement would have justified his political and economic repression! - J.Z., 12.7.86 & 23.5.00. - PANARCHISM, INDIVIDUAL SECESSIONISM, FREE MIGRATION, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, TERRITORIALISM, SOVIET REGIME, DIS.
ECONOMIC FREEDOM: since libertarianism considers force and coercion as a wrongful act, the philosophy of voluntary action in the economy between consumers and producers is a logical inclusion.” - From leaflet of the Society for Libertarian Life. - That should be applied to the consumers and producers of all kinds of governmental or societal services as well, not just to a supposedly limited sphere of the economy as opposed to a "limited" but still monopolistic sphere for territorial government actions and “services”. - J.Z., 31.5.00. - VOLUNTARISM, LIBERTARIANISM, FORCE, COERCION, PANARCHISM, WARFARE STATE, TERRITORIALISM, BUDGET, GOVERNMENT SPENDING, WELFARE STATE
ECONOMIC FREEDOM: The economic freedom, which is the prerequisite of any other freedom, cannot be the freedom from economic care which the socialist promise us, and which can be obtained only by relieving the individual at the same time of the necessity and of the power of choice: it must be the freedom of economic activity which, with the right of choice, inevitably also carries the risk and the responsibility of that right.” - Friedrich Hayek, The Road to Serfdom. – The “Road to Freedom” lies in letting the various freedom-lovers as well as the diverse statists go their own ways, always at the own risk and expense. E.g., laissez-faire economics for consenting adults as well as State socialism for volunteers – and any other ism for their believers. That would really speed up enlightenment and progress. As it is, the few somewhat enlightened people are always territorially dragged down into the fate of the ignorant, prejudiced and misled and territorially organized masses. – J.Z., 26.12.07. – PANARCHISM, ECONOMIC FREEDOM VS. STATE SOCIALISM, TERRITORIALISM, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM
ECONOMIC FREEDOM: The fact throughout history is that whenever government dominates the economic affairs of its citizenry, a free society is eroded, then destroyed, and a minority government ensues. Personal liberty without economic liberty is an absolute contradiction; the one cannot exist without the other.” - William E. Simon. – ISIL LIBERTY QUOTE LIBRARY 03. - However, one’s own ideal of personal liberty may not include economic freedom at all. It does not e.g. for monks and nuns and for many of the leftist utopians. One should also have the personal freedom to choose for oneself as little or no economic freedom and the liberty lovers should also recognize and respect this personal choice in those, who do not agree with them. – J.Z., 10.1.08. - PERSONAL LIBERTY
ECONOMIC FREEDOM: The idea that political freedom can be preserved in the absence of economic freedom, and vice versa, is an illusion. Political freedom is the corollary of economic freedom. It is no accident that the age of capitalism became also the age of government by the people. If individuals are not free to buy and to sell on the market, they turn into virtual slaves dependent on the good graces of the omnipotent government, whatever the wording of the constitution may be.” - Mises, Planning for Freedom, p.78. - And when citizens are not sovereign consumers towards all kinds of government services, competitively supplied, then governments become inevitably the greatest and most dangerous monopolies - even when they start out from limited government concepts. Their territorialism makes them, right from the beginning, somewhat authoritarian and totalitarian, at least monopolistic in all "public affairs", which are thus preempted by governments, taken out of the market, the law of supply and demand, free pricing, freedom of contracts and association, full self-ownership, full property rights etc. - Mises made still too many concessions to territorial governments, however "limited" the ideal government was to be otherwise. - Consumer-sovereignty and fully free enterprise towards the limited and other "ideal" governments offered by Miseans and all other kinds of believers in governments. - J.Z., 31.5.00, 28.4.12. - & POLITICAL FREEDOM, DEMOCRACY, TERRITORIALISM, LIMITED GOVERNMENTS
ECONOMIC FREEDOM: The meaning of economic freedom is this: that the individual is in a position to choose the way in which he wants to integrate himself into the totality of society.” - Ludwig von Mises. – That does not express clearly enough that the totality of a free society does embrace numerous and very diverse societies, all with voluntary members only and with full exterritorial autonomy for them. Otherwise, the notion of a "totality of society" becomes a totalitarian notion and practice. - J.Z., 30.1.02. - Let all kinds of socialists have their kind of socialist options, too, all under full exterritorial autonomy and at their own expense and risks. Tolerance for all kinds of people as long as they are tolerant enough. – We do not clash e.g. with non-profit foundations, monasteries or nunneries. – J.Z., 1.12.08. - INDIVIDUALISM, VOLUNTARISM, CHOICE, INTEGRATION, DIVISION OF LABOR, CHOICE OF JOBS OR PROFESSION, EXCHANGE, SOCIETY, INTEGRATION
ECONOMIC FREEDOM: This country would explode with activity - under economic freedom.” - Bob Howard, 1975. – “Explosion” is the wrong term here. It confirms the fear many have of liberty. But, once a few pioneers are free to apply it among themselves, while others still experiment with various statist “solutions”, the successes of these pioneers will speak for themselves and more and more people, faster and faster, will adopt the successful methods for themselves, one by one, group by group, to the extent that they have lost their fear of freedom. – J.Z., 3.12.08. – Freedom practices and institutions might then spread like fashion, song- and dance fads. – J.Z., 28.4.12. - PANARCHISM, INDIVIDUAL CHOICE, INDIVIDUAL SECESSIONISM, CONSENT, FEAR OF FREEDOM, DEVELOPMENT, DEPRESSION, BOOM ECONOMY
ECONOMIC FREEDOM: True economists are generally agreed, on the one hand, that the government should restrict itself to guaranteeing the security of its citizens, and on the other hand, that the freedom of labor and of trade should otherwise be whole and absolute.” – Gustave de Molinari, The Production of Security. - It is a classical treatment of the government problem, asserting that security is also a service that could and should be provided competitively and the market. - Here, once again, opinion is split among those who believe that only security services should be so provided, separately or in limited government batches, while panarchists assert that volunteer communities, that are exterritorially autonomous (panarchies), may authorize their leadership, directors etc. as they please, to offer whatever batch of "public services" the members desire from them and are willing to pay for. Free choice of governments and free societies would, initially, result, most likely, in a number of peacefully competing welfare states and societies. Bargain hunting and free enterprise would occur in this sphere and counteract any ideologies and faiths that might otherwise mislead the multitudes. As a rule, government incomes and spending and budget items would be more and more reduced via individual secessionism. - J.Z., 31.5.00. – DIS., LAISSEZ FAIRE, LIMITED GOVERNMENT, PANARCHISM, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, PERSONAL LAWS, EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY FOR ALL. - Look up the ever-growing website of the outstanding MOLINARI INSTITUTE!
ECONOMIC FREEDOM: We need to drive home the point that every new rule of the game involves the loss of some freedom and that one cannot erode freedom in one sector of society without adversely affecting all others. In other words, we must insist that public policy be based on a recognition of the desirability, efficiency, and interdependence of political, social, and economic freedom.” - D. R. Francis, THE FREEMAN, 10/75. - Why should there be a territorial and therefore compulsory, monopolistic and centralistic "public policy" at all, for all people living in a country, especially those who do disagree with it? - "To each his own!" – “Public policy” ONLY among voluntary associates, in their own "government" or more or less free "society". - As many different policies as are wanted by diverse groups of volunteer and as they can manage to practise at their own risk and expense! These could and should peacefully coexist in the same country and at the same time, or even on a continental or world-wide scale. A free and world-wide market for all "public services". - J.Z., 31.5.00, 28.4.12. - VS. REGULATIONS, TERRITORIALISM, PANARCHISM, VOLUNTARISM
ECONOMIC FREEDOM: We stood for absolute economic freedom (a simple expression of individual freedom that, miraculously, is not recognized by the left) (*) and absolute social freedom.” - Bob Howard, AUSTRALIAN PLAYBOY, May 1979. - Unfortunately, the Australian libertarian WORKERS PARTY did not stand for absolute political freedom, i.e. a free market for political "services" and "enterprises" as well, i.e., competing governments, and competing non-governmental societies, under personal laws and full exterritorial autonomy for their voluntary members. - J.Z., 1.6.00. – (*) Not so simple when you think of the great variety of views on monetary and financial freedom and all that relates to it. Precisely because of this complexity nothing less than full freedom to experiment, among volunteers, should exist in this sphere as well. – J.Z., 16.11.10, 28.4.12. - ABSOLUTE ECONOMIC, POLITICAL & SOCIAL FREEDOM – BUT ONLY FOR THEIR PARTICULAR VOLUNTEERS! PANARCHISM, VOLUNTARISM
ECONOMIC MAN: I would go as far as Henry George in saying that "man tends always to satisfy his needs and desires with the least possible exertion." - ALBERT JAY NOCK, A Journal of These Days, June 1932 - December 1933, William Morrow, 1934, p.65. - To do so, he would have to know the options for least possible exertion. If, e.g., anarchists and libertarians knew it, regarding their publishing efforts, then they would publish much more or even all their writings on e.g. microfiche, floppy disks and text-only CDs, DVDs & external HDs. If they were sufficiently informed on and interested in their monetary freedom and free trade options, they would clearly aim at them and realize them as far as they could, wherever and whenever they are given a chance to do so. They would also push rather for individual secession from the territorial State than for the destruction of the territorial States. All too often they have chosen the path of greatest resistance and costs and labor requirements – even of human sacrifices, even when it was the most futile, costly and inefficient one. - J.Z., 28.4.00 & 4.5.00, 3.12.08, 28.4.12. – So far I discussed such points largely only with myself. Ideally, thousands should participate in the discussion of each important idea, fact and argument, in fully developed digitized resources, networks, links, special libraries, reference works and other resources, e.g. digitized argument mapping. – J.Z., 28.4.12.
ECONOMIC MEANS: Franz Oppenheimer "pointed out that there are two and only two mutually exclusive means for man to obtain wealth. One, the method of production and voluntary exchange, the method of the free market, Oppenheimer termed the 'economic means'; the other, the method of robbery by the use of violence, he called the 'political means'. The political means is clearly parasitic, for it requires previous production for the exploiters to confiscate, and it subtracts from instead of adding to the total production in society. Oppenheimer then proceeded to define the State as the 'organization of the political means' - the systematization of the predatory process over a given territory area.” – Murray N. Rothbard, For A New Liberty, p.54. POLITICAL MEANS, TERRITORIALISM, STATE
ECONOMIC POLICY: It is more sensible to rely on the division of free labor and capital and on free exchange, on the decisions of hundreds of millions of producers and traders on a free market, than on the economic policies of governments, i.e. a handful of ideologues and true believers, addicted to power over all others in a territory, although they have quite insufficient knowledge and appreciation of economic liberty and other individual rights and liberties. - J.Z., 1973 & 31.5.00. - OF TERRITORIAL GOVERNMENTS VS. NATURAL HARMONIES, INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS & LIBERTIES, NATURAL ORDER, NATURAL LAWS
ECONOMIC POLICY: Let's be sure that our economic policies and goals in this country are set BY us, and not FOR us.” - Edgar B. Speer, THE FREEMAN, 3/74. – CENTRAL PLANNING VS. SELF-DETERMINATION? ECONOMIC INDEPENDENCE & FREEDOM, INDIVIDUAL VS. COLLECTIVE & ENFORCED DECISION-MAKING
ECONOMIC POLICY: We live UNDER economic policies, instead of ABOVE THEM, as we would, if they were reduced to a matter of individual choices among freely competing ones, practised within different volunteer communities. - J.Z., 9.11.93, 31.5.00. - VS. INDIVIDUAL CHOICE & PANARCHISM, VOLUNTARISM
ECONOMIC POWER: Economic power is only another name for property. So I will accept the argument that no society can be politically free, at least for long, unless there is also a degree of economic freedom, that is property, privately owned and diffused throughout society, and providing a relative security for all independence of the policies of government. Thus, the continuance of a system of free enterprise is a fundamental condition of a free society.” - Lord Hailsham, THE SYDNEY MORNING HERALD, 13.5.78. – Alas, he did not speak up for free enterprise, freedom of contract, freedom of association and consumer sovereignty and free individual choice towards whole different political, economic and social systems, under which the quite flawed and inferior systems would rapidly be discarded, by more and more people disappointed with them, in favor or the quite rightful, tolerant and successful ones. – J.Z., 16.11.10. – PROPERTY, DIS., FULLY DEVELOPED LAISSEZ FAIRE PRACTICES IN EVERY SPHERE OF PEACEFUL ACTIVITIES.
ECONOMIC PROBLEMS: Economic problems are best solved by the marketplace doing its impartial duty.” - William F. Buckley, Jr., The Governor Listeth, Putnams, 1975-78, p.223. - The same applies for political and social problems, by establishing a market place for political and social communities, expressing freedom of contract, free enterprise, free exchange, free trade and consumer sovereignty in this sphere as well. - J.Z., 29.4.00. - GOVERNMENT & THE MARKETPLACE
ECONOMIC RATIONALISM: Most "economic rationalists" are not rational enough in their economics. E.g., they still prefer monetary despotism to monetary freedom, compulsory taxes to voluntary taxes and the territorial imposition of an economic system to free economic experiments among volunteer under exterritorial autonomy. - J.Z., 30.1.98.
ECONOMIC SYSTEMS: - The future details of these stunningly complex systems are unknowable, but their basic architecture and historical direction are quite clear and similar.” – Michael Rothschild, Economy as Ecosystem, in David Boaz, ed., The Libertarian Reader, The Free Press, 1997, p.246. (Claiming copyrights even to the writings of Paine, Madison, Tocqueville, Mill, etc.! – J.Z.) – Something similar could be said about the diverse panarchies and the panarchism they form. But in spite of their great variety they are not necessarily stunningly complex systems. They require unanimous support from their members and thus will tend to become greatly simplified. The panarchistic framework for all the diverse panarchies is also rather simple: Voluntary membership, mutual tolerance. Personal laws for all panarchies and individual rights and liberties – to the extent that they are claimed by members of diverse panarchies, are recognized as the essential guides for their international relations. – J.Z., 3.10.07. – ECONOMIC, ECOLOGICAL & OTHER SYSTEMS, PANARCHIES, POLYARCHIES,
ECONOMIC, SOCIAL & POLITICAL FREEDOM: the great truth, which apparently must forever remain unlearned, that if a regime of complete economic freedom be established, social and political freedom will follow automatically; and until it is established neither social nor political freedom can exist. Here one comes in sight of the reason why the State will never tolerate the establishment of economic freedom. In a spirit of sheer conscious fraud, the State will at any time offer its people "four freedoms" or six, or any number; but it will never let them have economic freedom. If it did, it would be signing its own death warrant, for as Lenin pointed out, 'it is nonsense to make any pretense of reconciling the State and liberty.' " – Source? - - Even after, out of necessity, the State permitted some limited economic liberties, it can go on, for years to decades, to hold on to power - via repression or terrorism. Instances: Taiwan, Hong Kong, Red China, USSR and the post-1989 Russia. But, on the other hand, the sudden introduction of full economic liberty, perhaps by a monetary freedom revolution, might bring forth sudden "miracles" in other spheres as well. Alas, it is as yet not sufficiently recognized, not even among most anarchists and libertarians, how far economic, social and political liberty can and should go, so that, for instance, it would also include the option for oneself not to be free or fully free, together with like-minded people, i.e., to continue, among such people, a system of economic restrictionism and egalitarianism, that corresponds to one’s "ideals" or beliefs, never mind how uneconomic and unnecessary such restrictions are objectively and how they infringe the economic rights of those who do voluntarily practise them among themselves. - J.Z., 25.4.00, 28.4.12. – PANARCHISM, TOLERANCE
ECONOMICS & CHARITY: turn a hand for a sound and just economic system which would make charity forever unnecessary.” - ALBERT JAY NOCK, A Journal of These Days, June 1932 - December 1933, William Morrow, 1934, 95. - Let each turn a hand for a system that he thinks to be a sound and just economic system … In free competition, rather than under the laws of a territorial government, the better ones would gain most of the satisfied customers. - J.Z., 28.4.00. - I still do get frequently somewhat annoyed when as an alternative to government welfare only charity is mentioned, without even mentioning the insurance and credit options and the savings potential towards the own security, which a free economy would provide, apart from various mutual aid and fraternal organizations. In this as in other spheres all too many freedom lovers do not show enough imagination about the potentials of liberty. - J.Z., 4.5.00. - PANARCHISM
ECONOMICS & EGALITARIANISM: Egalitarianism and economics don't mix. - J.Z., 25.11.96. But totalitarian and territorial statism mix all to well with egalitarianism and economics, in a destructive way, creating and preserving poverty rather than wealth. – J.Z., 3.12.08. – TOTALITARIANISM, TERRITORIALISM, EGALITARIANISM
ECONOMICS VS. GOVERNMENT: It is now necessary to eliminate government from the economic sphere. …” - Mike Oliver, Libertarian Handbook 1973. – Under territorial rule this cannot be done. It requires a market and voluntarism or sovereign consumers for all kinds of “public” services and their organization and charges. – J.Z., 3.12.08 – PANARCHISM, CONSUMER SOVEREIGNTY, COMPETITION, FREEDOM OF CONTRACT, FREE EXCHANGE, INDIVIDUAL SECESSIONISM, INDIVIDUAL SOVEREIGNTY, SEPARATION OF THE STATE FROM THE ECONOMY, TAXATION, GOVERNMENT BUDGETS, TERRITORIALISM
ECONOMICS: After over 200 years of the gradual build-up of a genuine economic science, we find ourselves still misruled by the anti-economic and neo-comic ideas of some "economists" in the courts of the modern “kings”, “economists”, who profit from confirming the territorial statists delusions of these at least temporarily almost absolute rulers. - J.Z., 14.12.92 & 23.5.00.
ECONOMICS: Also consider the marriage of politics with the science of economics. (*) This marriage has not brought the millennium to any country. Instead, it has gradually converted economics from a science into a 'dismal science', and then into a batch of incoherent slogans - while perverting political philosophy into the orgy of good intentions which are paving the way to hell of labour monopolies, industrial cartels, declining industrial productivity, unemployment, confiscatory taxation, inflation and a bankrupt currency.” - Eugene Guccione, in National Press Club, Canberra, Sep. 76. – (*) A forced marriage! Based upon territorialism, compulsory membership or subordination! J.Z., 3.12.08. - VS. POLITICS, MIXED ECONOMY, INTERVENTIONISM VS. THE FREE MARKET
ECONOMICS: Any walk through and browsing in any large economics library will reveal a lot of stored wisdom - and a lot more of stored nonsense. One finds almost endless compilations of facts and opinions or interpretations but all too little sound economic wisdom, based upon sound principles and natural economic "laws". Worse still, if one compares what is practised as "economics" by governmental policies or severely restricted and exploited private economic policies, one becomes aware that only a tiny fraction of genuine economic wisdom is applied so far - while an avalanche of economic errors, myths and prejudices are realized in economic "policies", and that the same kind of stupid and wrongful measures are repeated by practical politicians and their economic advisors over and over again. True economic teachings had all too little and all too short influence, so far, on economic policies. Territorial governments tended to adopt the worst economic policies rather than the best ones - and still do, to a very large extent. One of the reasons for the backwardness of economics is that governments have preempted the political, economic and social spheres by their constitutions, laws, jurisdictions and bureaucratic administrations, i.e., they have not permitted free and responsible experiments among volunteers in these spheres. Consequently, progress in them has been all to slow, while progress in spheres where experiments are permitted has been fast: Instance: natural sciences and technology, literature and the arts, sports and entertainment. - J.Z., n.d., & 1.6.00.
ECONOMICS: But much more than a sound economic system is necessary; you have to have sound people to work it. … Our people are incapable of managing even the bad economic system that they have, and it would be utter lunacy to entrust them with a good one.” - ALBERT JAY NOCK, A Journal of These Days, June 1932 - December 1933, William Morrow, 1934, 30. - Interventionism depends much more on good people than does a free economy and even with good people it would lead to economic failures. A free and therefore sound economic system is very educational and thus produces more and more self-responsible, mature, honest and rational people. War, oppression, monopolies, dirigism etc. produce crooks, ignorance, prejudices and helplessness. Free pricing, free trade, monetary freedom, free enterprise, competition, free contracts, are all parts of a self-managing system, largely maintained by no more than sufficient publicity. Those who know and use all their remaining economic freedom options openly and the rest in underground or free market dealings, can bring down any economic meddling. Lastly no more than a peaceful monetary revolution and tax revolt might be required, supported by rightfully organized and armed militias, but without having to fire a shot. From better institutions better people come and better people produce better institutions. The best institutions are still largely unknown, even among those who consider themselves to be radical anarchists or libertarians. They were unknown to Nock as well. - J.Z., 4.5.00.
ECONOMICS: Economic realities (*) tend to bring people to their senses. But if continuously ignored or misinterpreted by many to most, then man-made economic disasters become inevitable. - J.Z., 23.3.91, free after Walter Williams, 4/90. - Communist governments managed to ignore most of genuine economics for decades and by now they have only recognized parts of it - and that only in the economic sphere, not in the social and political spheres, which ought to be also subject to genuine economics. But, in the political sphere democratic governments do not recognize economics, or free markets, free enterprise, free competition, freedom of contracts and consumer sovereignty, either. - J.Z., 24.5.00. – The territorial monopoly maintained by politicians is, essentially, a totalitarian institution. – J.Z., 3.12.08, 16.11.10. - (*) IF seen and recognized rather than ignored. - J.Z.
ECONOMICS: Economics is split into almost as many different schools of thought as are the arts, religion and philosophy. The ruling school's jargon and its main concerns, like that of most others, are largely meaningless or irrelevant, useless to explain the past and present or to predict the future. Wherever real insights, principles, ideas and understanding are lacking, a new word is coined and a new "economic law" is rapidly proclaimed, another one quite contrary to natural economic laws. The quacks among the economists are in charge and regarded as experts, without objective proof of genuine qualifications. Territorial politics puts them in charge and prevents the free competition between different economic systems and their experiments among volunteers, at their risk and expense. Only territorial and political experiments are permitted - and they are, almost inevitably, done under the rule of many errors, prejudices and restrictions. - J.Z., 29.3.88 & 29.5.00.
ECONOMICS: Economy subordinated to ethics and not controlled by power - that is the anarchist formula.” - Baldelli, Giovanni, Social Anarchism, p.6. - Alas, with that formulation they can introduce all kinds of egalitarian and other notions as priorities, which to them seem to justify coercion against basic rights, like property rights, free trading etc. - There are all too many unsound ethical theories about. They can be defused, at least with regard to a whole territory and all its population, only by reducing their application to volunteer communities that are only exterritorially autonomous. Thus nobody's economic "ethics" or anti-economics could be forced upon anyone. Baldelli rightly condemns territorial power but has no right to condemn the self-management powers of volunteer communities or what he or others like him wrongly define as "economic power" even when practised merely among consenting adults. - J.Z., 25.5.00. – All individual rights and liberties are still not sufficiently declared and understood. Not even the concept of “rights” is. – J.Z., 3.12.08.ETHICS, ANARCHISM & POWER,
ECONOMICS: If there is any dismal science, it is politics, not economics.” - Fred Foldvary, article: The Economics of Peace and Property, Summer 1990. - Politics that is still stuck upon the territorial model does not yet deserve the name of a science. - J.Z., 28.5.00. – The same could be said about what usually passes now as economics. It has more to do with statism than with genuine economics – in all too many of its aspects. – J.Z., 16.11.10. - A DISMAL SCIENCE? POLITICS IS
ECONOMICS: Let us "unshackle economics" (John A. Davenport, THE INTERCOLLEGIATE REVIEW, Spring 1973) or free man's economic life. And that should embrace the freeing of all political "services" as well, e.g. by reducing all territorial governments to freely competing ones, for voluntary subjects, under exterritorial autonomy and personal laws only. - J.Z., n.d., & 1.6.00. – In other words, reducing them to competing enterprises, businesses, insurance, protection and juridical service companies, none with a territorial monopoly, all as different as the common ideology of their voluntary members. – Competitively supplied and voluntarily chosen “public services” - J.Z., 3.12.08. – PANARCHISM, UNSHACKLED ECONOMICS, ECONOMIC FREEDOM
ECONOMICS: Only 200 years have elapsed since the concept of separation of church and state really took root. This concept was, at that time, thought to be completely unworkable. Yet, wherever it was accepted, religious wars and repression were greatly reduced. Now free enterprise scholars are telling us that not only must government be separated from religion, but also, it must be separated from economics and limited in function only to protect against force and fraud.” - Mike Oliver, Libertarian Handbook, 1973. - Not only must government be deprived of all economic and religious power but also of all territorial and thus centralized, monopolistic and coercive power. It must be reduced to exterritorial autonomy over its voluntary followers only and to personal laws rather than territorial legislation for whole populations. Thus it must permit individual and group secession. - Separate government and all societies from territorialism, and do not permit territorial and, to that extent, totalitarian rule, to be continued by anyone and any group. - J.Z., 1.6.00, 28.4.12. - SEPARATION FROM THE STATE, EXTERRITORIALITY, PANARCHISM
ECONOMICS: Our economy is presently run more by economic myths, prejudices and ignorance than by economic knowledge. Until economic freedom is achieved, for all who desire it, this will remain so. One of the worst instances is the present ignorant and prejudiced opposition against the "global economy", as if a world-wide free market economy had to be governed by officials or legally privileged corporations. Even the few steps which officials made towards liberating the world economy are opposed, and this with the ancient and often refuted "arguments" of protectionism. Instead of trying to free the world economy further, the opponents try to reduce it again to national economies, mismanaged by national territorial governments. - The road to fully free trade for almost all people can and should begin with: Fully free trade for all free traders, together with protectionism for protectionists - but at their expense and risk. - J.Z., 12.12.92 & 23.5.00. - KNOWLEDGE, INTERVENTIONISM, PLANNING, NATIONAL ECONOMIES, FREE MARKETS VS. DICTOCRACY, GLOBAL ECONOMY, PROTECTIONISM & FREE TRADE
ECONOMICS: politics must give way to economics.” - Proudhon, in Edwards, Proudhon, p.22. - "… and that the end result is the substitution of economic organizations for political machinery, … "- Proudhon, Progress, 1853, p. 74, quoted in: S. Edwards, Proudhon, 91. - VS. POLITICS, MARKET INSTEAD OF POWER, PANARCHISM, VOLUNTARISM, COMPETING GOVERNMENTS
ECONOMICS: Some, if not most mass media journalists and supposed experts treat economics as if it were merely a question of interest rates or exchange rates, or share prices, or goods prices and wages, falling or rising, with mere speculations as to what causes them and on their future movements. They talk about some symptoms and rarely mention fundamental issues and solutions. The mixed economy is largely taken for granted and also that it ought to be territorially imposed upon all dissenters. - J.Z., 29.8.98, 22.5.00. - COMMENTATORS
ECONOMICS: The economy can be forced to support territorial politics. Territorial politics cannot support the economy but can restrict and partly and temporarily destroy it. A truly free economy would not support territorial politics at all but would just allow all people to do their preferred and different things to and for themselves, all as a matter of individual choice, not of territorially enforced collectivism and power politics. - J.Z., 22.6.91, 23.5.00. - POLITICS, & PANARCHISM
ECONOMICS: We already have strict restrictions against infringements on freedom of speech and of religion. It is now necessary to eliminate government from the economic sphere and to limit its functions only to such activities which an individual can rightly delegate.” - Mike Oliver, Libertarian Handbook 1973. – Can? - HAS actually delegated to it and as long only as he has done so! - J.Z., 1.6.00. - GOVERNMENT & LIMITED GOVERNMENT
ECONOMICS: We cannot safely leave … political economy to college professors. The people themselves must think.” - Frank Chodorov, in GOOD GOVERNMENT, 12/77. - The very notion of "national economics", i.e., territorial politics, territorially imposed upon all people of a "nation", is already a very uneconomic concept. And "the people" as a whole are unlikely to ever think as one organism. Only individuals and small groups of individuals do something that deserves the name of self-thinking or group thinking. - J.Z., 1.6.00. - COLLEGE PROFESSORS, ECONOMISTS, PROFESSORS, ACADEMICS, EXPERTS
ECONOMIES: All economies based on statist premises are wrong and false. -J.Z., 15.4.01. Especially all notions on "national economies" or "local economies", as if they could be, economically, separated from the world economy. Compare e.g. the irrational opposition to "globalism". - J.Z., 31.1.02. – Economically the whole world should be one free market, with no State barriers to it anywhere. – Within that general freedom the restrictionists and controllers should be free to restrict and control themselves – as much as they like, just like e.g. monks and nuns do. - J.Z., 1.12.08. - STATISM, TERRITORIALISM, NATIONAL ECONOMIES, GLOBALISM
ECONOMIST, & THE, AUSTRALIAN, THE: Mad Dogs and Middlemen, on Bosnia and Intervention, 27.4.1993, 2pp: 140 -141, in PEACE PLANS 1540. - See my letter response. – J.Z.
ECONOMISTS: Economic policies are too important to be left to the economists.” - Hazel Henderson, quoted by Ronald Gross, The Independent Scholar's Handbook, p.155. – Panarchism would permit every individual to follow only the economic advice of the economist or economists of his own choice, together with like-minded people, in their own panarchy or polyarchy. – J.Z., 3.12.08.
ECONOMISTS: Most economists are not even good enough economists to produce better books on economics and to sell them well. - J.Z., 24.8.91. - Probably not one in a thousand has sound ideas on the cause and cure of inflation, unemployment and stagflation and wants to abolish all taxation and other government interventionism and turn governments into service institutions for voluntary subscribers. - J.Z., 30.5.00.
ECONOMY & GOVERNMENT: Economy does not stand in need of much public attention; government requires a great deal more than we might suppose it should, just to keep it in its place. - Clarence B. Carson, What Is Economy, "THE FREEMAN", July 76, p. 435. - The economy needs freedom and publicity, not controls. Governments need maximum controls, via voluntary membership, individual secessionism, confinement of their territorial sovereignty to exterritorial autonomy, by individual rights codes and their protection by volunteer militias. - J.Z., 31.7.92. – All their activities need maximum publicity, too, at least in peace-time. – J.Z., 27.11.11.
ECONOMY: To act economically means nothing else but continually choosing between different possibilities and economics is fundamentally nothing but the science of alternatives.” – Wilhelm Roepke. – Under territorial rule by any government the economic choices are all too limited. – J.Z., 4.12.08. Under panarchism any economic system could be chosen by and for the volunteers of any panarchy. That would, gradually, teach them genuine economics rather than the statist meddling resulting in the “mixed economies”, which are, usually, all too statist and uneconomic. – J.Z., 16.11.10, 28.4.12.
ECONOMY: When a government takes over a people's economic life it becomes absolute and when it has become absolute it destroys the arts, the minds, the liberties and the meaning of the people it governs.” - Maxwell Anderson, The Guaranteed Life, quoted in Seldes, The Great Quotations. - I wouldn't say the people or its individuals become meaningless, by their own standards, but rather meaningless by government standards. At the same time, such a government becomes rather meaningless by any moral or economic and rational standards. But the same could be said for any territorial government that imposes its "standards" upon all dissenters as well as its followers. - J.Z., 1.6.00. - PLANNING, NATIONAL ECONOMY, GOVERNMENT, ECONOMIC FREEDOM, INTERVENTIONISM, DIRIGISM, STATE SOCIALISM
EDELBY, NEOPHYTE: L'autonomie legislative des chretiens en terre d'Islam, ARCHIVES DU DRUIT ORIENTAL, Bruxelles, 5, 1950-1951, 307-51. See also Millet System or Dhimmis.
EDELBY, NEOPHYTE: L'origine des juridictions confessionelles en terre d'Islam, PROCHE-ORIENT CHRETIEN 1, 1951, 192-208. See also Millet System or Dhimmis.
EDMONDS, BRAD, How To Really Ban the Bomb. Brad Edmonds - 13. 4. 05. Home | About | Columnists | Blog | Subscribe | Donate - Brad Edmonds [send him mail], author of the new book There’s a Government in Your Soup, writes from Alabama. Copyright © 2005 LewRockwell.com - Brad Edmonds Archives - He wants to do away with all "forcible governments" and thus with nuclear weapons. For him insurance companies will be the best regulators. He does not explicitly attack territorialism, with its compulsory State membership or subordination or recommends the exterritorial autonomy alternatives. - May be he will be still going further and quite straight on the road to panarchism or polyarchism, that of full experimental freedom not only for insurance companies, like Hoppe had in mind. - J.Z., 5.10.11. - NUCLEAR WAR THREAT, STATE
EDUCATION & PANARCHISM: Here the organizational and financial separation of different systems and their peaceful coexistence, subject to individual choice and individual secessionism would be quite easy to achieve. Thus the cheapest and the best systems would be given their chance to achieve their widest possible spread, as fast as possible. No expensive and inefficient and compulsory system would any longer be indefinitely upheld and subsidized out of tax funds. Compulsory attendance, compulsory subsidies via taxation, a powerful education department bureaucracy, compulsory curriculum, compulsory and equal teacher training, compulsory teaching methods and reading materials would have to be generally abolished or tolerated only within voluntary communities. Numerous alternatives have already been experimented with or have been proposed but could not be realized or fully realized under territorial rule. For the good and the best teachers numerous opportunities would open up. The mediocre and inferior teachers would have to look around for other careers. Altogether many less teachers would be needed. The best ones could teach thousands to millions at the same time - electronically, largely via their primers to expert systems, FAQs and other reference works and special electronic libraries and reading guides to them. With the aid of individually chosen electronic guides and courses as well as examination avenues or tests, home schooling might also become easy and cheap for the parents. - Compare e.g. under: From Freedom of Information and Freedom of Expression to Freedom of Action and Freedom to Experiment, in every Sphere. -. J.Z., 15.10.04.) - The literature for more choice or even fully free choice in education has become so large that I no longer collect books, articles and references to it. It will have its positive effect in the long run. Only alternatives to school and university education, private and cooperative enlightenment options do still interest me. Some of them I summed up in my digitized book manuscript of 2010, still only called "New Draft", not yet online but reviewed by GPdB on his www.panarchy.org. - J.Z., 15.10.11.
EDUCATION: 8 to 12 years of compulsory association with “teachers” conditions us to the subsequent lifelong compulsory association with territorialist politicians and bureaucrats. – J.Z., 25.10.08. – TEACHERS, SCHOOLS, POLITICIANS, BUREAUCRATS, STATISM, COMPULSORY SCHOOLING, TERRITORIALISM: PROVIDING NATION-WIDE KINDERGARTENS FOR ADULTS.
EDUCATION: A child educated only at school is an uneducated child.” - George Santayana. –SCHOOLING, TERRITORIALISM IN EDUCATION
EDUCATION: A confirmed believer in the free market would no more endorse government education than state religion.” – Leonard E. Read, Then Truth Will Out, p.29. - LIKE A STATE RELIGION
EDUCATION: A father who wants his children to get an education these days may have to pull a few wires - the television wire, the hi-fi wire and the radio wire.” - Lavonne Mathison. - By now you may have to pull a few more wires: E.g., the video-recorder wire, the telephone wire, the computer-wire, and the walkman wire. - J.Z., 29.5.00.
EDUCATION: A general state education is a mere contrivance for moulding people to be exactly alike. It establishes a despotism over the mind, leading by natural tendency to one over the body.” - John Stuart Mill, 1865. – A more complete and prior version: A general State education is a mere contrivance for moulding people to be exactly like one another; and as the mould in which it casts them is that which pleases the predominant power in the government - whether this be a monarch, a priesthood, an aristocracy, or the majority of the existing generation - in proportion as it is efficient and successful, it establishes a despotism over the mind, leading by natural tendency to one over the body.” - John Stuart Mill, speech, 1859. - Even a totalitarian State cannot achieve that. But the Soviet system, in a few generations, managed to turn about 30% of the population into converts to at least some of its ideology. - J.Z., 29.5.00. - EDUCATION BY THE STATE?
EDUCATION: A government which can mould the people from their youth upwards, can do with them whatever it pleases.” - J. S. Mill. - We got total wars under totalitarian school systems. ABC mass murder and anti-people "weapons" are tolerated by minds brought up under this system. - J.Z., 11.6.00. - When will that message finally sink in? – J.Z., 3.12.08. - INDOCTRINATION BY GOVERNMENTS
EDUCATION: A governmental education policy is not any better than a governmental religious policy or a governmental ideological propaganda policy or a governmental science policy. It is even largely identical with these other policies and thus similarly abused. – J.Z., 9.5.03, 21.10.07. – GOVERNMENT, COMPULSORY EDUCATION, TAX SUBSIDIZED EDUCATION
EDUCATION: A tax-supported, compulsory educational system is the complete model of the totalitarian State.” - Isabel Paterson, The God of the Machine, N.Y., 1943, p. 257. & TOTALITARIANISM
EDUCATION: And it is most undesirable to let government, while it is diffusing darkness, pretend it is busy with the enlightenment of the people. It is doing this now, by means of all sorts of pseudo-educational establishments which it controls: schools, high schools, universities, academies, and all kinds of committees and congresses...” - Tolstoy, On Civil Disobedience and Non-Violence, p.142. – EDUCATION BY GOVERNMENTS?
EDUCATION: As a State-controlled enterprise (*) maintained by taxation, virtually a part of the civil service (like organized Christianity in England and in certain European countries) the system had become an association de propaganda fide for the extreme of a hidebound nationalism and of a superstitious servile reverence for a sacrosanct State…” - Albert Jay Nock, Memoirs of a Superfluous Man, Harper, 1943, p.263/264. – (*) A bureaucracy, rather than an enterprise! J.Z. – STATISM, TERRITORIALISM, NATIONALISM
EDUCATION: Bodily exercise, when compulsory, does no harm to the body, but knowledge, which is acquired under compulsion, obtains no hold on the mind.” - Plato, 428-348 BC, in The Republic. – Alas, popular errors, prejudices, false assumptions and conclusions, indoctrinated in schools and universities, hold their power over all too many minds. – J.Z., 4.12.08. - KNOWLEDGE, COMPULSION
EDUCATION: Compulsory schooling is the moral equivalent of compulsory brainwashing.” - Eric Lindsay, GIRL'S OWN FANZINE, 3. - AS BRAINWASHING
EDUCATION: De-collectivise education.” - William F. O'Neill, summing up Ayn Rand in "Ayn Rand's Philosophy", p.220. – COLLECTIVISM, COMPULSORY & STATE CONTROLLED EDUCATION
EDUCATION: Denationalise schooling! - After Milton Friedman, Capitalism and Freedom. - PRIVATIZATION, DENATIONALIZATION
EDUCATION: Does the government have to provide clothing for its people? Of course not. Then why education? How about streets, roads and other 'public services'? - Walter Grinder, Books for Libertarians, 4/73. - EDUCATION VS. FREE EDUCATION, Q., STATISM
EDUCATION: Economic, political, religious and moral real knowledge can't be officially taught. Only the officially certified consensus on such subject can be taught in this way - and it is all too far removed from the truths on such subjects. An official education is as absurd as is an official religion and an official science. - J.Z., 30.12.96 & 21.5.00.
EDUCATION: Education (1) has produced a vast population able to read but unable to distinguish what is worth reading.” - G. M. Trevelyan, English Social History, 1944. - Rather: Compulsory mis-education has … - J.Z., 21.6.92. - Also in his: History of England, 1926. - READING, LITERACY, JUDGMENT, UNDERSTANDING, COMPREHENSION, COMPULSORY MIS-EDUCATION, SCHOOLS
EDUCATION: Education is the voluntary taking of ideas freely taken by others, not a police process of stuffing information into a captive audience.” - L. E. Read, The Love of Liberty, p.98. - EDUCATION REQUIRES VOLUNTARISM
EDUCATION: Education makes free! … from delusions.” - Charles Tschopp. - The right kind of knowledge can liberate us. - 29.5.00. – Governmentally controlled schools are, largely, indoctrination centers, handy tools for any authoritarian to totalitarian regime. – Are there any statist prejudices that are NOT spread in the schools and universities? - J.Z., 4.12.08. - ILLUSIONS, PREJUDICES, ERRORS, MYTHS
EDUCATION: Education rears disciples, imitators, and routinists, not pioneers of new ideas and creative geniuses. The schools are not nurseries of progress and improvement, but conservatories of tradition and unvarying modes of thought.” - Ludwig von Mises. – It does not even preserve and teach the best of the tradition but rather the worst, e.g. the territorialist and the central banking tradition and that of warfare States! – J.Z., 1.12.08.
EDUCATION: Education should be a self-selected process for teachers, schools, pupils and students alike. - "Freedom in education rather than 'free' education!" - Panarchy in education as in all other spheres! - J.Z., 5.5.00. – Through panarchy in education to panarchy in all other spheres as well! – J.Z., 17.11.10.
EDUCATION: Education should be free (of government interference, NOT free of cost) and returned to private enterprise.” - E. J. Dugdale, in PROGRESS, 12/75. - FREEDOM IN EDUCATION VS. FREE EDUCATION
EDUCATION: Education should be liberated from the control of intervention of government, and turned over to profit-making private enterprise, not because education is unimportant, but because education is so crucially important.” - Nathaniel Branden, OBJECTIVIST NEWSLETTER, June 1963. - WITHOUT GOVERNMENT INTERVENTIONISM
EDUCATION: Equality of Opportunity’ is the cry used to condemn all our children to years of slavery. And we have the hide to wonder why they burn the schools down, rebel, drop-out, smoke pot, answer back, leave home, are unhappy, lazy and dissatisfied. We have taught them that no-one considers them. They have learned that at least, and have responded in kind.” - R. A. Howard, FREE ENTERPRISE, 4/76. - OPPORTUNITY
EDUCATION: Godwin, perhaps more than any other thinker, recognizes that freedom is the basis of education and education is the basis of freedom.” - Peter Marshall, Demanding the Impossible, p.212. - FREEDOM
EDUCATION: Government education has three forms of domineering: compulsory attendance, government dictation of the curricula, and the forcible collection of the wherewithal to pay the bills.” - Leonard E. Read, THE FREEMAN, 11/72. - It has also control of the training of teachers. - J.Z., 4.8.87. – EDUCATION THROUGH COMPULSION?
EDUCATION: government education is a contradiction in terms.” - Leonard E. Read. - GOVERNMENT
EDUCATION: Government schools never teach that government is the source of our problems.” - Dr. William A. Dunn, THE FREE MARKET, Dec. 86. – GOVERNMENT, TERRITORIALISM
EDUCATION: I do not think the coerced mind ever really learns an art.” - Poul Anderson, The Enemy Stars, p. 23. – Or a science or sufficient about individual rights and liberties. – J.Z., 4.12.08. EDUCATION THROUGH COERCION?
EDUCATION: If government is supposed to provide everyone with an education, why isn't it also supposed to provide everyone with a new car, a home, food to eat, clothes to wear and a baby sitter? And if government is not supposed to furnish these things, why is it supposed to furnish education? No one can successfully answer that riddle. One must either favor COMPLETE GOVERNMENT DOMINATION AND CONTROL OVER OUR LIVES AT EVERY POINT … or one must favor the removal of government domination and control of our lives at every point.” - Robert LeFevre, Feb. 28, 1956, quoted in Carl Watner: LeFevre, p.47. - GOVERNMENT
EDUCATION: In a free society, a student is free to choose his educators.” - Mark Spengler, THE FREEMAN, July 1977, 420.
EDUCATION: Indeed, present experience as well as past history suggest that today we would have better and more abundant educational facilities for rich and poor alike - had education never become a concern of the state.” - Duncan Yuille, On Public Education. - WITHOUT THE STATE
EDUCATION: Instead of thousands of outlets of educational services for parents to choose from, government regulates the market for learning and reduces it to one source. The result: instead of a variety of alternatives, lowering education costs, refinement in teaching techniques, individually tailored programs, improved services and the general expansion of knowledge, we have a disintegrating system, higher and higher costs, less and less service, more and more political intrusion (bussing and the like), uniformly low standards, teacher strikes and collusion, classroom disruption, the general confinement of knowledge and the deterioration of behavior.” - Joan Marie Leonard, THE FREEMAN, 3/77. – MONOPOLIZED & BUREAUCRATIZED “EDUCATION”.
EDUCATION: It is not surprising that education by the State becomes education for the State.” - Byron Fraser, to Henry Rosenblum, 15.10.1980. - EDUCATION FOR THE STATE?
EDUCATION: It is one of the paradoxes of our time that modern society needs to fear ... only the educated man.” – William F. Buckley, God and Man at Yale, p.178. - Society always benefits from genuine education of individuals. Only the territorial State has to fear truly educated men. This is the reason why it mis-educates as many as possible. - J.Z., 11.6.00. – FEAR, GOVERNMENTS
EDUCATION: It is something like rape, in education, when one is forced to learn something one does not want to learn, from someone one does not like, at a place and time not of one's choosing. - J.Z., 78. - COMPULSORY EDUCATION
EDUCATION: John A Howard, president of Rockford College, has argued that separation of state and school is as important as separation of state and church.” - A IS A NEWSLETTER, Feb. 72. - STATE
EDUCATION: let free trade reign in the educational market-place.” - Tibor Machan, Liberty & Culture, p.252.
EDUCATION: Most of the errors and terrors of territorial nationalism in modern times rose to extremes with the absurdity of a compulsory and government controlled education or rather mis-education system. The mass media and compulsory education spread the nationalistic myths of the territorial warfare States even into the underdeveloped countries. - J.Z., 25.8.98. - TERRITORIALISM, NATIONALISM
EDUCATION: Our major threat today is a world-wide monopoly in the domination of men's minds.” - E. Reimer, School Is Dead, p.20. – MONOPOLY, ENLIGHTENMENT, IDEAS ARCHIVE, ENCYCLOPEDIA OF REFUTATIONS, IGNORANCE, PREJUDICES, SCHOOLS, UNIVERSITIES
EDUCATION: Public schooling suppresses the diversity among individuals.” - Mark Spengler, Education in a Free Society, THE FREEMAN, July 1977, 419. – In spite of all such prolonged and wide-spread criticism we have still not seen panarchism significantly or completely introduced in the sphere of education. – Territorial compulsion and tax-subsidies have largely prevented freedom in education. - J.Z., 17.11.10. - SCHOOLS
EDUCATION: Public schools are a prison system and the teachers its wardens.” - LIBERTARIAN CONNECTION, 6.5.71. – Just like “nations” are, largely, territory-wide prisons and governments their wardens. – J.Z., 17.11.10. - PUBLIC SCHOOLS, SCHOOLS AS PRISONS
EDUCATION: Schoolism isn't inherently better than any other ism. But, at least temporarily, in form of "compulsory schooling", it enslaves more people than any other ism. - J.Z., 29.4.92. - And it wrongly conditions them into obedient subjects - at this “opportunity”. - J.Z., 27.5.00. - SCHOOLS
EDUCATION: The children were seized by the State and educated in barracks to the ideals of State obedience.” – Murray N. Rothbard, Education, Free & Compulsory, p.18. - FREE & COMPULSORY
EDUCATION: the freedom to educate one's own children as one thinks best.” - Sen. Robert A. Taft. - FREEDOM IN EDUCATION, FOR PARENTS & CHILDREN
EDUCATION: the scandal of compulsory under-education, …” - John C. Grover, The Hellmakers, Veritas Publishing Co., PO Box 42, Cranbrook, WA 6321, 1993, p.136. - SCHOOLS
EDUCATION: to attempt to compel the pursuit of knowledge is as ludicrous as attempting to impose a taste for caviar.” - Susan Fain, THE FREEMAN, 7/77, p.566.
EDUCATION: We are students of words: we are shut up in schools and colleges and recitation-rooms for ten or fifteen years, and come out at last with a bag of wind, a memory of words, and do not know a thing.” - Emerson, Essays, Second Series: New England Reformers. - EDUCATION, AS PRACTISED NOW, LARGELY A WASTE OF TIME, MANPOWER AND RESOURCES
EFFICIENCY: Efficacy can be determined only by freedom of trial and in no other way. - Henry Hazlitt, in NEWSWEEK column on drug laws trying to keep some drugs off the market.” - Quoted in: O. V. Garrison, The Dictocrats, p.14. – Under territorialism, i.e., in the absence of competition for “public services”, we cannot get efficient governmental or societal services. – J.Z., 17.11.10. - EFFICACY, TRIALS, TESTS, EXPERIMENTS
EFFICIENCY: Governments tend to tax efficiency and subsidize inefficiency.” - Ken Schoolland, The Adventure of Jonathan Gullible, Leap Publishing, Cape Town, with Commentaries by Ken Schoolland and Janette Eldridge, 1981 ff, 2004 ed., www.jonathangullible.com firstname.lastname@example.org p. 29. – Alas, it is efficient in promoting territorial statism! – J.Z., 10.12.08. – Also bureaucracy and political power – all on the backs of all too many involuntary victims. – J.Z., 17.11.10. – They are also efficient in producing senseless wars, violent revolutions, terrorism and general dissatisfaction. – J.Z., 28.4.12. - TAXATION, SUBSIDIES & GOVERNMENTS
EGALITARIANISM: A society that puts equality - in the sense of equality of outcome - ahead of freedom will end up with neither equality nor freedom. The use of force to achieve equality will destroy the freedom, and the force, introduced for good purposes, will end up in the hands of people who use it to promote their own interests. On the other hand, a society that puts freedom first will, as a happy by-product, end up with both greater freedom and greater equality" - Milton and Rose Friedman, Free to Choose. – Even with free choice for individuals regarding political, economic and social systems, so that each can get the society, community or government of his dreams or free choice and is no longer tied to the different dreams or choices of others. – J.Z., 26.12.07, 28.4.12. - LIBERTY & PROGRESS, FORCE & POWER, TERRITORIALISM
EGALITARIANISM: To dogmatic and authoritarian anarchists their communist, socialist, collectivist and egalitarian notions are closer to their hearts and ideas than are their anarchist commitments to voluntarism and non-domination. They, too, like the archists, insist that their own favorite political, economic and social system ought to be uniformly and territorially enforced, upon all dissenters, rather than peacefully and gradually realized only among volunteers and only at their expense and risk. Tolerance just towards some other anarchist experiments is not enough tolerance for freedom options for individuals, most of whom are still statists. - J.Z., 6.12.94. – ANARCHISM, COMMUNIST ANARCHISM
EGALITARIANISM: With regard to the fundamental immorality of all egalitarianism I will here point only to the fact that all our morals rest on the different esteem in which we hold people according to the manner in which they conduct themselves. While equality before the law - the treatment of all by government according to the same rules - appears to me as an essential condition of individual freedom (*), that different treatment, which is necessary in order to place people who are individually very different into the same material position, seems to me not only incompatible with personal freedom, but highly immoral. But this is what unlimited democracy is moving to.” – F. A. Hayek, Wither Democracy? in QUADRANT, 11/76. – (*) providing they are governments for volunteers only, exterritorially competing, not territorially enforcing centralization and wrongful monopolies, though, perhaps, only of the limited government kind that e.g. Hayek aspired to. - J.Z. , n.d. & 28.4.12. - EFFICIENCY OF GOVERNMENTS VS. MORALITY & IMMORALITY OF GOVERNMENT ACTIONS
EGOISM, SELFISHNESS & PANARCHISM: Well, what would YOU enter under this heading? I hold that egoistic as well as altruistic panarchies would result under the free choice for individuals that panarchism offers. I also believe that the egoistic ones, paying attention to genuine economics, would be much more prosperous and this without doing wrong towards anyone. They would also offer poor and sick people many more choices, e.g. in form of credit and insurance. – J.Z., 14.12.11.
EGYPT & EXTERRITORIALITY: Under the reign of King Proteus of Egypt, in the thirteenth century, B. C, Phoenician merchants from the city of Tyre were allowed to dwell around a special precinct in Memphis known: as the "camp of the Tyrians," and to have a temple for their own worship.1 Seven centuries later, King Amasis (570-526, B.C.) permitted the Greeks to establish a factory at Naucratis, where they might live as a distinct community under their own laws arid worshipping their own gods.2 In his work on The International Law and Custom of Ancient Greece and Rome, Dr. Coleman Phillipson says: "The Egyptians often allowed foreign merchants to avail themselves, of local judges of their own nationality in order to regulate questions and settle differences arising out of mercantile transactions, in accordance with their foreign laws and customs; — the Greeks especially enjoyed these privileges on Egyptian territory." 3 - LIU, Exterritoriality, p. 23/24. - - 1 Herodotus, bk. ii, ch. 112. Sir Travers Twiss also mentions "that the merchants of Tyre who were strangers to the religion of Egypt, were nevertheless permitted in the Twelfth Century before Christ to establish trading factories in three different cities on the Tanitic branch of the Nile, where they were allowed the privilege of living under their own laws, and of worshipping according to their own religious rites." Op. cit., vol. i, p. 444. - - 2 Herodotus, bk. ii, ch. 178. Cf. Twiss, of. cit., vol. i, p. 445; Pardessus, Collection de lois maritime antérieures ut XXVIIIe siécle (Paris, 1828-45), vol. i, p. 21. - - 3 Vol. i, p. 193.
EHRLICH, EUGEN: Fundamental Principles of the Sociology of Law, Cambridge, Mass, Harv. Univ. Press, ed. by Walter L. Moll, contains a note on page 37 on private laws privately developed. Quoted by William M. Evan: Public and Private Legal Systems, p. 166.
EICHENBERGER, REINER& FREY, BRUNO S., Competition among Jurisdictions: The Idea of FOCJ, 1995. In Competition among Jurisdictions, edited by Lüder Gerken, 209–29. London: Macmillan.
EICHENBERGER, REINER& FREY, BRUNO S., FOCJ: Competitive Governments for Europe. 1996. International Review of Public Economics 16: 315–27.
EICHENBERGER, REINER& FREY, BRUNO S., The New Democratic Federalism for Europe: Functional Overlapping and Competing Jurisdictions. 1999. Cheltenham, Eng.: Edward Elgar.
EINSTEIN, ALBERT: Correspondence with H. L. FOLLIN & ULRICH VON BECKERATH, on Republique Supranationale, 1922, 1929, pages 104 ff, in ON PANARCHY VI, in PP 585. - The Republique Supranationale was Follin's organization. Beckerath was a member. The program was similar to Werner Ackermann's Cosmopolitan Union. I have so far been unable to obtain literature on the Republique Supranationale. - J.Z., 31.8.04. - Pan, PEACE PLANS 585 extract, Einstein, Follin, Beckerath, Sakharov: RÉPUBLIQUE SUPRANATIONALE - DIRECTOIRE CENTRAL Siège pour 1922 : L’If. Orgerus (S.-et-O.) France - (This letter has the handwritten note: “1922 unerledigt” (not dealt with) - either by Einstein or his secretary. – J.Z.) -- Le Délégué aux Relations Générales, - - - À Monsieur le Professeur Albert EINSTEIN - - Au soins de M. le Professeur Langevin au College de France – PARIS - - - Salut! - - - Monsieur le Professeur, - - Je profite de votre présence à Paris pour vous exprimer un voeu, celui de voir votre nom figurer dans notre Directoirs Central comme représentant à la fois l'élément de langue allemande et comme l'une des très rares figures dont le caractère réellement supranational permettra de faire de ce Directoire, lorsqu'il pourra s'appuyer sur une maise (??? Tipped over: masse? malse? – J.Z.) importante de citoyens, un véritable Pouvoir Spirituel dont l'autorité morale s'imposera aux gouvernements. - - - Les deux documents ci-jointe vous mettront au courant de l'initiative que nous avons prise avec quelques ami. Elle est très simple : nous voulons, — d'une part, constituer la cohésion de tous les hommés décidés à faire prévaloir ce qui les unit sur ce qui les divise, -- d'autre part, donner à cette union la direction d'une élite composée d'un petit nombre d'individus, mais tous de nationalité différente et ayant tous donné des preuves d'absolue indépendanoe à l'égard de tout particularisms de nation, de race, de classe, de parti, de profession ou autre. - - - Parmi les hommes connue et amis (? Photocopy smear!) du public deux seulement nous semblent jusqu’ici réunir au degré que nous désirons ce caractère : le vôtre et celui de Rabindranath Tagore. — Vous êtes donc aussi les deux seules personnalités illustres qui nous approchions jusqu'ici , car nous cherchons (? Photocopy smear! – J.Z.) beaucoup moins à assurer à notre oeuvre le prestige le prestige de la célébrité de ses promoteurs, qu'à nous prémunir contre tout (??? Smeared!) danger de la voir défigurés. Mais il est évident que notre ffiulu (smeared – tiches, tachs?) sera grandement facilitée si nous pouvons réunir ces deux conditions; et votre concours nous permettra sans aucun doute (? Smeared!) de trouver dans les autres pays des membres de notre Directoire dont le caractère nous offre toute garantie, en même temps que leur nom vous assurers un voisinage non indigne de vous. - - - Nous serions trèx heureux de pouvoir nous entretenir avec vous de ce projet, et dans l'espoir d’un rendez-vous, je vous prie d’agréer l’expression de ma haute admiration. - - (Signed) H. L. Follin - - - Seule adresse nécessaire - - H. L. FOLLIN, ORGERUS (Seine et Oise) ---- Ulrich von Beckerath, Berlin NW 87, Lessingstrasse 56, Gartenhaus II - - 21. July 1929. - - - Herrn Professor Dr. A. Einstein, Berlin W 30, Haberlandstrasse 5. - - Sehr geehrter Herr Professor, - - in der Anlage überreiche ich Ihnen das Programm der “Republique Supranationale”, der ich angehöre. Die R S möchte Ihnen zunächst Ihre besondere Freude darüber ausdruecken, daß der prominenteste Vertreter der deutschen Wissenschaft gleichzeitig in der vordersten Reihe des Pazifismus steht. Aus vielen Ihrer Äußerungen haben nun meine Freunde von der R S den Eindruck gewonnen, daß die Grundsaetze der R S Ihnen wahrscheinlich besser gefallen werden, als die irgend einer andern pazifistischen Richtung, wenn Sie Ihnen bekannt werden. - - - Das Ziel der R S ist die Schaffung einer neuen Art von Minderheitenrecht. Vgl. Seite 48/49 der beiliegenden Broschüre. Rechte, welche bisher nur für nationale Minderheiten reklamiert wurden, verlangt die R S für jede Minderheit, und zwar bis zur Grenze des technisch und sozial Möglichen. - - - Das Recht aus dem Staate austreten zu dürfen, wie man aus der Kirche austritt, ohne dadurch sein Aufenthaltsrecht und sein Arbeitsrecht zu verlieren, dürfte im gegenwärtigen Stadium des politischen Denkens jene Grenze darstellen. - - Die R S wird geleitet von einem Comité Exécutiv Suprême. (Vgl. B.23.) - - Diesem Comité sollen Personen verschiedener Nationalität angehoeren. Sie selbst, sehr geehrter Herr Professor, haben stets Ihre Zugehörigkeit zur Jüdischen Nation betont, ohne sich je in einen Gegensatz zur deutschen Nation oder einer andern zu stellen. Darüber hinaus aber haben Sie es abgelehnt, in Ihrer Nationalität aufzugehen, sondern haben einen durchaus supranationalen Standpunkt eingenommen. Alles dies, verbunden mit der Hochachtung, welche die R S Ihrer Person und Ihren Leistungen entgegenbringt, veranlaßt die R S Sie zu bitten, dem Comité Exécutiv Supréme beizutreten und zwar sous titre d'origine Judaique. - - Zu jeder Aufklärung über die R S stehe Ich Ihnen zu jeder Zeit gern zur Verfügung. - - Ich verbleibe mit Hochachtung Ihr sehr ergebener - - gez.: U. v. Beckerath. - - - Ich überreiche Ihnen noch in der Anlage einen Aufsatz von de la Fouchardiere über Sie und den Durchschlag eines Briefes von Follin, dem Gruender der R S, an de la F. - L'Oeuvre hat den Brief natürlich nicht abgedruckt. Follin wandte sich dann an mich wegen Ihrer Adresse; ich antwortete ihm, daß sie es wahrscheinlich ablehnen wuerden, dem CES sous titre d'origin allemande beizutreten. Jedoch nicht den obigen Vorschlag. Hiermit war Follin einverstanden. - - - Bth. - - - - Copie de la Lettre de H. L. FOLLIN à G. DE LA FOUCHARDIERE - - - Paris, 26/6/29. - - - Cher Monsieur, Je salue comme vous le courage avec lequel Einstein vient d'accomplir un geste qui dépasse de beaucoup ce qu’ avait fait le malheureux Jaurès lui-même pour s'exposer aux haines patriotiques. - - Cependant ca geste n'est encore que le geste admirable, mais purement sentimental des "objecteurs de conscience" héros obscure que l'on voit sacrifier immédiatement leur tranquillité, leur liberté, leurs intérêts, leur foyer, en attendant d'y sacrifier éventuellement leur vie, à l'horreur du sang versé. - - Il reste à Einstein - et à bien d'autres, y compris vous-même et M. Lucien Franc - à accomplir le geste rationnel, qui ne consiste pas seulement à se désintérenser en cas de guerre "des droits ou des torts quant à l'origine du conflit", mais à de désintéresser et à revendiquer le droit de se désintéresser dès le temps de paix des fictions collectives par lesquelles led gouvernements prétendent rendre les individus nés ou habitant dans les divers pays solidaires des fatales conséquences (et des conséquences fatales) de leurs politiques nationales. Il lui reste à affirmer avec force, comme nous le faisons a la République Supranationale sans plus de soici que lui des indignations des patriotes, qu'il entend être considéré comme homme avant de l'être comme Allemand, Français, Anglais ou Chinois, comme homme avant de l'être comme citoyen - que si ces qualités doiven (, or ? – J.Z.) entrer en conflit, c'est la qualité d'homme qu'il entend en toutes circonstances faire primer. Il lui reste à dénoncer la tyrannie des cultes politiques nationaux qui exigent des non-conformistes apolitiques supranationaux - - 1. des obligations militaires, 2. des contributions aux frais du culte qui leur est étranger, 3. des restrictions à leur liberté de penser, de parler, d'écrire, de circuler, d'échanger. - - - Il lui reste à combattre avec nous pour les affranchir de ces trois formes précises du culte tyrsnnique. Il lui reste à montrer à ses compatriotes l'absurdité d'un Stresemann, comme nous montre rions (first letter is over-typed and doubtful! – J.Z.) aux nôtres celle d'un Briand, parlant hieré - “d'économics française et allemande", comme s'il y avait d'autre "économie" qu'une économie humaine, et ai tout ce qui met des cloisons ont tre (ontre? – J.Z.) les honmes n'était pas anti-économique. - - - Par votre intermédiaire, j 'offre publiquement à Albert Einstein, pour représenter non pas comme dans tous les groupments "internationaux" la "nationalité”, mais l'origine allemande au Comité Exécutif Suprême de la R.S., la place laissée vacante par la mort prématurée de mon inoubliable ami Heinrich Nienkamp, qui l'eut lui, sans doute, admis parmi ses célèbres "Fuersten ohne Krone". published p. 99 in "Einstein on Peace" - - (J.Z.: Nienkamp’s book, 1916, 1918, indexiert, 393 S., was published by me, in German, in PEACE PLANS 1043, together with some Notes by me. Beckerath also knew and appreciated Nienkamp, who celebrated inequality and talent in this book. – J.Z., 9.12.04.) - - - (Translation of the above letter by Bth. an Einstein) - - - Ulrich von Beckerath, 21st. of July, 1929, Berlin NW 87, Lessingstr. 56, Gartenhaus II. - - Prof. Dr. A. Einstein, Berlin W 30, Haberlandstr.5 - - - Dear Professor, - - in the enclosure, I am sending you the program of the "Republique Supranationale", to which I belong. The RS would, first of all, like to express its great pleasure that the most prominent representative of German science stands, at the same time, in the front ranks of pacifism. From many of your public remarks, my friends of the RS gained the impression that the principles of the RS would, probably, once you become acquainted with them, please you more than those of any other pacifistic movement. - - The aim of the RS is the establishment of a new kind of minority rights. Compare pages 48/49 of the enclosed brochure. The RS demands rights, which were so far demanded only for national minorities, for all kinds of minorities and this up to the limit of what is technically and socially possible. - - The right to secede from the State in the same way that one may withdraw one's membership from a Church, without thereby losing one's right of residence and right to work, will probably, seeing the present stage of political thinking, go to this limit. - - The RS is directed by a Supreme Executive Committee. (Compare p. 23.) To this Committee should belong persons of different nationalities. You yourself, dear Professor, have always stressed your adherence to the Jewish people but without putting yourself in opposition to the German nation or to any other nation. Moreover, you have declined to wholly merge with your nationality but have, instead, taken up a quite supranational point of view. All this and the high respect which the RS has towards your personality and achievements, induced the RS to request you to join the Supreme Executive Committee, as a Jewish Representative. - - I am at any time prepared to supply you with more information on the RS. - - I remain faithfully yours, signed U. v. Beckerath. - - - P.S.: I also enclose an essay by de la Fouchardiere on you and the copy of a letter by Follin, the founder of the RS, to de la F. Naturally, "L'Oeuvre" has not printed this letter. Thereupon, Follin asked me for your address. I replied that you would probably decline to join the Supreme Executive Committee as a Representative of Germany but not as a Jewish Representative. Follin agreed with this. - - - Signed: Bth. - - - - - - - -Einstein’s Antwort, nicht unterzeichnet, war: - - den 19.August 1929 - - - Herrn Ulrich von Beckerath, Lessingstr. 56, Berlin NW.87. - - - Sehr geehrter Herr! - - Der von der "Republique Suprationale" eingeschlagene Weg scheint mir nicht der richtige zu sein. Der Staat ist doch nicht nur zum Kriegführen da, sondern bedeutet eine lokale Organisation zur Loesung höchst wichtiger ökonomischer und kultureller Aufgaben. Wenn es also wirklich möglich wäre, die Mehrzahl der Bewohner eines Gebietes von dem Staate loszutrennen, so würde dies entweder eine Vernichtung hoher organisatorischer Werte oder aber eine voellige Entrechtung der Majorität bedeuten. Es kommt mir ungefähr so vor, wie wenn man gegen die erblichen Krankheiten das Mittel der allgemeinen Kastration empfehlen wollte. - - Mit vorzueglicher Hochachtung - - - - - -Translation of Einstein's reply: Berlin, 19th. of August, 1929 - - Mr. Ulrich von Beckerath ... Dear Sir, the road taken by the "Republique Supranationale" does not appear to be the right one to me. - - The State exists not only for the conduct of wars but is a local organization for the solution of highly important economic and cultural tasks. - If it were really possible to separate the majority of the inhabitants of an area from the State, then this would mean either the destruction of high organizational values or a complete loss of rights for the majority. - This appears to me almost as if one were to recommend against inherited diseases the means of a general castration. - - Faithfully yours, (unsigned copy) – One might consider this reply as another good instance of what has been called “the barbarism of the specialists.” – J.Z., 13.12.11. - - - - Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library, Olden Street, Princeton, New Jersey 0844, April 2, 1985 - - - Dr. Charles E. Bloom, Senior Vice President, American Friends of Hebrew University, Inc. - 11 East 69th Street, New York, New York 10021 - - Dear Dr. Bloom, The enclosed letter from John Zube dated December 30, 1984, which had been addressed to The Institute For Advanced Study was just forwarded to me in the Princeton University Library. Because of the unexplained delay, I am sending directly to you his request for permission to have copies of the correspondence we hold between Albert Einstein and Ulrich von Beckerath which happens to be as follows: Einstein/Beckerath, August 19, 1929, 1 page; Beckerath/Einstein, July 21, 1929, 2 pages plus 3 pages of enclosures. - Mr. Zube would also like to have permission to reproduce the letters in his "microfiche issues." If you decide to authorize us to make the copies I will be glad to send them to Mr. Zube in Australia. - - Sincerely yours, Ms. Nancy Bressler, Curator of Public Affairs Papers, Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library, Olden Street, Princeton, N. J. 08544 -- Nancy Bressler - - Curator of Public Affairs Papers. - - - AMERICAN FRIENDS OF THE HEBREW UNIVERSITY, INC. … April 9, 1985- - Ms. Nancy Bressler, Curator of Public Affairs Papers, Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library, Olden Street, Princeton, N. J. 08544 -- Dear Ms. Bressler: In reply to your letter of April 2nd, you have our permission to reproduce the correspondence requested by Mr. John Zube in Australia. - - Sincerely yours, (signed) Charles E. Bloom - CEB:c1 - - - - - John Zube, 7 Oxley St., (By 2004: 35 Oxley St.) Berrima, NSW, Australia 2577, - Dec. 12th., 1985. - - NOTE ON THIS CORRESPONDENCE OF H. L. FOLLIN & U. V. BECKERATH WITH ALBERT EINSTEIN, (1879-1955) IN 1922 & 1929: I had written to Princeton University, hoping that I could get some correspondence between Ulrich von Beckerath and Albert Einstein, mainly regarding E's theory of relativity, on which Beckerath had written a book-length reply - which burned in an air raid on Berlin, together with most of B.'s library. I had enclosed photocopies of later references in B.'s correspondence relating to E.'s theories. - - Instead of such correspondence, I received the above 2 letters by Follin and one by B. regarding the Republique Supranationale, a forerunner of Werner Ackermann's Cosmopolitan Union, together with one all too short and unsatisfactory reply by Einstein to Beckerath. - - Follin and Ackermann had independently rediscovered the right of the individual to secede and had started organizations based on this idea. - - Beckerath had found a reference to de Puydt's "Panarchy" in Wilhelm Roscher's writings and was aware of Spencers ideas on individual secession, I do not know since when. - - B. told me that Follin died in great poverty. F.'s son collected his best ideas and reproduced them in "Paroles d'un Voyant”, 1934 (PEACE PLANS 322), of which I would still like to see a German and an English translation done and published, at least in this series. - - F. wrote a few other relevant works, long out of print, which I was so far unable to obtain and would like to see translated and included in this series. - - Ackermann is probably no longer alive, either. The last address I had of him, from which mail was finally returned, undelivered, was: Werner Ackermann, Hillcrest No. 2 (later PO Box 182), 33 Prospect Rd., Berea, Johannesburg, South Africa. - - There is a tiny chance that his descendants will still possess Beckerath’s correspondence with him, in three thick arch lever files, on minority rights, individual secession and exterritorial and autonomous organization. But he had to flee from the Nazis and was, probably, unable to take them with him. If he was able to do so, and they have been gathering dust there (or in some corner of Germany?) for ca. 50 years, it would be insofar tragic as these ideas could have turned an oppressive, imposed and territorial Apartheid, frowned upon widely not only in South Africa but in the rest of the world, into a rightful, because voluntary and exterritorial Apartheid, combined with a rightful, because voluntary and exterritorial, integration for those who desired it. - - - So far only one core of the Apartheid idea is correct, namely: independent development for all ethnic groups that desire it. - - Among these autonomous groups should be at least one which believes in racial integration. - - - But on a territorial basis this ideal could not be realized. It could only lead to one group dominating with police and military force, in fear of losing its independence to revolutionaries and terrorists, who want to be top dogs instead, and to territorial separatism with severe acts against "aliens" outside their assigned national or ethnic territories. - - - If a fraction of the efforts spent to dig for gold and diamonds, some kilometers below ground level, had been spent on digging out these fundamental insights and proposals, discussing them, proving and realizing them, S.A. might, have become, long ago, a model for a free, peaceful and just society, for the rest of the world. - - Perhaps there is still a small chance to dig this treasure out, ending further oppression and bloodshed and preventing the rise of a black dictatorship that would lead to even more prosecution and bloodshed, with little chance for liberty for generations to come. - - Otherwise, without this lost literary treasure, we will simply have to do with the short discussions and hints remaining in Beckerath's correspondence, the discussions in this series and some other recent thinking along these lines, which is, alas, usually not as far advanced in this respect as B.'s was. - I can imagine that B. did not bother with a reply to E.'s very unsatisfactory answer. - - E. was, apparently, unaware that the principle involved in conscientious objection can a) be extended, so that the C.O.s would become neutrals and organized as neutrals and b) be applied not only towards coercive membership in armed forced but e.g. to membership in schools, unions and States. - - E. was very far from being an anarchist or libertarian but reveals himself here as an outright Statist. And at that time regimes like that of Lenin, Mussolini and Stalin had already existed for years! - Lenin had imposed the death penalty upon "renunciation of the republic". The Nazis had already made their first putsch. - Jewish "territorialists" (wanting exterritorial autonomy in the territory of the former Russian Empire and adopting, for this, this eminently unsuitable name) represented a considerable section of enlightened public option, in opposition to the Zionists aiming at a territorial State in the Holy Land. - - Thus individual secessionism should have been treated by E. with some more interest, understanding and objectivity. But neither freedom, peace nor justice were the special subjects of Einstein. He, too, fell under Ortega Y'Gasset's dictum of "the barbarism of the specialists". - - E. could not, I believe, have given any examples of "important economic and cultural tasks" which States had solved, even after establishing X organizations for this purpose and throwing huge funds and manpower resources at them. - - Moreover, the question is not one of separating the majority of an area and against its will, from an old regime, but allowing each and every non-aggressive individual to secede. - - In democratic countries this would mean that only the various minorities would peacefully secede but in totalitarian countries the majority would. - - He doubted the possibility of such a separation, probably due to ignorance of historical precedents. - - If Jewish dissenters in Germany and Europe had been free to secede from the Weimar Republic, Nazi Germany and from other European States, in which they were not welcome enough, in many instances, to be granted asylum, when they fled from the Nazis, then they would have acted within their rights and their duties towards their descendants and they would have done nothing wrong, thereby, towards those they seceded from. But in spite of having lived more in a cosmopolitan and exterritorial way than most other people had, the only alternative to territorial oppression, that most of them could imagine, was the setting up of an independent territory for themselves, by setting the clock back 2000 years. - - What "high organizational values" are there in compulsory membership and in territorial organization (which offers now the "final solution" for all, in form of nuclear targets)? - - Is it desirable that majorities can vote against or otherwise oppress the rights of minorities? - - Should any laws or constitutions be imposed upon any non-consenting individuals? - - If there is such a high value in this form of organization, why don't we make the membership in all clubs and associations compulsory for all? - - Einstein brought not a single example for the values he imagined to exist. - - And how would the remaining majority be deprived of its rights when the seceding minority does its own thing or if several minorities do? - - Further, why should a minority or a majority that has seceded, lose all its rights, when it seceded and organized autonomously and exterritorially - precisely in order to uphold its rights? - - What kind of despotism does E. advocate here? - Just the conventional territorial one, which he had unthinkingly adopted. - - We have here, again, an instance of the consent of the victims, of prosecuted people subscribing to some of the most basic premises of those who prosecute them (here faith in territorial and legal unity, exclusive rule and jurisdiction in a whole country, majoritarianism and collective responsibility), however much they otherwise differ from their prosecutors, as humanitarian democrats rather than as totalitarian oppressors and aggressors. - - Einstein’s comparison of inherited territorial laws and constitutions with inherited diseases does to some extent fit. - (J.Z.: Goethe made a similar remark once. But his analogy of castration to fix an inherited disease does not fit individual secessionism and exterritorial autonomy for volunteers but, rather, the territorial monopoly organizations with compulsory membership and subordination, i.e., precisely what he approves of. - - If his physics is as unsound as his politics … Bth. believed this was the case and wrote a book-length manuscript to prove it, which was, alas, destroyed in an air raid.) - - But science is all the time looking for cures. And are laws and constitutions, to which we have not given our consent or do no longer give our consent, really part of our nature, like an inherited disease is, until a cure is found? - - Should we not be free to separate ourselves from it, if we can, e.g. by a surgical operation? - - Should we not be free to renounce and reject it for ourselves, if possible, leaving it to those who imagine they could benefit from it? - - Should there be no right to renounce an inheritance that is not an asset but a burden? - - Naturally, if all have opted out, who preferred exterritorial self-rule to territorial rule by others, then only the territorialists would remain in the old statist institution and national borders. Then and there they could continue to rule themselves - but no longer others - under the old territorial laws. - - In reality they would also have become an exterritorial and autonomous association of volunteers, like the Catholic Church, from which Protestant Churches have freely seceded. - - And what would secession have to do with castration? Only that power-mad people would be deprived of their power over dissenters. But does this "deprivation" deserve the term "castration"? - - Why should the bureaucrats, politicians and other dictocrats, that one has seceded from, feel castrated? Those they had formerly raped, just once too often, would finally have resisted, not by slaying or mutilating their tormentors but by merely rendering them impotent to repeat this crime against the secessionists, by undertaking a legal and constitutional separation from them, one in accordance with international law. - - As long as these aggressors would still find voluntary, non-protesting or non-seceding victims, they could go on raping these. In this respect they would not be rendered impotent or feel castrated. On the contrary, now being alone, among their own, they could enjoy the benefits of unanimous support. All their subjects and victims would then be volunteers, which, as long as their faith is maintained, would give them more power or potency over them. - - I would rather say that the body of a people would have the right to secede or separate itself from a tumour or cancer - one in form of a parasitic and tyrannical clique that threatens its freedom, health and survival. - - In such a case the potency of the tumour to survive on its own should not be taken into consideration at all. - - What would be castrated, abolished or destroyed by the type of panarchistic, pluralistic, mutualistic, libertarian, anarchistic, secessionist or voluntaryist reform of Fichte / Spencer / Molinary / de Puydt / Follin / Ackermann / Beckerath / et al would be the domination of other people (who are peaceful) and this without their consent. - - This would merely uphold the old doctrine that no one is good enough to rule another without the other person's consent. - - Jewish people have suffered more than most from prosecution as "aliens". They would never have wronged anybody by merely setting up a fully autonomous exterritorial State within other States. On the contrary, they would have taught the world a necessary lesson on peaceful coexistence. - - Like many other famous specialists, E. also demonstrated the "barbarism of specialists", by presuming to be an authority in spheres outside of his competence. Outside of his sphere he expressed quite primitive, incorrect and unexamined notions, did not promote but rather retard enlightenment. He shared these notions with millions of others, many of them almost as famous as he was and still is. - - Herbert Spencer in the 19th. chapter of "Social Statics" [The Right to Ignore the State], brilliantly refutes Einstein's and similar objections against individual secessionism. And so did Fichte in his contribution on the French Revolution and De Puydt in his essay "On Panarchy". - - I have not had the chance to be able to read the program of the "Republique Supranationale" but have no doubt, from Beckerath's hints, that it would NOT have given any good reasons for being so misunderstood. - - As Beckerath points out, nothing but a consistent extension of human rights and minority rights is required. - - History could have taken another turn if a man like Einstein had been open-minded towards panarchist ideas from 1922 onwards or at least from 1929 onwards and had become a spokesman for them. - - Instead, he did advocate, at one stage, one consistent conclusion from territorial nationalism, namely, the development of anti-nation or anti-people mass murder weapons. - - How could he, as member of a persecuted minority, as a victim of the principle of collective responsibility, recommend the ultimate means to impose collective responsibility? - - Nazis and other totalitarians developed Einstein's (and hundreds of millions of other people) territorialist and statist notions, all too thoughtless in this respect, towards their kinds of oppressive and mass-murderous regimes. - - And most of those "democrats" who favor nuclear and other mass murder devices, remain unaware that in this respect they are the "intellectual" heirs of Nazism. - - The average man and the "intellectuals" of our time do, as a rule, give the exterritorial and voluntaristic alternative even less consideration than Einstein did. But, perhaps, the rather obvious errors of this famous thinker, in his short reply, will somehow help others, at least now, to pay more attention to the panarchistic solution. – (In the absence of a proper archive for ideas the appeal to famous persons in order to spread an important idea is often not a sufficient substitute at all. My father advocated an Ideas Archive since the middle 30’ties. I was also in favour of it since about 1949 but the closest I came to partly realize it on a very small scale was my PEACE PLANS series. In all these decades since then I did not even encounter a single person who showed an interest in the Ideas Archive, or an anarchist or libertarian, who showed an interest in building up an anarchist and libertarian ideas archive. An individual can hardly do this on his own. – J.Z., 13.12.11, 29.14.12.)
EISERMANN, GOTTFRIED: Vilfredo Pareto's System der allgemeinen Soziologie, Enke Verlag, Stuttgart, quoted in ERLESENES, IV/1964, & in PEACE PLANS No. 7, June 1966. - On competing governments.
EL RAY: Self-Seeking, INNOVATOR, August 66, on exterritoriality, 122, in ON PANARCHY VI, in PEACE PLANS 585.
EL RAY: What Is an "Ethical Enclave"? INNOVATOR, Nov. 65, 121, & in ON PANARCHY VI, in PEACE PLANS 585.
ELECTION PROMISES: Campaign promise: The promise of a politician to transform taxes into subsidies.” - Lothar Schmidt. - Neither are rightful or sensible. - J.Z., 25.5.00. - Compare the other saying on this: "Elections are advance auctions of stolen goods." –They often promise what is impossible, especially for them. – Communities of volunteers would usually insist on the fulfillment of promises by their leaders. If that is not done, they would get rid of them, fast. - J.Z., 5.12.08. - POLITICS, GOVERNMENTS, POLITICIANS, ELECTIONS, TAXES, SUBSIDIES, HAND-OUTS, PANARCHISM VS. TERRITORIALISM, POLITICIANS, JOKES
ELECTION PROMISES: Every election is a very promising phenomenon. - J.Z., 6.12.76. - By the time the next election comes around most of the previous promises have been broken. Nevertheless, the voters seem ever hopeful that in future the elected will keep their promises. - J.Z., 26.5.00. – In panarchies the disappointed ones would not be stuck with the promise breakers, possibly for several years. They would simply secede from them, individually or in whole groups, to try someone or something better, a.s.a.p. – J.Z., 5.12.08, 29.4.12. - VOTING, TERRITORIALISM
ELECTION REFORM TOWARDS PANARCHISM: I want all elections to become so organized that all coercive and collectivists candidates loose in all their attempts to dominate all those, who disagree with them, while their chance to "win" is increased to 100 %, but at the same time reduced to the option to rule over all their voluntary members and voters only. In this way there would be only winners and no losers at all in an election. The election would be reduced to a sorting out-process of all voters into their preferred panarchies. As such there should be no secret votes but publicly registered voting preferences. These registers would then constitute the membership list for newly established panarchies. Then, perhaps only after 12 months have passed, individuals should be free to change their registration. The various panarchies might run a common register on their membership. Or this could be provided by a free or cooperative enterprise. I do not believe in any conditions for entry. But those, who set up fraudulent panarchies, secretly aggressive and intolerant ones, would leave themselves open to prosecution by honest and tolerant ones before international courts and by an ideal militia. - J.Z., 30.7.78, 2.4.89, 12.12.03.
ELECTION REFORM: Not reformed and better election systems for all people in a state territory are needed but, rather, free choice among all the various voting systems, for individuals and among all the other offerings of the exterritorially autonomous volunteer communities that they prefer for themselves. Compared with that fundamental vote and choice all the other changes of election systems, e.g. from "first past the post" to "proportional representation" are rather trivial. - To each his own preferred election system. Neither one's vote nor one's preferred election system should be imposed upon anyone. - J.Z., 11.12.92 & 23.5.00. – PANARCHISM, VOTING
ELECTIONS: Elections are only free when each and everyone can elect or select his own fate, i.e. can freely direct his own actions towards his own aims, regardless of the votes and elected representatives of others, and their laws, as long as he does not interfere with the choices others have made for themselves. - J.Z., 2.2.90 & 23.5.00. - INDIVIDUAL SELF-DETERMINATION, TERRITORIALISM, DEMOCRACY, MAJORITIES, VOTING, PANARCHISM
ELECTIONS: Elections under territorialism are options for the parties and politicians rather than individual citizens. They limit rather than expand his personal choices, during and after the elections. - J.Z., 9.10.89 & 25.5.00, 29.4.12. – VOTING, DEMOCRACY, TERRITORIALISM
ELECTIONS: Elections are parodies on free choice.” - J.Z., 5.7.82. – Under panarchism or polyarchism we would have free individual choice not only among all the diverse parties, for our own affairs and interests, but also between all other kinds of movements, reform- and advocacy groups, religions, ideologies, philosophies, systems, racial or ethnic or traditionalist or extremist groups, all kinds of methods, tool and principles, always at our own risk and expense, together with like-minded people, under our own personal law system, i.e. one with full exterritorial autonomy. It would be a choice between lots of different “social” parties, all doing their own things, not only drinking, dancing, drugging or otherwise amusing themselves, but experimenting with the ideas, convictions and opinions they share in xyz work and exploration and experimentation groups, quite free, as long as they do not interfere with other groups, societies or communities of others. – J.Z., 5.12.08, 29.4.12. – CHOICE, PANARCHISM, FREEDOM TO EXPERIMENT, PARTYING, QUITE FREELY
ELECTIONS: Elections should cease to be territorially collectivized and become exterritorially individualized. - J.Z., 30.7.98. - Then the votes of others could not bother us any more than the votes of others do - in e.g. their football or cricket clubs, while we are members of a tennis club. - J.Z., 21.5.00. - VOTING, MAJORITIES, MINORITIES, DISSIDENTS, PANARCHISM, VOLUNTARISM, EXTERRITORIALISM VS. TERRITORIALISM
ELECTIONS: Every election, like any armed victory, is a disaster for the winner and the loser alike. "Politics is merely the continuance of war by other means." - However, this applies to territorial politics only, not to the voluntary States and societies that are only exterritorially autonomous and that allow each individual to secede and re-associate himself. - J.Z., 5.2.97.
ELECTIONS: Free elections are often offered as "the" solution to problems arising from territorialism, under the pretence that they really are quite free elections for all people. However, they mean merely a degree of freedom, mainly only for the minority of politicians and bureaucrats, their parties and legal monopolies and interventionist institutions. Either a minority or a majority still dominates over all dissenters in a territory and thus individuals, the majority and many minorities are still not in charge of their own lives, with their own freely made contracts but, rather, made dependent upon the territorially collected votes and decisions by others. Territorial elections restrict rather than liberate free choices for individuals and minority groups. At best the latter can organize themselves into powerful lobbies which themselves try to lord it over others and often do succeed in doing this, to that extent establishing minority rule over the majority. Elections are part of a wrongful method to make and impose collective decisions upon all people in a territory. As such they are not so far removed, as is commonly thought, from the collective to dictatorial decision-making by a few for all, as practised by communist, socialist, fascist, Nazi and other dictatorial States. In all of them politicians and parties, demagogues and dictators are the winners, not the people and all the peaceful individuals. To the individual only a rather trivial option is offered by them, under the pretence that it would constitute "THE" right to vote, while in reality, in all public affairs, it reduces the individual's vote to this one, among millions of others. Thus, inherently, it is not a "free" vote but a very restricted vote. - J.Z., 9.8.90, 24.5.00. - VOTING, TERRITORIALISM, FREE CHOICE, INDIVIDUALISM, AUTONOMY, DEMOCRACY
ELECTIONS: succeeding in the most difficult, by electing ourselves and thus coming into the condition of freedom…” - F. Lohenbill, in DINGE DER ZEIT. (… indem uns das Allerschwerste gelaenge, naemlich, dass wir uns selbst waehlen und dadurch in den Zustand der Freiheit kommen. …) - Elect yourself! You can do that, upon recognizing individual sovereignty in, in practice, by individual secessionism combined with an extended form of individual associationism or freedom of association in form of exterritorially autonomous volunteer communities. This is not a difficult way do achieve your dreams for yourself and help to promote peace, freedom and justice in the world, also progress, prosperity, happiness and satisfaction among the largest number of people, but an easy way, for it permits peaceful on-man revolutions and one-man reforms. In this way all rational and adult human beings could practise a universal franchise - but one that is confined to their own affairs. Their own fate, in the last spheres now still preempted by territorial governments, with their territorial monopolies for political, economic and social systems, would finally be in the hands of individuals. - J.Z., 2.6.00, 29.4.12. – PANARCHISM, VOLUNTARISM, PERSONAL LAW, EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, INDIVIDUAL SOVEREIGNTY & SECESSIONISM
ELECTIONS: The defeated voters ought to be free to follow the leaders, party or program they voted for. – J.Z., 2/75, 26.5.00. - EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY FOR VOLUNTEER COMMUNITIES VS. TERRITORIAL & COLLECTIVIST VOTING FOR THE WHOLE POPULATION, PANARCHISM
ELECTIONS: The elective branches of the government in the U.S. have been in considerable degree displaced in the government by the bureaucracy and the judiciary.” - Clarence B. Carson, The World in the Grip of an Idea, THE FREEMAN, Jan. 1977, 14. – It is not only in the grip of ONE wrongful, false or flawed idea or opinion but tens of thousands of them. That is what make enlightenment so difficult and a comprehensive encyclopedia of the best refutations of these errors and prejudices, which are obstacles to progress, a necessary and efficient reference work. Add a libertarian encyclopedia, complete freedom library, electronic “argument mapping” and many other alternative enlightenment steps – especially the experimental freedom of panarchies for communities and societies of volunteers, and we might, finally, get somewhere, fast. – Why don’t the millions of people with the Anti-American mentality - or that of the original “Americanism” - set up governments in exile, to the present territorial American governments, everywhere, outside of the USA, all of them for present and future volunteers only and under personal law, i.e. full exterritorial autonomy? Then, according to the best features of “Americanism”, they should compete with each other and the present territorial American government, for followers, based on whatever achievements they would manage to achieve with their platforms, always at the own risk and expense and with none of them claiming a territorial monopoly, either in America or anywhere else on Earth or in Space. – These kinds of panarchies might even be the first ones that could be easily set up, unobstructed by many regimes that are Anti-American in their outlook. – Naturally, these voluntary, competing and non-territorial governments in exile should fully recognize and tolerate not only each other but also the existing USA government – for all of ITS volunteers. If the existing territorial government recognized its own long-term interest and reciprocated, then these governments in exile might even become reciprocally recognized by it and turn even into allies for this kind of voluntaristic and individualistic reshaping or the politics of the world. No more attempts to territorially impose even a democracy or “limited government” on all too different mixtures of populations of whole countries. The equivalent of religious liberty in the political, economic and social sphere for everyone! – I must confess that so far I thought only of governments in exile in the “free” West, as alternatives to the still more un-free other regimes in the world. But voluntaristic and exterritorial autonomy in form of diverse governments in exile, could also be utilized against the ruling and dominating American territorialism. Not only Negroes and Red Indians, Libertarians, Anarchists and, currently, Republicans in the U.S.A., might consider that offer to be an attractive alternative for them. - J.Z., 5.12.08, 29.4.12. - GOVERNMENT, JUDICIARY & BUREAUCRACY, PANARCHISM, INDIVIDUAL SECESSIONISM, ALTERNATIVE TOOLS & METHODS & REFERENCES FOR SUFFICIENT ENLIGHTENMENT, GENUINE EDUCATION, MANY DIFFERENT GOVERNMENTS IN EXILE FOR THE U.S.A., BY ALL ITS ENEMIES & INTERNAL & EXTERNAL CRITICS BUT ALL FOR THEIR OWN VOLUNTEERS ONLY, TOLERANCE FOR ALL TOLERANT COMMUNITIES OF VOLUNTEERS.
ELECTIONS: The ritualistic worship of the territorial democratic State, supposedly representing the voters but not allowing them to vote e.g. on taxes and the use of taxes, on war and peace, nuclear armaments and reactors, monetary systems of their choice, on free trade or protectionism for themselves, on who is to be their enemy, what kind of treaties ought to be concluded, what are rightful war and peace aims, etc. Even a monopoly post office is imposed upon the people supposedly represented by a democracy. Moreover, this "representative" State does not permit individuals and minorities to secede and to form competing governments with full exterritorial autonomy. Nevertheless, we are in the habit of considering them to be democracies, i.e., self-governing organizations. Given the choice, most majorities and minorities would rather prefer to rule themselves only as soon as they consider this to be possible. So far most people have not yet considered their exterritorial autonomy options and opportunities as important parts of all their genuine individual rights and liberties, just like most people still ignore their full monetary and financial freedom rights and liberties. - J.Z., 13.3.93, 22.5.00, 28.4.12.
ELECTIONS: When the two leading parties each try to steal the program of the other then every election must tend to be very close or like a game of chance. - J.Z., n.d. & 26.5.00. - The two major parties have automatically something like a 50 : 50 chance. - J.Z., 30.7.78. - Such outcomes always suggested to me and even one of my boys, when he was still very young the following question: Why should the 51 rule the 49 or the 49 the 51, rather than the 51 the 51 and the 49 the 49? - J.Z., 26.5.00. – Several other people have asked this question before us. Can its justice be refuted? I have never seen or heard such a refutation. – J.Z., 29.4.12. - ELECTIONS & CHANCES, VOTING, SELF-GOVERNMENT, SELF-DETERMINATION, INDIVIDUAL SOVEREIGNTY VOTING
ELECTIONS: Whether the ALP or the LP elephant moves about in our China store - does not make much difference. I want both out of my way and that of all other dissenting people. - J.Z., 7.7.87. - I read recently that, judged by membership numbers and their age structure, both of these Australian political parties are aging mice rather than young elephants: This is one of the positive sign of the times. Nevertheless, these machines have enough energies, momentum and prejudices left, in their favor, to permit them to hold on to territorial powers. - If all freedom lovers subscribed to exterritorial tolerance for themselves and for all their competitors and opponents, then they would effectively outnumber and overcome these party machines and proceed according to the slogan: To each the government or non-governmental society of his or her choice. - How can one launch such a radical freedom idea among libertarians and anarchists? I tried with 2 panarchistic essays on my website. So far with very small results only. - J.Z., 24.5.00. – But the times are changing fast, in this respect, too: This evening I got the following number of search results with Google: panarchy: 111,000, panarchism: 68,200, “personal law”: 1,030,00, polyarchy: 40,000. – J.Z., 29.4.12. - PARTIES, POLITICIANS
ELECTIONS: Why shouldn't everyone win in an election - and get what he elected - for himself? - J.Z., 23.12.76. – Naturally, only at the own risk and expense. – J.Z., 14.12.11. - TOLERANCE & TRUE SELF-RULE OR SELF-GOVERNMENT OR PANARCHISM, Q.
ELITE: The real elite should lead by seceding, doing its own things, exterritorially and autonomously, thus setting shiny pioneering examples for others to follow. - J.Z., 29.6.96. - And the conceited idiots usually considered as great leaders, together with all their followers, should be given the chance to disprove themselves, by their own exterritorially free experiments, undertaken likewise only at their own expense and risk. - J.Z., 21.5.00. - LEADERSHIP & EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY, PANARCHISM & FREEDOM TO EXPERIMENT FOR ALL KINDS OF VOLUNTEERS
ELITISM: It is an elite, with interests different from those of the people. In the interests of its own welfare, the State must always expand its despotism, internally as repression and externally as conquest. It matters little whether this elite is chosen by ballots, birth, or blows, for it is the nature of any elite - "public servants" or capitalist masters - to oppress and exploit those whom it controls.” - Paul Berman, Quotations from the Anarchists. - Some anarchists have still not learned to distinguish between a politician with political powers and a businessman who has not been granted any privileges by the State but, rather, suffers like his and other workers, under numerous State-imposed burdens and restrictions. - How anarchistic is an anarchist who does neither recognize obvious statist imposition nor the absence of any statist privileges in concrete cases, one who can't distinguish between voluntary and coercive actions, free exchanges and robberies, who remains blind to the anarchism of free market relationships, because he sees everything through the colored glasses of dogmatic egalitarianism? We are free to secede from a businessman - not to work for him, invest with him, buy from him, and free to boycott everything he offers us. Are we so free to secede from the clique of politicians? May we refuse to work for them, much of every working year, may we refuse to buy their "goods & services", refuse to subscribe to the debts they take up in our name? Are we free to repudiate these debts? Are we free to ignore them altogether and to do our own things to and for ourselves? Are we free, e.g. to refuse their deteriorated paper money and supply ourselves with alternative and sound currencies? - Do they permit us to engage in tax strikes, to refuse to fight and die for them? Are we free to choose our own enemies and allies, make our own treaties, declare our own rightful war and peace aims, decide upon war and peace for ourselves? - Whoever does not take notice of such significant differences ought to get his head examined. - J.Z., 2.6.00, 29.4.12. - RULERS, POLITICIANS & THE TERRITORIAL STATE, BUSINESSMEN, CORPORATIONS, ECONOMIC POWER? MONOPOLIES, Q.
ELY-CHAITLIN, MARC ERIC: Household Government, literature hints and leaflet on his individual secessionism, 123, in ON PANARCHY VI, in PEACE PLANS 585. See also under CHAITLIN. (This guy had not made up his mind under which name he wants to run under! - J.Z.)
EMANCIPATION, SLAVERY, DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE, SECESSION AND PANARCHISM: No man can make himself so much a slave as to forfeit the right to issue his own emancipation proclamation.” – Benjamin R. Tucker, Catalogue, p.56. – INDIVIDUAL SOVEREIGNTY & SECESSIONISM, INDIVIDUAL DECLARATIONS OF INDEPENDENCE, GENUINE SELF-GOVERNMENT & SELF-DETERMINATION, SELF-OWNERSHIP
EMANCIPATION: Emancipation from the arbitrary rule of other men.” - Mortimer J. Adler, The Idea of Freedom, Doubleday, 1958, 380/81. - Seldes. – Every territorial rule is more or less arbitrary rule over many different group of dissenters, all outvoted by the current majority or supposedly “representative” minority. – J.Z., 17.11.10, 29.4.12.
EMANCIPATION: I want the masses of humanity to be truly emancipated from all authorities and from all heroes, present and to come.” - Mikhail A. Bakunin, 1814-1876. - That is only a tertiary aim for me. Firstly, I want to be free myself, then become free together with like-minded people. The rest may then copy or ignore these examples to their own advantage or disadvantage, by doing their own things for or to themselves. People who are merely emancipated by others will not automatically turn into free and responsible people. They ought to take and manage their own steps towards liberty - as soon and as far as they are ready for them. - J.Z., 21.4.00, 17.11.10. - AUTHORITIES, GOVERNMENTS, STATES, POLITICIANS, RULERS, MASSES, PEOPLES, LIBERATION, PANARCHISM, INDIVIDUAL & GROUP SECESSIONISM
EMANCIPATION: one may say that the real and complete emancipation of every individual is the true and great objective and the supreme end of history.” - Michael Bakunin, The Knouto-Germanic Empire, 1871. - Is history an entity? If so, does it have objectives or ends? - J.Z., 2.6.00. – Alas, economically and territorially, even Bakunin remained a collectivist. – J.Z., 5.12.08. - INDIVIDUALISM, INDIVIDUAL SOVEREIGNTY, FREEDOM, LIBERTY, RIGHTS, HISTORY, MAN, INDIVIDUALISM, ANARCHISM
EMANCIPATION: The emancipation of conscience from authority, to quote Acton again, is the main content of modern history.” - G. P. Gooch, Dictatorship in Theory and Practice, p.37. - Not only freedom of conscience or freedom of expression and information but also of freedom to experiment and freedom of choice, contract and voluntary action are rightful and necessary, in every sphere. - J.Z., 2.6.00, 29.4.12. - EMANCIPATION OF CONSCIENCE FROM AUTHORITY, FREEDOM OF ACTION: PANARCHISM, VOLUNTARISM
EMANCIPATION: The problem of the age is how to get individuals involved in their own emancipation. - Source? - It is hard enough to get even libertarians and anarchists involved to work systematically, in dozens of still legal and useful alternative ways, towards libertarian and anarchist enlightenment and towards freedom of action for themselves and for all others, always only at the own risk and expense. It is hard even to get them to accept and use easy and cheap alternative media, like microfiche, floppy disks and text-only CDs for the complete, permanent, cheap and easy publishing of all their writings! - J.Z., 2.6.00. – EMANCIPATION OF INDIVIDUALS
EMANCIPATION: The solution is emancipation from the State.” - Alan Reynolds, contributing editor to REASON, in REASON, 8/74. - Since full emancipation from the territorial State does require individual and group secessionism, combined with voluntary associationism under full exterritorial autonomy, to provide for oneself and like-minded people the government or non-governmental society of one's own dreams, one should clearly say so. The term "emancipation" is too general and too little understood in its widest possible sense, particularly in a time when most people still believe that a "free" vote in a territorial State or the "right" to strike and to engage in "collective bargaining" are emancipatory steps rather than new traps for genuine rights and liberties. - J.Z., 2.6.00. – Emancipation is mainly needed only from the territorial State. The exterritorial one can remain for its believers. – J.Z., 5.12.08. - EMANCIPATION FROM THE STATE
EMANCIPATION: Universal emancipation!” - Garrison. - He had largely only black slaves in mind. But "universal emancipation" means very much more. At the same time, it should not be made dependent upon universal introduction at the same time, in all countries, but it should, rather, become a matter for individual choice and self-concerned actions, with each individual free to choose for himself, as much freedom as he wants to enjoy, together with like-minded people, after he had individually seceded from the imposed prior territorial connection. It also means the replacement of territorial laws by personal laws and of territorial States by exterritorially autonomous communities. - J.Z., 2.6.00. – It certainly should not mean setting free all convicted prisoners who are criminals with victims. – J.Z., 15.12.08.
EMERGENCY POWERS: Emergency does not increase granted power or remove or diminish the restrictions imposed upon power granted or reserved. The Constitution was adopted in a period of grave emergency. Its grants of power to the federal government and its limitations of the power of the States were determined in the light of emergency, and they are not altered by emergency.” – Charles Evans Hughes (1862-1948), Chief Justice, U.S. Supreme Court, Home Building & Loan Assn v. Blairsdell, 1934 - Emergencies do not require extra powers for their abolition but, instead, more or even full liberty. Volunteers should be free to practise it among themselves, thus demonstrating it to the others. – J.Z., 10.12.08.
EMIGRATION: Jumping out of the frying pan. The correlative of emigration is immigration, jumping into the fire.” - L. A. Rollins, REASON, 4/77. - Well, some emigrants did so, e.g. those who fled from Nazi Germany to Soviet Russia. The rest are looking for the lesser evils and, sometimes, do somewhat succeed. Almost none look for full exterritorial autonomy, so that they would not have to obey or flee. - The idea must come before the practice. It must even become sufficiently wide-spread. - J.Z., 2.6.00. – Alas, even in the supposedly “free world” immigration is still much more restricted than emigration. The right to emigrate is rather useless while there is no right to immigrate and even the right to seek asylum is all too much restricted. – Immigrants, by the millions, will be welcomed only once the barriers of monetary and financial despotism are broken and as a result there will be almost unlimited jobs available almost everywhere. There would simply be many more and much more free exchanges and this under higher productivity. Under full economic freedom capital growth and its productive investment would also become very much accelerated. - J.Z., 29.4.12 - PANARCHISM, DIS., INDIVIDUAL SECESSIONISM, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, PERSONAL LAW, VOLUNTARISM, IMMIGRATION
EMIGRATION: On Freedom Day we demand the right of any man to seek freedom by leaving his own country if he chooses.” - Douglas Darby, Oil for the Lamps of Freedom, p.7. - Why confine freedom-seeking to emigration? What is wrong with seeking freedom for oneself, as a peaceful person (not a violent criminal, with victims), while staying in one's country, claiming full freedom to experiment there, e.g., with "capitalism for consenting adults" or with any other ism of one's free individual choice, all within the framework of full exterritorial autonomy? People who continue to think about freedom only in terms of territorialism are unlikely to achieve full freedom soon enough. - J.Z., 2.6.00. – He should also have added the freedom to immigrate into other territories. No one has the right to claim whole territories only for particular kinds of people. The immigration barriers must fall as well. – J.Z., 29.4.12. - EMIGRATION PLUS EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY, IMMIGRATION RESTRICITONS
EMIGRATION: The Right to Leave any country, including one's own, is guaranteed by Article 13(2) of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.” - NEWS DIGEST INTERNATIONAL, 12/74. - What real guaranties does this Declaration and the following international treaties offer? The good will of despotic regimes! - J.Z., 2.6.00. - A good will towards many individual rights and liberties does not even exist in the best democracies and most important rights are left out or are wrongly defined in the UN's declaration, while non-rights are included there as if they were genuine rights. A right to immigrate, declared by some government would be more interesting. A limited right of that kind was granted by West Germany - but this government, too, under the territorial governmental system, could not cope with the influx of refugees and deserters. - If refugees were fully freed in their guest countries, then they could undertake e.g. all the monetary, financial and organizational steps to supply themselves and others with free, well paid and unexploited (untaxed and unregulated) labor, paid-for in sound and competing privately or cooperatively issued currencies. They could then also live in their own and exterritorially autonomous communities, which, at the same time, would constitute rightful governments in exile. - J.Z., 2.6.00.
EMIGRATION: The ultimate protection against the tyranny of government is that at least a large number of able people can emigrate when they can no longer stand it.” – F. A. Hayek, Denationalisation of Money, p.96. - What about all the rest of the victims, the conscripts, forced laborers and concentration camp inmates? - What about the immigration barriers against those who did have an opportunity to flee their oppressors? What he suggests here is obviously not the ultimate and only solution. As an advocate of "limited government" Hayek remained an advocate of the inherently totalitarian form of territorialism, i.e., he excluded free contracts, free competition, free pricing, free market relationships from most important spheres. Territorialism is the main problem, not a final solution, not even when, with good intentions, it is somewhat limited but remains a territorial imposition upon all dissenters in a territory. The threat of a general holocaust from ABC mass murder and anti-people "weapons" is based upon the foundation of territorialism combined with the notion of collective responsibility. How libertarian, anarchistic or free-market like are these two features? In spite of otherwise being a famous free marketeer and often having met up with anarchists like Rothbard, Hayek remained a dogmatic territorialist, but, probably, without ever using this term. He considered territorial government as an ideal, if limited, not even as a "necessary" and far less as an unnecessary evil. - A comprehensive public discussion of this subject has barely begun. To the extent that it already exists in my PEACE PLANS series, it still remains out of sight, hearing and awareness of most freedom lovers in the world. - J.Z., 2.6.00. – TERRITORIALISM VS. PANARCHISM
EMPIRES OF THE MIND: The empires of the future are empires of the mind." - Winston Churchill, Harvard University, 1945. - Diverse panarchies, rather, local, national and world-wide ones, based on ideas rather than force or unprincipled compromises! - J.Z., 20.6.92. – Societies and communities of volunteers rather than compulsory members or subjects! – J.Z., 30.4.12.
EMPIRES: All empires die of indigestion.” - Napoleon Bonaparte, 1769-1821, Sayings of Napoleon. – People are not property. They should not be swallowed up, exploited or otherwise abused by any territorial State or its government. – Territorial governments have all too often more or less enslaved them and, sometimes, on their battlefields, have turned them into manure. Calling them heroes cannot right this wrong. They died as victims of territorialism and its power games. - J.Z., 30.4.12. - IMPERIALISM, CONQUESTS, CENTRALIZATION, CONTROL, TERRITORIALISM, GREATNESS, GLUTTONY, OVERWEIGHT, OVER-SIZE, WORLD STATE, WORLD GOVERNMENT, WORLD FEDERATION, UNITED NATIONS, EUROPE
EMPIRES: Empire and unity claims are based upon fleeting moments in human history, moments of temporary imperial expansion, often very much against the will of many so subjected. What is a 12 or 1200 year empire and its unity against the background of a development of man for, say, 120 million years? The cry for unity is all the louder the stronger real disunity makes itself felt. A natural and voluntary unity is missing. Sooner or later each empire falls due to the centrifugal forces, which its establishment has created. - J.Z., 1.3.00, 22.5.00. – Alas, usually not soon enough. All individuals and minority groups, naturally, also the majority of a population, should be free to secede from them as soon as they want to. – Let us have a world-wide alliance or “empire” of diverse panarchies, a quite humane world-society or association of several and somewhat diverse ones, all confined to their volunteers, i.e. only exterritorially autonomous. – But all should be united in their strong resistance to any remaining or upcoming territorialist movement, i.e, any with involuntary victims. - J.Z., 17.11.10, 30.4.12. - UNITY, FROM THE HISTORICAL POINT OF VIEW
EMPIRES: Magnanimity in politics is not seldom the truest wisdom; and a great empire and little minds go ill together.” - Edmund Burke, 1729-1797. - E.g., Alexander the Great did not try to force e.g. the Persians to become Greeks. The Roman Empire left to most of its subject people many of their local laws and institutions. - Tolerance, experimental freedom, individual rights, exterritorial autonomy, voluntarism, individual secessionism and individual sovereignty rather than magnanimity! - J.Z., 2.6.00. – Some local governments can be more despotic than empires. However, it is easier to escape from them. – J.Z., 10.12.08. - PANARCHISM, TOLERANCE, EMPIRES
EMPIRES: The Terran Empire is a huge melting pot. However, what appears to be melting is the pot. - Poul Anderson, The Game of Empire, 105. – For decades now we have had a movement from large territorial States to small territorial States, with the latter also still and inevitably all too full of dissenters. Decentralization would go much further and would be more radical and satisfactory and also peace-promoting if it were confined to volunteers instead of territories, leaving only private and partnership real estate properties, which do not deserve the term “territories”. Among volunteers even rightful centralization steps could be taken, exterritorially, i.e. without stepping on the toes of involuntary members. – All the world could become “united” under exterritorialism for all, united in diversity! – J.Z., 18.11.10, 30.4.12. IMPERIALISM, MELTING POT
EMPIRES: What is an empire? It is a lot of people who are under compulsion to hand over a good part of what they produce to a handful of people who employ the soldiery that does the compelling. There never was an empire of a different character; so, we are justified in calling this an overall definition.” - Frank Chodorov, Land, Labor, and Empire, in: Fugitive Essays, p.340. – It does not apply to an exterritorial empire with voluntary members and subjects only. – J.Z., 17.11.10.
EMPOWERMENT: Maybe the real story is about empowerment, for you and for me. - Jerry Pournelle, NEW DESTINIES, Fall 90, 254. - The most just and efficient solvent for the existing and excessive territorial powers would be individual secessionism, combined with exterritorial autonomy for volunteer communities and ideal volunteer militia forces for the protection of individual rights, combined with well conceived and practised tax strikes and monetary freedom measures. - J.Z., 24.5.00. - POWER, SELF-RULE, SELF-GOVERNMENT, PANARCHISM, INDIVIDUALISM
ENCLAVES: the country could easily become a collection of isolated little enclaves, with no unifying culture at all. Is EX PLURIBUS UNUM a desirable goal - or a danger to be guarded against?" - Stanley Schmidt, editorial, ANALOG, 5/93, p. 8. - Any culture is essentially a world culture, for all like-minded people in the world. And tolerance of diversity is an essential characteristics for any culture deserving that name. The rest are throwbacks into primitivism and barbarism. Enclaves would not be isolated under free trade, free communications, free migration and freedom to travel and standard hospitality, at least for paying guests. Countries were always fictions, coercively established and maintained. To each his own person, his own property, faith and system and organization, on the household level, that of a voluntaristic enclave (with a common larger property), his own regional, state or country-wide or even world-wide organization, together with like-minded people. People are no longer to be treated as the rulers' property in cattle pens, ghettos or reservations. Only self-forged and voluntarily worn chains would remain. And individual secessionism would provide each with the key to throw them off - or to exchange them for others. - J.Z., 18.3.92, 5.2.93. – COUNTRIES, CULTURES, NATIONS, PEOPLES, ENCLAVES OR EXTENDED PRIVACY RIGHTS TOWARDS MEDDLESOME POLITICIANS & BUREAUCRATS. CONSISTENT INDIVIDUALISM & VOLUNTARISM VS. TERRITORIALISM & ITS WRONGFUL POWERS.
ENCLAVES: The term extraterritoriality has been coined for enclaves. Since they are subject to the rulers of a foreign territory they still belong to the system of dividing the whole world and its diverse peoples up into separate territories controlled, as a rule, by territorial governments, regardless how independent by now many people want to be, at least in some respects, from "their" territory and its government, which is supposed to represent them. - From the smallest to the largest: Should the smallest still be called "territories"? - Foreign ethnic or religious or political enclaves, by contract or conquest. Hong Kong had that status for 99 years. So did Tangier, largely as a free trade and financial centre, for many years. - J.Z., n.d. - EXTRATERRITORIALITY
ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA: 1958, articles "Capitulations" and "Egypt/Justice", on the tradition of capitulations. - Article "Gypsie" - on tribal law and courts and punishment. Its article on Kabyles contains a note on the characteristic pairing of their protective associations for political activities, the "sof" OR "COF". - See also PEACE PLANS No. 12, plan 201
ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF PANARCHISM: See the PEACE PLANS sub-series called: ON PANARCHY, of which so far 24 volumes on 24 microfiche are out. It is more a long anthology rather than an encyclopaedia. This present alphabet soup is also intended to pull its contents as well as all other relevant sources somewhat together, in alphabetical form. – Anyone is invited to do this in the form of a proper data bank but I would already be satisfied if all the relevant references were alphabetized and sufficiently cross-referenced, a job that is much too large for an individual. It, too, requires division of labor among enough interested people. Since their own important rights and liberties are involved they should not insist on being paid for the labor they put into this common effort, no more so than for speaking up freely for any rightful aim and for protesting against any wrong. - J.Z., 13.12.11, 30.4.12.
ENEMIES & ALLIES, FREE CHOICE FOR INDIVIDUALS: Each to be free to pick his own enemies and friends, to fight his own battles, to have his own kind of party, movement and ideology and his or her free experiments with whole economic, and political and social systems, as extensively as this is already practised e.g. in religion, sports and play, in hobbies, arts and crafts, alone or in association with like-minded other volunteers, i.e. always at their own expense and risk. - J.Z., 8.10.88, 1.4.89, 30.4.12. – EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM FOR VOLUNTEERS & SECESSIONISTS BUT NONE OF THEM WITH A TERRITORIAL MONOPOLY.
ENEMIES & FRIENDS, ALLIANCES, TREATIES, FOREIGN POLICIES, ENEMIES, FRIENDS: Choose your own friends and enemies. Then you can arrive at a modus vivendi with them. Don't allow others to choose your enemies and friends for you. Once everyone has got that liberty, then warlike actions will not be maximized but minimized. They will e.g. no longer be promoted by conscription, nationalistic education, compulsory taxes, inflation and involuntary mass unemployment (the latter two automatically following from territorial monetary despotism). - J.Z. 19.4.92, 13.1.93. - To illustrate by a small example: During a pep talk by a German officer, during WW I, just before an ordered infantry attack on enemy trenches, when the officer suggested, that each soldier should pick his enemy soldier and engage him, man to man, with all his strength and weapons, private Isaac piped up: Sir, could you please point out my man to me? I am sure I could come to a better arrangement with him! - How many of the usual territorial nationalists, whether volunteers or conscripts, were as sensible in this respect as the Jew of this story? – J.Z., 13.12.11. Since then I found an English translation of a Spanish version of this thought-provoking joke. – J.Z., 30.4.12. - JOKES
ENEMIES & HATREDS: Give your hated enemy the chance to do his hated things to himself and to people who think like he does. What more just and fit penalty could there be for him? - J.Z., 29.6.91, 13.1.93. – Let them to their things – to or for themselves! Tolerance for all tolerant actions. Intolerance only towards all intolerant actions. – J.Z., 30.4.12.
ENEMIES & TOLERANCE: Become tolerant, otherwise "we become what we fight", said Roy Campbell, in a poem, 1965.
ENEMIES & TOLERANCE: One can be intolerant in a thousand different ways but tolerant only by fully recognising the natural individual rights and liberties even of one's enemies, by sticking to one's contracts and letting one's enemies stick to theirs. - J.Z., in On Tolerance, revised: 30.4.12.
ENEMIES & TOLERANCE: One does not have to love one's enemy but one ought to tolerate his tolerant actions. - J.Z., On Tolerance.
ENEMIES & TOLERANCE: The best way to defeat an enemy is to make a friend of him."- Friendship starts by respecting the autonomy of others.
ENEMIES, CRUELTIES: des Menschen grausamster Feind ist der Mensch." - Fichte, Die Bestimmung des Menschen, 3. Buch, Glaube, 130. (Man's most cruel enemy is man.) - That is viewing man only like gladiators of fighting cocks in an arena, who are given only the choice to kill or be killed. Man's most vicious enemy is the idea of territorial rule, to which most have so far thoughtlessly subscribed and which leads all too many people into gas chambers, charnel houses and battlefields, and leaves the rest either in perpetual nurseries, at best, or in openly despotic and exploitative nation-wide prisons, in which all of us are now the targets of mass extermination devices by territorial powers. The real enemies are territorially minded and organized rulers and subjects. - J.Z. 6.4.91, 12.1.93. – Compare the territorial notions and practices with the thought expressed by Frederic Bastiat in a mere three words: “Society is exchange!” – Obviously, it neither means robbery, murder nor enslavement, on any scale. – J.Z., 30.4.12. – TERRITORIALISM, NUCLEAR WAR THREAT, COLLECTIVE RESPONSIBILITY, NATIONALISM, IDEOLOGICAL OR RELIGIOUS INTOLERANCE
ENEMIES, PANARCHISM, RESPECT EVEN FOR THE INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS OF ENEMIES, COLLECTIVE RESPONSIBILITY: Panarchism revolutionizes the concept of enemies. It confines them to those, who intentionally and without being compelled to do so, infringe the individual rights of involuntary members in the “own” country or in other countries, i.e., to wrongful and aggressive regimes and their supporters or paid agents. These will be resisted and fought and overthrown even by otherwise quite peaceful panarchists. However, all others, all kinds of dissenters on the other side, will be treated as victims and thus either as secret or open allies or at least as neutrals. Their individual rights are to be upheld as far as humanly possible, even in defensive and liberating warfare actions or revolutions or military insurrections. The panarchistic options are to be offered to all of them. They are not to be held collectively responsible as “enemies” for the actions of their imposed rulers or of some totalitarian minorities or terrorists who happen to have e.g. a religion or a skin colour in common with them. Even the conscripts of enemy regimes are, as far as possible, to be treated as potential allies rather than merely as targets. (See: DESERTION, PRISONERS OF WAR TREATMENT, GOVERNMENTS IN EXILE, WAR AIMS, LIBERATION WARS.) Respect for the individual rights of those, who were all too collectively, indiscriminately and territorially misunderstood by the old term of “enemy”, will be one of the main characteristics for the “foreign policy” and defensive, liberating or revolutionary warfare or policing actions of panarchists. (Actually, for panarchists there are no foreign countries. They have voluntary members everywhere in the world.) Such a respect for the basic rights of others does not yet exist in the foreign policies and military preparations and campaigns of territorial governments, even the best of them. E.g., they still stock mass extermination devices, do not recognize panarchistic governments and societies in exile and use air raids and artillery attacks that often kill more civilians than combatants. They have not yet officially rejected the principles and practices of “collective responsibility”. (See: COLLECTIVE RESPONSIBILITY.) It is not necessary that one love one’s neighbour but one owes him justice in all relations with him. That applies also to most of those whom the own territorial government has declared to be, collectively, to be “our” enemies. All we need is not love but, rather, freedom and justice. Then peace will follow, almost inevitably. Then most of the supposed irreconcilable “enemies” can be turned into friends and allies or at least into tolerable neutrals. - J.Z., 12. & 19. 1.05, 30.4.12. – LOVE, JUSTICE, LIBERATION, NATURAL ALLIES, SECRET ALLIES, WAR AIMS, WARFARE, DES., SEPARATE PEACE TREATIES, APPEALS, INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS & LIBERTIES
ENEMIES: Enemy soldiers, especially conscripts but even volunteers, could be turned into deserters, neutrals, insurrectionists or allies via the timely and trustworthy declaration of rightful war aims, separate peace treaties, by liberating rather than imprisoning POW's, by rightful warfare with rightful weapons against the real enemy only, a territorial despotic regime and its leaders. This would exclude the use of and even the threat with ABC mass murder devices, while including alliances with rightful governments in exile, ruling and aiming to rule only over volunteers, and the offer of exterritorial autonomy for all other kinds of societies and communities as well and their free practice among the population of the defending or liberating country. It would include fully justified tyrannicide (rather than wrongful assassinations), enlightening broadcasts, the establishment of local militias for the protection of individual rights, nationally and internationally federated, free and rapid development via full monetary and financial freedom, together with all other economic liberties, for all who want them, i.e., free markets, free trade, free migration, free cooperative and other self-management experiments in enterprises, freedom for all ideological groups to engage in their own favorite experiments - but only at the own expense and risk. With these and other steps soldiers and officers could be deprived of all motives of fear and terror, which would induce them to continue fighting for a dictatorial regime. Under a trustworthily publicized and quite rightful war- and peace aims they could come to trust their kind of government-in exile more than their present territorial regime. They could and should also be advised on optimal insurrectionist and revolutionary steps. - One vast example on how fair they would be treated could be set by welcoming all refugees and deserters, offering them full economic, political and social freedom and full exterritorial autonomy for their kinds of communities of volunteers, to the extent that they desire them. Why should a soldier who is mistreated, paid perhaps only $ 500 p.a., and this in a depreciated currency and whose country is despotically misruled and impoverished, fight for this regime when he can desert, thereby become free, get high hopes for the similar liberation of his own whole country and is free to maintain himself in a free job where he may earn e.g. $ 15,000 p.a. in a sound currency? One can ask whether countries that do not make them such offers are really worth defending. - J.Z., 31.5.93, 23.4.00, 30.4.12. - DESERTION, CONSCRIPTS, SECRET ALLIES, RIGHTFUL WAR AIMS, DEFENCE, LIBERATION, POW's, REFUGEES
ENEMIES: Every government that prepares for war paints its adversaries as monsters, she said. They don’t want you thinking of the other side as human. If the enemy can think and feel, you might hesitate to kill them. …” - Carl Sagan, Contact, a novel, Arrow Books, 1985/86, p.151. - That is just one of the consequences of granting governments a monopoly to make treaties and alliances, to decide upon war and peace, armament and disarmament and military organization and training. If people were free to make their own allies and to ignore "enemies", who, likewise, would only do their things for and to themselves, organized in panarchies, suitable and able to leave each other alone. Under exterritorial autonomy or personal law, self-chosen by volunteers only, many to most of the aspects of territorial governments, which do make for war, even total war and nowadays even nuclear war, would disappear. - Science Fiction writers have so mostly neglected this very important futuristic option and this in spite of many historical and even some contemporary precedents for it. - J.Z., 19.4.00. - If the above description of the enemy were confined to the foreign territorial governments, the decision-makers, the men in power, then this would not be as objectionable, in most cases, as blaming the taxpayers, conscripts and civilian victims of foreign authoritarian, despotic or even totalitarian governments for the perhaps even monstrous deeds of these governments. Alas, so far collective responsibility notions are almost inbuilt ideas in most heads. They are taken for granted, i.e. rarely ever questioned, no matter how wrong and absurd they are, and how monstrous. - J.Z., 8.9.07, 30.4.12. – LIES, COLLECTIVE RESPONSIBILITY. & GOVERNMENT PROPAGANDA, - DEHUMANIZING THE ENEMY, PANARCHISM, DECISION-MAKING ON WAR & PEACE
ENEMIES: Everyone is his own enemy.” - St. Bernard. - "Man grows with his higher purposes", said Schiller. Maybe our minds would grow sufficiently if we had the power of individual sovereignty to make all choices for ourselves, at the own expense and risk, instead of letting politicians and bureaucrats decide about too much of our fate, at our expense and risk, while keeping us in nation-wide kindergartens or prisons. In their “foreign policies” they even choose our enemies and friends for us. They spend, sometimes, more of our earnings than we do and do all too much control how we spend the rest. By subordinating our lives all too much to them, we made ourselves our own worst enemies. - J.Z., 27.11.02, 30.4.12. – Territorialists are their own worst enemies. – J.Z., 14.12.11. - ENLIGHTENMENT, PREJUDICES, BELIEF, FAITH, ERRORS, INDIVIDUAL SOVEREIGNTY, SECESSIONISM, EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY UNDER PERSONAL LAWS, PANARCHISM, FREE CHOICES, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, TERRITORIALISM
ENEMIES: I could not name a greater advantage // Than recognizing the merits of the enemy.” - Goethe, Sprueche in Reimen. – J.Z. tr. of: “Nicht groessern Vortheil wuesst’ ich zu nennen, Als des Feindes Verdienst zu erkennen.” – At least one’s enemy has the right to live his own life in his own way. And he should be tolerant towards me doing the same. On panarchist tolerance or experimental freedom for all or voluntarism we could and should all come to agree. – J.Z., 14.9.09. – RIGHTFUL WAR & PEACE AIMS, PANARCHISM, LIBERATION, CAPTIVE NATIONS
ENEMIES: If thine enemy be hungry, give him bread to eat.” - Proverbs. - And freedom, in form of panarchistic options. Trade rather than aid - and not with or to the real enemies, either. - The enemy government will rarely go hungry but it will often have made its subjects hungry. Thus providing food, at least in trade or on credit, to its hungry internal victims, can make his captive people one's friends or allies or turn them at least into neutrals. They aren't really the enemy. Only conscription, forced labor, taxation, inflation, territorial power and propaganda turn them, temporarily into such or force them to act as such. Bomb them with bread, sweets, medicines, clothing and the best practical advice, rather than with high explosives. It's cheaper, saves lives, is less destructive and can turn enemies into friends. - J.Z., 30.4.00. - WAR AIMS, MAKING PEACE, GOVERNMENTS VS. THE PEOPLE, SEPARATE PEACE, FREE TRADE, UNILATERAL PEACE DECLARATIONS VS. COLLECTIVE RESPONSIBILITY PRACTICES THREATS, TRUST, INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING, REFUGEES & DESERTERS, NUCLEAR WAR THREAT, AIR RAIDS WITH CHOCOLATE BOMBS ETC.
ENEMIES: In the end, gentlemen, it is eminently more useful to destroy an enemy’s spirit than it is to destroy an enemy’s body.” – Who is the real enemy, except the power-mad decision-makers on the other side? Why class their victims as enemies, too? - Why not rather make a friend of them, or allies, by clearly aiming at liberating these victims rather than fighting them, while leaving the real war criminals and enemies untouched? With quite rightful war aims we should appeal to the best of the “spirits” of the citizens and soldiers on the other side, rather than trying to mass-murder them militarily or threaten them with nuclear mass murder devices. – J.Z., 12.9.07, 30.4.12. MORAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL WARFARE, DESERTION, TREATMENT OF PRISONERS OF WAR, MILITARY INSURRECTION, THE CAPTIVE PEOPLE AS OUR SECRET ALLIES, PANARCHISM, GOVERNMENTS IN EXILE, WAR AIMS, DEFENCE, WARFARE METHODS, DIS., NUCLEAR WAR THREAT, COLLECTIVE RESPONSIBILITY, DES., LIBERATION
ENEMIES: It is an ancient truth that in politics one has often to learn from the enemy.” - Lenin. - Alas, Western powers all too often copied only totalitarian methods from their totalitarian enemies, rather than revolutionary, liberating and propaganda approaches, or their libertarian equivalents, towards a libertarian rather than a totalitarian aim. - J.Z., 28.5.00. – WAR AIMS, WARFARE, LIBERATION, GOVERNMENTS IN EXILE
ENEMIES: Just as tall trees are known by their shadows, so are good men known by their enemies.” - Old Chinese proverb. - They should also make themselves known to their potential friends and allies or neutrals on the other side of any artificial border. - Generally speaking, a competing government or society, a panarchy would, by its very existence, as an organization of volunteers, one only exterritorially autonomous, be already so obviously non-aggressive and attractive, as a mere optional alternative organization, that many to most subjects of a remaining territorial enemy regime would come to prefer to join any such panarchy, polyarchy etc., one of their individual and free choice, rather than to continue their subordination to and exploitation by their “own” territorial government, which exploits them, keeps them poor and is prepared to risk their lives for its purposes. - To demand unconditional surrender from all people on the other side is just about the most wrongful and irrational thing that one can do - but what else would you expect any territorial government to do? - J.Z., 3.6.00, 30.4.12. - GOOD MEN, RIGHTFUL WAR AIMS, REAL ENEMIES, TOTALITARIANISM, DICTATORSHIPS, UNCONDITIONAL SURRENDER DEMAND, TERRITORIALISM, PANARCHISM
ENEMIES: Most of our generals and politicians are, in practice, the best allies of the regimes, which are the enemies of their own subjects and of the other peoples of the world. Without the wrongs and mistakes made by our politicians, bureaucrats and generals, as territorial rulers of us and in their territorialist and collectivist dealings with the peoples and governments of other countries, no despotic regime could last, anywhere, for any long period. - J.Z., 14.5.02, 20.8.02, 30.4.12. - WARFARE, DESERTION, WAR AIMS, GENERALS, POLITICIANS
ENEMIES: My friends the enemies" is the ambivalent sentiment which many Jews and Arabs feel towards each other. Is it really too utopian to hope that a renewed pattern of coexistence and commerce could help transcend their momentary hatred and defuse the powder keg of the Middle East as well?” - Sam Pisar, Of Blood & Hope, P.283. - They are enemies only through their mutually exclusive territorial claims. If they claimed only exterritorial autonomy for themselves and their communities of volunteers, as they have largely already learnt to do in the religious sphere, and in all other spheres where they enjoy consumer sovereignty and free enterprise and association options already, then their claims would no longer be mutually exclusive but mutually recognizing and tolerant. In spite of both having some such traditions in their past, they seem to have largely forgotten about them, in their catastrophic addiction to territorialism. - With territorial models peaceful coexistence is difficult to impossible. With exterritorial ones it is easy. - Nevertheless, in a century of discussions this peaceful model has been largely left out of consideration. Why? - J.Z., 28.5.00, 30.4.12. - FRIENDS, TERRITORIALISM, EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY, PANARCHISM, WAR AIMS, INTOLERANCE VS. TOLERANCE, ISRAEL & ARAB STATES
ENEMIES: One can be intolerant in a thousand different ways but tolerant only by fully recognising the natural rights even of one's enemies, by sticking to one's contracts and letting one's enemies stick to theirs. - One does not have to love one's enemy but one ought to tolerate his tolerant actions. - J.Z. in pamphlet on TOLERANCE. - "The best way to defeat an enemy is to make a friend of him."- Friendship starts by respecting the autonomy of others. - "Become tolerant, otherwise "we become what we fight", said Roy Campbell, in a poem, 1965. - POTENTIAL & SECRET ALLIES, GOVERNMENTS IN EXILE, TOLERANCE, INTOLERANCE, FOREIGN PEOPLES BLAMED FOR FOREIGN GOVERNMENT ACTIONS, COLLECTIVE RESPONSIBILITY, AIR RAIDS, NUCLEAR WAR THREAT, ATOMIC WEAPONS, DETERRENCE?
ENEMIES: People are already their own worst enemies. Why add to their difficulties by becoming their enemy, too? Leave your enemies alone and they will tend to leave you alone, immersed in their own difficulties while you are involved with your own problems. Territorial politics can only multiply animosities, whether on the national, international or local scale. Rather seek all the liberties you want and are capable of practising tolerantly, autonomously, at your own risk and expense, in your own voluntary experiments. Do not obstruct those of others, even if they are your enemies. Exterritorial autonomy for volunteers tends to make friends and allies rather than enemies. - J.Z., 18.4.92, 13.1.93.
ENEMIES: The enemy is your friend who spurs you into action.” - Kin Hubbard. - (Der Feind ist der Freund, der dich zum Handeln anstachelt.) - Alas, more often to wasteful, destructive and murderous actions rather than productive, creative and life-saving ones. - The saying applies only somewhat in the sphere of private and peaceful competition. - J.Z., 28.5.00. – We do have it now in reading matters, sports, religion, arts, sports, hobbies, crafts, degrees of free enterprise, tourist and entertainment options etc., but still have not yet applied it, sufficiently, if at all, to political, economic and social systems, even though only this approach would e.g. eliminate nuclear targets and motives and the means for stockpiling such mass murder devices. – J.Z., 5.12.08, 30.4.12. – “The captive peoples – everywhere, are not our enemies but our secret allies.” – Eugene Lyons proved that in at least one of his books. – J.Z., 5.12.08. – FRIENDS, COMPETITION, CAPTIVE NATIONS, SUPPRESSED MINORITIES
ENEMIES: there is no enemy anywhere.” - R. A. Wilson, Masks of the Illuminati, p.89. - There are only unthinking, misled, ignorant or prejudiced people, who, in consequence, act, all too often, as vicious enemies, but they are not born as such and need not remain such and, except in the act of resistance to thteir wrongful actions, they need not be treated as such but could, in many to most cases, be turned from "enemies" either into friends or at least into neutrals. For instance, panarchistic liberty has almost never been openly and consciously offered to them. - J.Z., 22.1.02, 30.4.12. – TERRORISTS, DESERTION, RIGHTFUL WAR & PEACE AIMS
ENEMIES: Understanding the enemy makes it possible to become friends with him. - J.Z., 8.10.76. - This applies to individual enemies of individuals. As far as the collectively and governmentally selected and appointed enemies are concerned, one has to distinguish between the real enemy, an enemy regime and its top supporters, and the victims of this regime. These victims are one's potential friends and allies or could at least be turned into neutrals, if one really tried. Then the remaining few real enemies, international war criminals, would require only some limited and rightful police actions, best practised by ideal volunteer militias, to render them harmless. To their victims one could unilaterally and publicly offer a rightful separate peace treaty, assuming their consent to it. - Do not expect such solutions to be adopted by territorial politicians and military men. They are only capable of bringing about a total war, not a total peace, in justice and freedom. - J.Z., 26.5.00, 30.4.12. – TURNING ENEMIES INTO FRIENDS – OR T LEAST INTO NEUTRALS, UNILATERAL PEACE OFFERS TO CAPTIVE NATIONS & OTHER MINORITIES, SECRET ALLIES, GOVERNMENTS IN EXILE, PANARCHISM AS A COMMON IDEAL FOR THE MOST DIVERSE GROUPS
ENEMIES: We should choose our enemies as we choose our friends and lovers: individually, not collectively, territorially or upon command. - J.Z., 7.4.99.
ENEMY, TERRITORIALISM, COUNTRY, GOVERNMENTS: The enemy is not a country or a people. The enemy is any territorial regime over a whole country and its diverse peoples. - J.Z., 16.5.88. - 5.9.04.
ENEMY: A deceiver you permitted to exist. For the same reason a government allows an enemy government to exist. Without an external enemy, your slaves would recognize the internal enemy.” - Victor Koman, The Jehovah Contract, p.215. – Territorial governments need each other, as enemies. – J.Z., 5.12.08. - GOD & THE GOVERNMENT, YOUR ENEMIES, TERRITORIALISM
ENEMY: Anyone who says the enemy is only 90 miles from our shores is mistaken as to who the enemy is. Your enemy is in Washington and you had better know that.” - J. Biggert, Memphis, SOUTHERN LIBERTARIAN MESSENGER 10/76. - If that enemy regime were also reduced to exterritorial autonomy only, with its voluntary members, then it would no longer be an enemy, either. Our worst enemy is territorialism, its monopolism, oppression and coercion. - J.Z., 3.6.00. – GOVERNMENT, TERRITORIALISM, NATIONS
ENEMY: Both in averting war or in winning war, are we not better off with friends in the adversary's empire? - Eugene Lyons, Our Secret Allies, Arco, London, 1954, 51/52. - CAPTIVE PEOPLES & NATION, SECRET ALLIES, JUST WAR & PEACE AIMS, SEPARATE PEACE TREATIES, REFUGEES & DESERTERS, LIBERATION WARS, REVOLUTIONARY DEFENCE, MASS FRATERNIZATION, ETC.
ENEMY: Decision on war and peace. Is the emperor or the president to decide who is the enemy? - "Recruits! Before the altar and the servant of God you have give me the oath of allegiance. … You have sworn fidelity to me, you are the children of my guard, you are my soldiers, you have surrendered yourself to me, body and soul. Only one enemy can exist for you - my enemy. With the present Socialist machinations, it may happen that I shall order you to shoot your own relatives, your brothers, or even your parents - which God forbid - and then you are bound in duty implicitly to obey my orders."- Wilhelm II, Speech, 1891. - Quoted by George Seldes in his THE GREAT QUOTATIONS. - To some extent he was a forerunner of Adolf Hitler and just as mad. - It is frightening that both found hundred-thousands to millions of voluntary followers for all too long. Territorialism, monetary despotism, protectionism, conscription, forced labor, confiscation and compulsory taxation were and are among the major factors that allowed them - and the present rulers - to commit their war crimes and to prepare for more of them, e.g. with nuclear mass murder devices, always directed mostly against innocent people rather than the territorially ruling culprits only. - J.Z., 3.6.00, 30.4.12. – DECISION ON WAR & PEACE, OBEDIENCE, SUBORDINATION
ENEMY: Enemies are daily produced and maintained by territorialist ideas, opinions, myths and actions based upon them. – J.Z., 5.12.08. - TERRITORIALISM
ENEMY: Enemies are only those who do want to force their own oppressive system upon others. - J.Z., 3.6.00. – Also those who want to force their supposedly free and ideal system upon others, who disagree with them. - J.Z., 17.11.10. - TERRITORIALISM
ENEMY: Finally, I'd like to say something about the label that has been pinned on my by many. I am accused (the word is accurate) of being a pacifist. This is wholly unjustified if by use of the word it is supposed that I favor uncomplaining and docile submission to tyranny. I never have favored tyranny in any form or manner. Nor do I believe in acquiescence before it. I believe in carrying the fight to the enemy. My enemy is the State; not the people in it.” - Robert LeFevre, LEFEVRE'S JOURNAL, Fall 1976. – A non-territorial State with voluntary members and subjects only, all free to secede, if they want to, and also confining all its laws and actions to its own members and subjects – would be only its own enemy and not that of any outsider or any other personal law community of volunteers. – J.Z., 5.12.08. - TYRANNY, FREEDOM, SLAVERY, STATE, PEOPLE, PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, VOLUNTARISM, PERSONAL LAW, EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY, SECESSIONISM
ENEMY: Give your hated enemies the chance to do their things (the things they love to do, and which you do hate), to themselves and to all their like-minded volunteers - and they will be much less likely to bother you any longer, nor will they be likely to persist for very long with all their wrongs and mistakes when they alone have to bear the risks and the costs. Anyhow, what more just and fit penalties could there be for them? - J.Z., 29.6.91, 13.1.93, 23.5.00, 30.4.12. - PANARCHISM, TOLERANCE, FREEDOM OF ACTION & EXPERIMENTATION
ENEMY: Hate your enemies, but make certain that they are also enemies of mankind.” - Dagobert D. Runes, Treasury of Thought, p.39. – The enemies of your government are not necessarily your enemies. They might even be suitable allies for you against your own territorially authoritarian government. – J.Z., 5.12.08. - HATRED
ENEMY: Hostility only produces hostility. Leave them alone or trade with them - and they might turn into friends. You might also collaborate against real enemies, e.g. with suppressed people against their oppressors. - J.Z., 8.6.82 & 3.6.00. - Threats with ABC mass murder devices do certainly provoke suspicions, hostilities and similar counter threats. You might also publicize, in a trustworthy way, rightful war and peace aims, should it come to a conflict in the future. These should be more attractive to the conscripts and other victims of an enemy regime than that regime's program and practice. This offer could be a unilateral peace offer to the people rather than the rulers. The own practice of panarchism or polyarchism, all for volunteers only, would also greatly reduce hostilities, except from totalitarians. But even these would benefit, seeing that - among their remaining voluntary followers - their systems would be secure for a long time. - J.Z., 3.6.00.
ENEMY: I don't know if this has occurred to you. We employ the same technique internationally. You may not have thought of that. But, ladies and gentlemen, the greatest asset that the American government has had for years has been the Russian government. Oh, yes. If, at any time, the American public stood up and acted a little bit independent, you know what happened? An American politician would say, "Now wait just a minute. If it weren't for us, the Russians would come in and they would impose communism on you. And do you know what would happen? When they imposed communism, you would be forced where they told you to, at a wage that they would decide, and you'd be drafted into their armies. And if you disobeyed, you'd be tried and sent to their prisons. Anything could happen. So, support us and we'll tell you where to work and what you are going to earn and draft you into our armies. And if you disobey, we'll try you or we'll send you to jail or whatever, but it is better to be shafted by an American than a Russian." - Now, while we are doing that, the same thing is happening over in Russia. Brezhnev or Kosygin or whomever stands up and says, "Ah, do you hear those warmongering capitalists in America? You better get not fresh with us. We are Mother Russia. You support us because if it weren't for us, the American imperialists would be over here and they would impose capitalism on you. And you know that would happen? The big corporations would tell you where to work, and they would tell you how much you could earn, and they would compel you to do as they said. And they would draft you into their armies, and they would arrest you if you disobeyed, and punish you, and might even shoot you, so do as we say and we'll protect you from these capitalists." And the Russians say "Da, da. Don't let the Americans come in. That would be terrible. If we get shafted, let it be a Russian shaft." - Meantime, the two leaders put in a telephone system and talk to each other about the weather because they are in the same club.” (*) - Robert LeFevre, Good Government … page 22. - Do not forget that on both sides their over-kill anti-people mass murder devices do threaten the victims on both sides with extermination, while whatever victimizers there are, on both sides, would probably survive, seeing that they would be in the safest shelters. - J.Z., 3.6.00. – Underlining by me. (*) Territorialists United. – J.Z., 17.11.10. - JOKES.
ENEMY: I would rather live "under" a foreign regime that leaves me alone than under a home-grown, territorial and not individually chosen one that dominates and "protects" me in a thousand ways. - J.Z., 1.9.93, 31.5.00.
ENEMY: Love thy enemy - or offer him freedom, rights, justice and prosperity, particularly if he is a conscript or compulsory subject, like yourself! See to it that he is offered amnesty and asylum as well as personal liberation and offer him liberation for the country he still loves and aid against his former oppressive government. Offer them now and for the future their own and self-chosen panarchies: governments or non-governmental societies of their own individual and free choice. - J.Z., n.d. & 3.6.00, 30.4.12. - DESERTERS, LIBERATION RATHER THAN MERE DEFENCE, RIGHTFUL WAR AIMS, PUBLISHED IN TIME & IN A RIGHTFUL WAY, MILITARY JIU-JITSU, FREEDOM & PROSPERITY RATHER THAN EXTERMINATION IN A TOTAL WAR, GOVERNMENTS IN EXILE
ENEMY: Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you, and persecute you.” - Matthew, v. 44, ca. 75. (Cf. Luke, VII, 27-28, ca. 75. - It might totally confuse them! - Rather: Split them into real enemies, neutrals and secret and, finally, open allies, by suitable policies and warfare methods. - J.Z., 12.7.86 & 23.5.00, 30.4.12.
ENEMY: Love your Enemies, for they tell you your Faults.” - Benjamin Franklin, Poor Richard, 1756. - But how can one love enemies, who do hate us for our virtues, achievements, tools, possessions or methods, however rightful they are? (*) To do justice to them might require executing them. But at least one should deprive them of all involuntary subjects and soldiers, by rightful and rational policies. - J.Z., 3.6.00. - (*) Compare the anti-capitalist, anti-business, anti-American, anti-corporation, anti-multinational, anti-competition, anti-profit, anti-interest mentality of statist and egalitarian "reformers" and "revolutionaries", who are not satisfied with harming themselves with their systems, panaceas and utopias but wish to impose them upon all others. - J.Z., 3.6.00.
ENEMY: Love your enemy - it will drive him crazy.” - W. G. P. - Tolerate him. That “attack” can "defeat" him either by surprise or persistence. - J.Z., 1.1.77 & 3.6.00. – Any genuine or supposed enemy deserves justice rather than love. – J.Z., 30.4.12. - LOVE, TOLERANCE, WAR AIMS, QUITE RIGHTFUL ONES
ENEMY: Make your own enemies - or friends. Don't let anyone, not even your own government, tell you who your enemies or friends are supposed to be. - J.Z., 1974. - DIPLOMACY, NEGOTIATIONS, TREATIES, ALLIANCES, DECISION-MAKING, SEPARATE PEACE TREATIES, RIGHTFUL WAR & PEACE AIMS, TOLERANCE, PANARCHISM
ENEMY: Man fears, hates, resists and fights those with whom he disagrees with. But he does this mainly only with those who managed to acquire territorial government powers over him or did so in the past and threaten to do so again. Eliminate that threat of domination by others, via individual secessionism and full exterritorial autonomy for volunteer communities and most animosities will tend to wither away to relatively harmless proportions. They may still lead to some fights, e.g. among some drunken men, but hardly to civil or international wars. - J.Z., 27.4.99, 22.5.00. - STATES, GOVERNMENTS, INDIVIDUAL SECESSIONISM & PANARCHISM
ENEMY: Most libertarians fail to have a libertarian definition of an international "enemy" in peace or war time. - J.Z., 29.3.84. - In this sphere they still resort to statism, to territorial notions, presume that compulsory State membership makes its victims collectively guilty and responsible for their government's actions. On such unchecked premises no rightful international policies and actions can be conducted. Often they do not even try to develop a libertarian defence, liberation, military insurrection and revolution programs. With such friends, who needs enemies? - J.Z., 6.4.84 & 3.6.00. - DEFENCE, TERRITORIALISM, EXTERRITORIALITY, LIBERTARIANS & PANARCHISM & COLLECTIVE RESPONSIBILITY NOTIONS
ENEMY: Not those are our enemies, who do not believe and act as we do - among themselves - but only those, who act against our individual rights and liberties and those of others, who do, like us, claim these rights and liberties for themselves and wish to practise them to the extent that they want to use them. - J.Z., 30.7.96, 30.4.12. - INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS, HUMAN RIGHTS
ENEMY: Not through hostility will hostility come to an end in this world but through non-hostility. That is an eternal law.“ - Buddha. (Nicht durch die Feindschaft kommt in dieser Welt Feindschaft zur Ruhe; durch Nichtfeindschaft kommt sie zur Ruhe. Das ist ein ewiges Gesetz.) - Total war towards all on the other side and total peace towards all of them are not the only alternatives, as one slogan of the French Revolution indicated: "Peace to the cottages! War to the palaces!" - Death to tyrants, rather than to his victims - is another such hint. One can make his victims, whether in or out of uniform, so rightful and attractive offers that they would rather rise against him, declare themselves neutral, desert or become our allies than fight us. It is high time to work out and to sufficiently publish the details, in a quite trustworthy way, i.e., by-passing governments and diplomats and existing treaties between governments and also their kind of international law and their kind of weapons and warfare methods. No territorial government will do this for us. - J.Z., 25.5.00, 30.4.12. - ENMITY, HOSTILITY, ANIMOSITY & PANARCHISM
ENEMY: One's supposed enemies (suppressed populations) ought to be liberated. Only one's real enemies ought to be fought - and this only by very discriminating political, police and military methods. - J.Z., 16.3.98. - It does not make sense to fight "captive peoples", who are really our "secret allies", just because at present they are still in the power of an enemy regime. - All the nuclear strength fanatics do not make this distinction. Moreover, their animosity towards tyrannicide makes one suppose that they would rather kill innocent people by the millions than a single guilty tyrant. - Thou shalt recognize them by their actions! - J.Z., 21.5.00. – DEFENCE, TYRANNICIDE, NUCLEAR WAR THREAT, COLLECTIVE RESPONSIBILITY
ENEMY: The enemy whom you leave alone may soon become your friend. - J.Z., 16.10.75. - To turn enemies into friends the first requirement is that you leave them alone, to manage all their own affairs and all those of their voluntary followers - as they please. What you offer to any of them, as an alternative, must be never more than an option to be adopted, ignored or rejected by individuals and their free associations. - J.Z., 26.5.00. - LEAVING OTHERS ALONE
ENEMY: The official enemy is often the potential liberator. - J.Z., 18.2.90. – Genuine liberators would certainly not bomb the cities of peoples suppressed by a dictatorship. – Churchill, also, was a war criminal in this respect. – How much faster would the Hitler regime have been defeated, and with how many less losses on the English side, if Churchill had made common cause with the freedom loving or at least democratic or republican Germans against this regime? – Did he even try even once to get Hitler bombed to pieces? With much less power than he had at his disposal, there were at least 43 German attempts of tyrannicide against Hitler. – It is simply nonsense to assume that before the war and during it most Germans were Nazis and then, the survivors, after the defeat of this regime, turned suddenly and largely into democrats and pacifists. – Hitler’s war efforts relied on taxation, forced labor, conscription, confiscation of insurance funds, censorship and terror. – The Allied played right into his hands by considering and treating Hitler’s victims as fanatic Nazis. – By recognizing governments in exile for all the different groups and ideologies in Germany, he might have dissolved Hitler’s territorial regime fast. – Not even every tenth German was a Nazi. Probably no more than 5 %. The way Germans were treated after WW I had much to do with reaching that small percentage. – Without the monetary despotism of central banking Germany would neither have had the Great Inflation or the Great Depression and without them, the Hitler Regime would never have come to power. And precisely that central banking system still exists in the UK, France, USA, Russia. – It also led to the growth and persistence of statism in these countries. - J.Z., 5.12.08. - ENEMY OR LIBERATOR?
ENEMY: THE OWN GOVERNMENT! - Only to the extent that it is a territorial one, which, as such, does not permit secession from it and exterritorial competition with it by communities and societies of volunteers. – Everything about money, government and war has to be re-thought, properly! - J.Z., 5.12.08, 30.4.12.
ENEMY: There are no real and permanent enemies - except a few tyrants and their helpers. Instead, there are only allies and potential or secret allies and some neutrals. - J.Z., 19.8.98. – However, anyone treated like an enemy will act like one. That is one of the reasons why we must not allow our governments to choose our enemies for us. As territorial governments they would rather consider and treat victimized peoples across a border as enemies than their victimizer. - J.Z., 21.5.00, 30.4.12.
ENEMY: There is not a more prudent maxim than to live with one's enemies as if they may one day become one's friends.” - Lord Chesterfield, Letter to his son, Dec. 31, 1757. – Alas, governments put too many soldiers into situations where they do either have to shoot or be shot themselves. Should any government have such a power? – J.Z., 6.12.08. – Soldiers should ponder a program upon which they could agree with the enemy regime’s soldiers, over the heads of their governments. – They would do so if they really loved their families, their countries, freedom, justice and their own lives. – J.Z., 17.11.10, 30.4.12.
ENEMY: To some extent territorialist notions and practices turn everybody into an enemy of other people within and without the borders of a territory. That territorialism must, therefore, be broken up – probably best by individual and group secessions and re-organization under personal law or exterritorial autonomy for all kinds of communities and societies of volunteers only. - J.Z., 3.6.00, 30.4.12. - TERRITORIALISM
ENEMY: Who is the worst enemy in international crises? The own government is, as a rule, which, like all other governments, pretends to be an expert on these matters and has monopolized all decision-making on war and peace, armament and disarmament, military organization, war and peace aims and has never even bothered to define "enemy" or "aggression" or quite rightful war and peace aims and to proclaim them. (It does not even recognize all genuine individual rights and liberties and includes them in its “Billl of Rights”. – J.Z., 30.4.12.) Instead, it is either itself armed with anti-people mass murder devices or allied with governments possessing such "weapons" and prepared to use them. It uses professional military slaves or mercenaries or conscripts them. It maintains its warfare State, e.g. by creating or maintaining artificial barriers against the free movement of people and goods. Moreover, like all other governments, it legally or illegally subdues dissenting minorities. It imposes tributes by taxes and inflation upon its own subjects, sometimes to an almost unbelievable extent. It also creates involuntary and prolonged mass unemployment with the monetary despotism of its central bank. Any country’s population without such a warlike, because territorial, monopolistic, centralized and coercive government would not have to be afraid of any enemies. Soldiers and officers sent to march against it would rather desert to it, let themselves be taken prisoner or rise than fight against it and would wish to establish similarly free and competing societies in their home countries. - J.Z., 22.3.97, 21.5.00, 30.4.12. - DEFENCE, GOVERNMENT, TERRITORIALISM, MONETARY & FINANCIAL DESPOTISM, LIBERATION, PANARCHISM,
ENERGIES, CREATIVE: Release your and their creative energies in every sphere, especially those which are presently preempted by governments. - J.Z., 18.7.95, 19.8.95, 22.5.00, 17.11.10.
ENERGY CRISIS: Government caused the shortages and blockages which the President wants to tell us is a crisis. The way to solve the problem is to get government out of regulating, subsidizing, penalizing and meddling with the production, distribution and consumption of energy in this country.” - Alan Bock, quoted in NEW LIBERTARIAN WEEKLY, Nov. 27, 1977. – Territorial governments, being what they are, are likely to listen only to the most stupid and least informed voices. Like to like associate. – Let the real and as well the imagined victims of territorial governments secede from them! - J.Z., 6.12.08.
ENERGY CRISIS: Solving the energy crisis is simple: A problem is best solved when everyone is free to try.” - Leonard E. Read, Vision. – FREEDOM TO EXPERIMENT
ENGEL, C., The Internet and the Nation State (Lectiones Jenenses), 1999, Jena, Germany, Max Planck Institute for Research into Economic Systems. – Mentioned by Frey.
ENGELS, FRIEDRICH: See: BECKERATH, ULRICH VON, ON PANARCHY.
ENGLISHMEN: Not only England but every Englishman is an island.” - Novalis, 1772-1801. - A. Andrews Quotations, 152. – That was a long time ago. How many, in England, do now defend individual sovereignty and individual secessionism? – The state socialist and Welfare State mentality grew because the individualist monetary and financial freedom options were not sufficiently explored and applied. Nor were the panarchist ones. Even Herbert Spencer eliminated the chapter 19 of his “Social Statics”, on “The Right to Ignore the State” from his later editions, without explanation! – The statist myths, errors and prejudices, tens of-thousands of them, are still not systematically and sufficiently fought! - J.Z., 6.12.08, 30.4.12. – DIS., INDIVIDUALISM, ENGLAND, INDIVIDUAL SOVEREIGNTY
ENLIGHTENMENT & EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM TOWARDS GENERAL PANARCHISM: Panarchists do not expect full enlightenment to become suddenly wide-spread but expect sufficient enlightenment to be achieved among volunteers to enable them to go ahead in their own experiments - while at the same time permitting others to advance, stagnate or even go backwards - with their own experiments. - J.Z. 10.8.87, 5.9.04. - On the other hand: The first individual secessionist, who is allowed to get away with it, has, thereby, already reduced the territorial State, that he has successfully seceded from, to a mere voluntary community that is exterritorially autonomous. Reduced is not quite the proper term, seeing all the benefits that are achieved by that status. This State has lost one member. But the rest are all volunteers. Naturally, then the State it will also be forced to see to it that these volunteers remain satisfied and thus remain with it. However, this State has then also the chance to gather further volunteers from other States. - J.Z., 12.12.03. – And if it does not mind its own business properly then it should lose all its remaining customers. – J.Z., 30.4.12.
ENLIGHTENMENT PROCESS TO BE SPEEDED UP: How can one speed up the process of panarchistic enlightenment? Compare my programme for a genuinely cultural revolution. - J.Z., 3.4.89. – I did somewhat elaborate it in a 2010 digitized book manuscript, which is still only called “New Draft”. – J.Z., 13.12.11. So far it is not online but only reviewed by GPdB on www.panarchy.org Until it is online or offered on a disc I offer it free, upon request, as an email attachment. – email@example.com
ENLIGHTENMENT TOWARDS PANARCHISM, ALTERNATIVE MEDIA USE: The few so far existing panarchists would have to become able and willing to overcome the territorial statist prejudices and fixed ideas in the heads of the presently overwhelming majority. For this purpose the technologies and media of the information revolution provide more and better avenues and tools and media for enlightenment than were ever available before. They could thus operate faster and much cheaper and easier and effectively than was ever possible before. For instance, the first 24 volumes of my ON PANARCHY anthology are out, on 24 microfiche - and there are several supplementary volumes in my series also entered in this list. - J.Z., 29.8.04. – Later I digitized them for transmission by email. – J.Z., 13.12.11. – Even a comprehensive libertarian library would, probably, fit onto a single and cheap 3TB disc, merely book-sized and could thus be placed on the desk of most libertarians, at least in the already somewhat developed countries. – J.Z., 20.4.12.
ENLIGHTENMENT, GENUINE EDUCATION & PANARCHISM: General enlightenment and genuine education systems and methods will be greatly improved through the free competition of panarchism in providing such services. There will neither be governmental territorial monopolies in this sphere, nor centralized regulatory powers not subsidies for flawed systems out of extorted taxes. Compulsory schooling would disappear together with compulsory curriculums and the compulsory teacher training systems and compulsory contributions in form of taxes. Flawed systems would have to finance themselves, find enough volunteers and would have to be able to withstand the competition from better systems in order to persist. The changes for the better could thus come rather rapidly. Without “legal tender” for flawed education systems the better ones will be able to drive the bad ones out of circulation. – J.Z., n.d.
ENLIGHTENMENT: Enlighten your mind and those of all your social contacts with the ideas of panarchism, polyarchy and personarchy – if you want to secure a future, and a decent one at that, for yourself, your children and your grandchildren. - J.Z., 04-11.
ENLIGHTENMENT: forever look upward and listen; become a receiving set. Truth arises from strange, varied, and unsuspected sources (*) and is revealed exclusively to seekers. "None are so blind as those who will not see." - Again, that bit of wisdom: "There is not enough darkness in the whole world to put out the light of one wee candle." (*) If I succeed in lighting my wee candle from my chosen Teacher - and others do the same - then we multiply the number of Teachers; darkness, having no resistance to light (**), will gradually and surely recede. Enlightenment comes in no other way, but invariably comes if we follow (***) correct method!" - Leonard E. Read, Castles in the Air, p.154. – We need experimental freedom, too, especially for whole political, economic and social systems, to achieve enlightenment in these spheres. – J.Z., 18.11.10. - (*) Why not build a proper market for them? - (**) It is obstructed by the sheer number and interconnectedness of popular errors, myths and prejudices, which tend to overwhelm any of the few truths uttered in one against one or one against many confrontations. - This is the main reason why I aim at an Encyclopedia of the Best Refutations. The one produced by FEE is still much to short and ought to be extended at least a thousand-fold. Such a work would be expensive and risky to publish on paper and in this format it could hardly be taken along by many to many public discussions. Thus alternative media are advisable for it. - (***) the? - J.Z., 3.6.00. – IDEAS ARCHIVE, REFUTATIONS ENCYCLOPEDIA, DIS. ONE TO ONE METHOD
ENLIGHTENMENT: If you attack stupidity you attack an entrenched interest with friends in government and every walk of public life, and you will make small progress against it.” - Samuel Marchbanks. – Ultimately, you need individual secessionism and the competition from various panarchies against it. Stupid people, left to their own devices, will effectively defeat themselves by their own actions or omissions. – Let the wise or somewhat enlightened people do their own things – and, likewise, all the people, who do think that they are wise. - J.Z., 6.12.08, 30.4.12. - STUPIDITY, EDUCATION, ARGUMENTS, GOVERNMENT, SPECIAL INTEREST GROUPS, PANARCHISM, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, COMPETITION VS. TERRITORIALISM
ENLIGHTENMENT: In the light of free market, private ownership, limited government practices with their moral and spiritual antecedents - of which the American people have had a remarkable sampling - how is this possible? I am now beginning to understand. This way of life has been but a flash of enlightenment, as dimly perceived as "Thou shalt not steal." The freedom philosophy, with but a few exceptions, is no better understood than was the commandment against theft of more than thirty centuries ago. No intellectual muscle in either case, no sustaining force. - With few exceptions, the masses of people in this and other "advanced" countries have not correlated the fantastic outburst of creative energy with the practice of freedom.” - Leonard E. Read, Castles in the Air, p.120. - Nor have anarchists and libertarians of our times become aware of the fantastic outburst of creative energy which they might achieve were they to make the fullest use of all affordable and efficient alternative media options, like e.g. microfiche, floppy disks and text-only CDs, DVDs and external and very powerful HDD for their own kind of literature, to put it completely, permanently and cheaply in print, in at least one of the alternative media. - J.Z., 3.6.00. – Nor have they fully explored the boost to enlightenment, creativity and prosperity through full monetary and financial freedom and through the panarchistic experimentation options. – J.Z., 6.12.08, 30.4.12.
ENLIGHTENMENT: It is close to impossible to enlighten a bureaucrat, politician or member of government.” - J.Z., 11.7.98. – Via individual secessionism and panarchies or polyarchies, we could by-pass them all, reduce them to their remaining volunteers and, ultimately, even do away with their positions and powers altogether, just as if they were merely unsatisfactory businessmen, with insufficient customers to keep them in business. – J.Z. – Alas, they have outlawed this self-learning option for themselves as well as for us. – J.Z., 14.12.11. - POLITICIANS, BUREAUCRATS, COMPETITION, CHOICE, PANARCHISM, COMPETING OR VOLUNTARY GOVERNMENTS, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM
ENLIGHTENMENT: Mens sana in corpore sana!" Which is to be the first step? Is it better to enlighten a mind in a sick and undernourished body than to cure and feed a sick and undernourished body with a correspondingly under-developed mind? Regardless of what others might choose, I will opt as a rule for better minds as the key. - J.Z., 3.6.82. But it does not have to be an “either or” case. Men have to avoid starvation to become enlightened and their hunger has to be somewhat satiated before they will listen, read and think sufficiently. But we do not have to keep them penned up like captured and helpless animals (also considered dangerous, if released!), in refugee camps, prison camps for illegal immigrants and nation-wide welfare States, without pondering, researching and learning how to avoid such welfare methods for bodies, physical measures only, or combined only with governmental “education”, which does not inform and liberate their minds and their actions sufficiently. We should, rather, show them and demonstrate to them all their self-help options, e.g. showing them how they could supply themselves and others with work by monetary and financial freedom measures and other economic liberties - even if applied, initially, only among themselves and at their own expense and risk. So far bureaucrats and politicians, in their ignorance, prejudices and power addiction have prevented them from taking such self-help steps, after first seceding from their official territorial "benefactors" and wardens. - The almost thoughtless charitable approach asks e.g., for a $ 1 a day donation for each child in a poor, because still extremely underdeveloped and un-free country, without questioning at all whether a few hours of really free and voluntary child labor could not earn that child much more than a dollar a day. Indeed, today, due to numerous restrictions, that possibility remain largely unexamined and thus the restrictions remain and the child could not even earn a dollar a day but is confined to begging, browsing through garbage, child prostitution and crime. How fast could these restrictions and their subsequent poverty, hunger, disease and ignorance be abolished? The charity promoters, who seem to make much money with their promotions, enough anyhow, to pay for very expensive advertising, never seem to ask themselves such questions. In one of their recent ads they proudly reported that the children got school uniforms. What has that to do with education? And what has government schooling to do with education? - J.Z., 2.2.02, 30.4.12. - MEDICINE, HEALTH, WELFARE, REFUGEES, PANARCHISM, FREEDOM OF ACTION, FULL EMPLOYMENT, MONETARY FREEDOM, CHARITY, CHILDREN'S RIGHTS, CHILD LABOR, ECONOMIC FREEDOM, EDUCATION
ENLIGHTENMENT: Only the spiritlessness of our present depression blinds us to the clear intimations of our reason that in the course of a few generations every little country town could become an Athens, every human being could be gentle in breeding and healthy in body and mind, the whole solid earth man's mine and its uttermost regions its playgrounds.” - H. G. Wells, The Federation of Man, in JOURNALISM & PROPHECY, p.285. – Panarchistically, there could be as many diverse world governments or world federations as volunteers want for themselves. But the more widely voluntarism or panarchism spreads to States, societies and communities, the less will be the drive towards world organizations. They will be found to be largely superfluous. Societies of volunteers, not claiming any territorial monopoly, can and do peacefully coexist. The few totalitarians, terrorists and criminals, still wanting to dominate, exploit or even exterminate others, could be coped with, by mobilizing all libertarian defence and protection options. – J.Z., 6.12.08. A GENUINELY CULTURAL REVOLUTION, ATHENS, WORLD GOVERNMENT, WORLD FEDERATION? TERRORISTS, TOTALITARIANS, FANATICS
ENLIGHTENMENT: Serious but sportive: Our problem is not getting into the fight but into the play. The more players the better!” - FEE motto, 1973. – How many could be attracted into playing in this field by e.g. a comprehensive libertarian projects list, directory, library, bibliography, abstracts and review collection, slogans for liberty file, collection of electronic “argument mapping” attempts, an ever growing libertarian encyclopedia, a libertarian ideas archive and a refutations encyclopedia, an encyclopedia on monetary and financial freedom, one on panarchism, the publication of all drafts towards an ideal declaration of individual rights and liberties and by many other related and significant libertarians projects? – J.Z., 6.12.08, 30.4.12. – DIVISION OF LABOR BETWEEN LIBERTARIANS
ENLIGHTENMENT: The true enlightenment is that which teaches man that he is a law for himself, the true culture is that which habituates him to follow his own law without regard to rewards and punishment.” - Jacobi. - (Die wahre Aufklaerung ist diejenige, die den Menschen lehrt, dass er sich selbst ein Gesetz ist; die wahre Kultur ist diejenige, die ihn gewoehnt, diesem Gesetz ohne Ruecksicht auf Belohnung und Strafe zu folgen.) - SELF-DETERMINATION, INDIVIDUALISM, INDIVIDUAL SOVEREIGNTY, PERSONAL LAW, SELF-GOVERNMENT, EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY
ENLIGHTENMENT: The world cannot endure half-darkness and half-light.” - J. Robert Oppenheimer, JOURNAL OF THE ATOMIC SCIENTISTS, Sep. 1956.(*) - Man survived as an animal, primitive and savage for millions of years. But then scientists had not yet supplied him with mass murder devices. - Incomplete enlightenment was the only chance man has had so far, over all his history! Many survived all the dark forces among them. Official and unofficial criminals do not always win for a long time. - Naturally, our chances would be much improved by full enlightenment. - J.Z., 3.6.00. – (*) Actually, it does so every day, through its rotation. But the wise should not be in charge of the majority of the fools and the majority of the fools should also be largely left to their own devices by the wise. To each the own preferred panarchy. That will obviate many of the mostly vain persuasion attempts. – J.Z., 6.12.08.
ENLIGHTENMENT: Those persons who are capable of enlightenment will seek light only from the enlightened. (*) The lesson? Never try to reform another; that is, instead of trying to forcibly draw others towards your view, strive for that perfection which will cause them to do the reaching. There is an infallible guideline in this matter: observe whether others are seeking one's tutorship. If none, there's homework to be done…” - Leonard E. Read, ABCs of Freedom. - Many but not all sought out the light towers of L. E. Read, FEE & THE FREEMAN. Nor did FEE point out all other light towers. The collection and publication of freedom ideas, principles, facts, projects, addresses, arguments etc. should not be left to chance meetings of like-interested people. The free market needs special markets for its establishment. - Compare: "Communication is possible only between equals." If, on some points, you are far ahead of public opinion, then people holding with that opinion will not seek you out and the others, without an ideas archive, talent registry and proper directory may never even hear or read anything by you. Hayek never heard of some of the monetary freedom writers who coexisted with him in Germany and the one he had heard of, Professor Heinrich Rittershausen, he did fundamentally misunderstand! Apart from this, e.g. most monetary freedom writings are so rare and inaccessible that there is probably no one in the world as yet who managed to put together a complete collection of them. So far there exists no even one complete freedom library, bibliography, abstracts- review collection, directory, refutations file, ideas archive, talent registry, etc., i.e., the machinery for efficiently researching and publishing liberty options has not yet been completely set up. - Freedom lovers, too, still continue to spread all too many myths, errors and prejudices. – (*) But how will they find them? - J.Z., 3.6.00. – Nor have they systematically tried to spread libertarian enlightenment via pushing for experimental freedom for all, including, naturally, the libertarians and this under full exterritorial autonomy for like-minded volunteers. Then libertarianism could come to spread through the greatest attractiveness, not that of its ideas and arguments but that of its practical examples. – J.Z., 18.11.10, 30.4.12.
ENLIGHTENMENT: TV and the like are, for the most part, entertainment media, and our objective is not entertainment. True, much nonsense can be blended with entertainment because the audience is not viewing, listening, reading for philosophical and ideological enlightenment. With no higher aim than merriment and diversion, the millions can indeed be blown in nonsensical directions.” - Leonard E. Read, Who's Listening? p.147. – Have poems, songs, slogans, “argument maps” and various relevant encyclopedias and directories been as yet sufficiently utilized for the spread of libertarian enlightenment, combined with a complete and cheap electronic freedom library? Have we as yet advocated and tried to introduce full experimental freedom for whole economic, social and political systems? – J.Z., 18.11.10. - EDUCATION, MASS MEDIA, FREEDOM OF PRESS, TELEVISION, RADIO & OTHER ENTERTAINMENT AND DIVERSION OPTIONS, MICROFILM & CD PUBLISHING & READING, A GENUINELY CULTURAL REVOLUTION, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, A MONETARY & FINANCIAL REVOLUTION TO END MASS UNEMPLOYMENT AND INFLATION AS WELLAS INVOLUNTARY POVERTY
ENTERPRISE: The next great step in freedom will be the separation of State and enterprise.” - Patrick Brooks, in a letter, 1972. - "of the State from the economy" would cover more requirements. - J.Z., 30.5.00. – One might also say: reducing all territorial States to mere enterprises, companies or corporations of volunteers, serving only their own voluntary customers with whatever services they want, including insurance and protection services, in free competition with all other such enterprises, none of them with a territorial monopoly. – J.Z., 6.12.08, 30.4.12. - PANARCHISM, ECONOMY & THE STATE, LAISSEZ FAIRE, ECONOMIC FREEDOM, INTERVENTIONISM
ENTERPRISE: Yet this government never itself furthered any enterprise, but by the alacrity with which it got out of its way. It does not keep the country free. It does not settle the West. It does not educate. The character inherent in the American people has done all that has been accomplished; and it would have done somewhat more, if government had not sometimes got in its way.” - Thoreau, Civil Disobedience. – Even now the territorial State does not allow us to secede from it and to compete with the remaining rump government via diverse societies and communities of volunteers, all only exterritorially autonomous. It sits, territorially, like the dragon of the legend, upon the greatest treasure of all, that of all genuine individual rights and liberties, still unrecognized, unrealized, and also outlawed and put out of our reach, as much as it can. – J.Z., 18.11.10, 30.4.12. – TERRITORIALISM, GOVERNMENT, VS. GENUINE INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, SECESSIONISM, PANARCHISM, MONETARY & FINANCIAL FREEDOM.
ENTHUSIASM: Many to most people feel a strong need to enthuse themselves for something and engage themselves more or less without reservation, even if only at a football or soccer game, or for a religion or a war. The less thinking is required by the objective the greater is the enthusiasm - as a rule. - J.Z., 19.3.83. - How can one turn this energy potential towards more worthy objectives? The experimental freedom of panarchism will utilize some of it. Full economic freedom would utilize some more. Once the advantages of cheap alternative media are sufficiently known, then they, too, could come to release much creative energy. Perhaps the greatest release will occur after the introduction of full monetary and financial freedom and the abolition everywhere of territorial oppression, exploitation and mismanagement, with its inherent wars, civil wars, violent revolutions, terrorism and other crimes with victims, imposed by our territorial “Big Brother”. - J.Z., 3.6.00,18.11.10, 30.4.12.
ENTREPRENEURS: Apparently, you are not an entrepreneur but an antipreneur. - J.Z., n.d. – However, there should be panarchies of and for the volunteers of the various forms of statism that can and should be only practised among and at the risk of these volunteers. They do deserve such practices, until finally they, too do become sick of them. – J.Z., 6.12.08, 30.4.12. - STATE SOCIALISTS, FREE ENTERPRISE, COMPETITION, PIONEERS, PROFIT MOTIVE, INCENTIVES, INITIATIVE
ENTREPRENEURS: Yet this government never of itself furthered any enterprise, but by the alacrity with which it got out of its way. It does not keep the country free. It does not settle the West. It does not educate. The character inherent in the American people has done all that has been accomplished; and it would have done somewhat more, if the government had not sometimes got in its way.” - Thoreau, On Civil Disobedience. – Under panarchism governments, societies and communities would become reduced from territorial, collectivist and coercive monopoly powers to mere competing enterprises and corporations, all only for their volunteers, none of them with any territorial powers over dissenters and competitors. Because of that, they would tend to become peaceful and even productive and innovative, also cost-saving. – J.Z., 6.12.08, 30.4.12. – PANARCHISM, GOVERNMENT, PROGRESS
ENVIRONMENTALISM: To each his own political, economic and social environment - at the own expense and risk. No politically designed artificial environments for dissenters and nonconformists, legally and juridically enforced, except for criminals with victims. An ecological balance based upon voluntarism and free actions for all creative and productive individuals, achieving as much peace and harmony between them as human beings are capable of. - J.Z., 28.5.95, 22.5.00. - PANARCHISM
EPSTEAN'S LAW: Epstean's law, that man tends always to satisfy his needs and desires with the least possible exertion. … (Editorial note: So named by AJN to do honor to a friend of his.) - For forty years now, I have been putting the one question to reformers, planners, single-taxers (one of which I am), socialists, etc., etc., and never got an answer: 'Suppose you got your system all set up, what kind of people can you get to administer it except the kind you've got?' There aint any. That being so, right away you have three unbeatable natural laws eating away your system - Epstean's law, Gresham's law, and the law of diminishing returns - and your scheme goes bust. My wholesome respect for those laws is what has kept me out of every 'movement' to improve society by political action. …" - A. J. Nock, letter to Bernard Iddings Bell, June 25, 1942(?) - In another letter to George P. Bissell, March 19, 1944 he wrote: "The lady is right about finding the formula in Progress and Poverty, but I doubt that George was the first to use it; I rather think Spencer was, but I am not sure. Anyway, it has been common property for a long time, usually under the name of the 'law of parsimony', which always dissatisfied me as being fanciful and more or less misleading; so for the reasons I gave in my citation of it I rechristened it Epstean's Law." - Nock got Gresham's Law wrong and misapplied it in other spheres, too. But that is a long subject, deserving a monograph, one that would deal as well with the misconceptions of all others about Gresham's Law. (Will I ever get around to it to pull all or at least all my own accumulated references on this together?) - The law of diminishing returns does not apply to the all-over and long term application of panarchism. While, for a particular panarchy, based upon a false ideology, increasing efforts and expenditures will bring diminishing returns, the returns from panarchies based on true ideas, principles and practices will be increasing, so will their membership and their number. The flawed panarchies and their membership will diminish, the others will prosper and multiply. An increasing population, if economically free, will have the benefits of all innovations and increased division of labor. Its returns, for diminishing individual efforts, will thus also increase. His interpretation of Epstean's Law - to statism, bureaucracy and politics - is also somewhat misleading, at least in the short run: For territorial statism means bureaucracy, politics and taxes, a whole system that is all too costly, risky and inefficient, a system that with maximum exertion produces the least or even negative results. And without the minimum exertion of individual secessionism and voluntarism for exterritorially autonomous communities, this maximum exertion for least results goes on and on. Nevertheless, this minimum exertion is not yet popular. Nor does Epstean's Law apply fully to the libertarian movement. E.g., with efficient and cheap alternative media like microfiche, floppy disks and CDs, they could, with minimum efforts, costs and risks, achieve maximum publishing and enlightenment effects – but, alas, they did, so far and mostly, remain rather addicted to media that have not yet proven cheap and efficient enough and have a low enough risk - after decades to centuries. Another law is proven thereby, that any generalization, even by a great mind like A. J. Nock, is generally wrong. - With these 3 over-simplified "laws" he wanted to make his own job all too easy. More exertion would have brought him closer to some truths. Least exertions do not always bring maximum results, like e.g. complete, cheap and permanent libertarian publishing. Aims are all too often set too low and of many free choices, at least in the short run, not always the best - and most economical ones - are taken, not even by libertarians. - J.Z., 25.4.00. - REFORMERS, SCHEMERS, IDEOLOGUES, UTOPIAS, COMMUNISM, SOCIALISM
EQUAL LIBERTY: How pleasant it is to be with people to whom the freedom of others is sacred.” – Friedrich Schiller. - (Wie wohl ist einem bei Menschen, denen die Freiheit des anderen heilig ist.)
EQUAL LIBERTY: If you want to deal with other people there are two ways, Solneman says: (1) Either you use fraud or force or coercion, disregarding the rights and interests of others, acting only to your own advantage or (2) you deal with them by coming to an agreement with them. - The first approach is out for any kind of rational and civilized being. - In the second approach you come to an agreement with them. And here are again only two ways. (A) You want to come to an agreement by getting all the advantages or most of them on your side and disadvantages on the other, making a good bargain for yourself and a bad deal for the other or increasing your own liberty at the expense of the other or giving yourself privileges at the expense of underprivileged beings or (B) you grant him the same liberty that you are willing to achieve for yourself. You operate on the basis of equal liberty and equal rights. - That is a condition of rationally perceived rights and liberties for all. – Source? Probably some publication of the German Mackay Gesellschaft.
EQUAL LIBERTY: Libertarians believe in equal liberty, and not absolute liberty. "Absolute liberty" disregards the liberty of others, and is unsocial in character.” - Herbert Spencer. - VS. ABSOLUTE LIBERTY, ARBITRARINESS & POWER SHOULD BE DISTINGUISHED FROM LIBERTY & RIGHTS.
EQUAL LIBERTY: The principle of equal liberty, which implies equal opportunity, will cure all but the insane.” - Sprading, Liberty and the Great Libertarians, p. 23. - Equal opportunity means not equal wealth but merely e.g. equal opportunity to acquire or increase wealth. - J.Z., 5.6.00. – Or to live under any economic, political or social system chosen or established by oneself. – J.Z., 18.11.10, 30.4.12.
EQUAL LIBERTY: There are but two positions from which to choose, equal liberty or unequal liberty. Most persons believe in liberty for themselves, but not for others. Some Christians believe in hell for others, but not for themselves. Libertarians are not like either, for they demand the same liberty for others that they ask for themselves.” - Sprading, Liberty and the Great Libertarians, p.13. – Alas, they have not yet, in most cases, come out in favor of Statism for Statists, and Libertarianism only for Libertarians, not only for Libertarianism for Libertarians and for all others. – J.Z., 18.11.10.
EQUAL RIGHTS & PANARCHISM: Compare: DISCRIMINATION.
EQUAL RIGHTS: Imposed equal civil rights are worse than self-chosen unequal civil rights, because most people prefer different arrangements for themselves, at least in some respects.- J.Z., 27.5.92.
EQUAL RIGHTS: What people have always sought is equality of rights before the law. For rights that were not open to all (*) alike would be no rights.” - (Jus enim semper est quaesitium aequabile; neque enim aliter esset jus.) - Cicero, De Officiis, Bk. ii, ch. 12, sec. 42. (*) Here I would insert: "rational beings". – J.Z. – Under panarchism the personal laws for different people, voluntarily associated, would be different too, for different panarchies, although the same in each particular panarchy. – J.Z., 6.12.08. - EQUALITY BEFORE THE LAW RATHER THAN EQUALITY, LAWS, PERSONAL LAWS, PANARCHISM
EQUALITY: a society that puts equality – in the sense of equality of outcome – ahead of freedom will end up with neither equality nor freedom.” – Milton Friedman. – Another version by him: A society that puts equality … ahead of freedom will end up with neither equality nor freedom.” - Unless it grants all its members the equal right to secede from it and to choose, individually, some alternative community. Then, under panarchism, it migh simply shrink away to nothing, i.e., an egalitarian experiment with, finally, no participants left for it any longer and only a deterring record. But, sooner or later, some fools will repeat the experiment and they should be free to do so but never authorized to force any dissenter to join them or to remain with them. - J.Z., 11.2.02, 30.4.12. - EQUALITY VS. FREEDOM
EQUALITY: Although unequal, we must be treated as equals under the rule of law. There is a subtle but important distinction between being equal and being treated as equals.”- Richard B. McKenzie, Bound to Be Free, Hoover Institute Press, 1982, p.48. - - This is a problem for territorialists. Under exterritorialism and personal law the people could sort themselves out according to their beliefs or knowledge and would have to suffer only under their own errors, prejudices or wrong assumptions. Egalitarianism only to the egalitarians. Full freedom and rights only to those, who have learnt to appreciate them. “Religious” freedom or freedom of conscience in the social, economic and political spheres as well. Not one law for all but as many different personal laws as different people, all volunteers, want for themselves. – J.Z., 5.0.07. - INEQUALITY, EQUAL RIGHTS, EQUAL LIBERTIES, EQUALITY BEFORE THE LAW, PLURALISM RATHER THAN LEGALLY ENFORCED UNIFORMITY
EQUALITY: An equal has no power over an equal”. (Par in parem imperium non habet.) (On my slip I managed to cut off the author! - J.Z.) – If we take this literally, then no one should have any voting power over the affairs of others, except within communities or societies of volunteers, who agreed on this form of decision-making. – J.Z., 18.11.10. – POWER, VOTING, ELECTIONS.
EQUALITY: Because all people are created equal, it is wrong for government to play favourites and bestow advantages on some at the expense of others. The goal is "equal and exact justice for all men, of whatever state or persuasion" - to quote from Jefferson's First Inaugural. - Edmund Opitz, THE FREEMAN, 6/76, p.360/1. – “All men are created unequal.” - Robert Heinlein. - Not even their fingerprints are the same. Among communities of volunteer their governments can do what their volunteers want them to do, even play favorites - if these volunteers are not committed to egalitarianism. Anyhow, rulers and ruled are always unequal. Concepts and practices of justice will also vary in different personal law communities - but will, usually, be equally applied among their members. - J.Z., 31.5.00, 1.5.12 . – DIS.
EQUALITY: Choice among laws and legal systems rather than equality of laws or under laws. Diversity under self-chosen laws rather than uniformity under imposed laws. Only exterritorial autonomy for all volunteer communities could realize this practice of individual sovereignty. - J.Z., 21.10.93, 18.11.10. - LAWS, CHOICE, PERSONAL LAW, PANARCHISM
EQUALITY: Economic decisions made by way of the ballot box can only have one possible outcome: an attempt to "equalize prosperity". Bastiat warned that, no matter how benevolent and generous the original intention, the underlying principle is so vicious that the end result will always be an equalization, but an equalization of poverty, not prosperity. The more schemes, the more arrangements, the more interventions in free exchange, the greater the distortions which will occur, rendering society poorer in net balance.” - G. C. Roche III, Frederic Bastiat, A Man Alone, p.223. - As the old saying goes: “Only Guy Fawkes entered Parliament with honest intentions.” - The voter is morally right and rational enough only as a producer, competitively producing earnings for himself and as a consumer, in spending his own money for the things he wants, not as a voter, spending, indirectly, other people's money and restricting other people's rights and liberties. - J.Z., 29.5.00. – But let all have the equal right to select for themselves the kind of political, economic and social system that they do like most – at their own risk and expense! – J.Z., 18.11.10. - VOTING, ECONOMICS & EGALITARIANISM, POLITICS, POLICIES, WELFARE STATE, DEMOCRACY, MAJORITIES, PUBLIC OPINION, DISTRIBUTIONISM, WEALTH & POVERTY, REDISTRIBUTION, BUREAUCRACY, TAXATION & GOVERNMENT SPENDING, DEMOCRACY, CHOICE, PERSONAL LAW, PANARCHISM
EQUALITY: Equal access to all aspects of life"? - Equal strength, health, beauty, intelligence, artistic or other talents? - Or are they not significant aspects of life? Nothing more than equal rights, within one's individually chosen community, can be sensibly defined as equality. The continuance of life for mankind depends on its ability to discriminate between unequal facts, persons and actions, goods and services. - J.Z., 4.4.94. – DIS.
EQUALITY: Equal rights for all citizens" means, all too often, no rights or less rights for all "aliens" and "foreigners", forced into non-citizenship by territorialism and its armed forces and legalized monopolies, restricting their individual rights of free migration and settlement, their right to seek work and engage in any other self-supporting activities and investments - anywhere. - J.Z., 17.1.97, 22.5.00.
EQUALITY: Equality before the law does not require that people be equal in fact. Being a human being is the only requirement.” - Walter E. Williams, More Liberty Means Less Government. Our Founders Knew This Well, Hoover Institution Press, 1999, http://www-hoover.stanford.edu – p.3. – The legal system should also be subject to free individual choice. Egalitarian laws for some, rightfully or wrongfully discriminating laws for others. – J.Z., 18.11.10. - BEFORE THE LAW, PERSONAL LAW
EQUALITY: Equality before the law isn't a holy grail, especially when all of us are buried under an avalanche of laws so numerous and long that they have become, largely, unreadable and unknowable to us. If we spent all of our time to read and study them, we would have hardly any time left to work to support ourselves and to pay taxes to pay the numerous public servants who legally mismanage our lives. Taxpayers and tax consumers, politicians and bureaucrats are not equal before the law. Or, how free are citizens to sue politicians for broken promises? - J.Z., 21.5.00. – What we need now, most of all, is the equal right of everybody to opt out of any of the existing territorial constitutional, legal and juridical systems and to opt for or establish one, an alternative system offering a personal law system that is more to one’s liking. – J.Z., 18.11.10. – EQUALITY BEFORE THE LAW? FREE CHOICE AMONG LAW SYSTEMS, POLITICAL, ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL ONES!
EQUALITY: Equality of all before the law should apply only to members of communities of volunteers. The principle expressed should not be misused to justify internal “colonialism” towards dissenters or majority despotism or any form of minority despotism. – J.Z., 13.1.99. - TERRITORIALLY or EXTERRITORIALLY PERCEIVED & REALIZED
EQUALITY: Equality of people before the law - makes only sense for self-chosen and not for imposed law, for rightful law and not for wrongful law. - If uniformity of law were the ideal, then an imposed Nazi, Soviet, Red-Chinese law or e.g. the compulsory sterilization laws, practised for a while in "democratic" India, would also have been "ideal". - Equal free choice of legal systems for individuals is much to be preferred - to the subjection of all people under one kind of law, e.g. anti-drug laws and various sex and marriage laws, and laws imposing a uniform religion. Against all of them and many others there are numerous dissenting groups. - I have never heard of any rational and moral criticism of free choice of laws and free choice of governments. While that is impossible under territorialism it is quite natural for exterritorial autonomy or personal law among volunteers. Even the arguments of the limited government or mini-government advocates are incomplete or flawed. However, at least they do deserve systematic refutations. - J.Z. to C. B., 3.1.06, 1.5.12. - LAW, UNIFORMITY, LEGISLATION, PANARCHISM, CHOICE OF LAWS, PERSONAL LAW, DIVERSITY, EXTERRITORIALISM VS. TERRITORIALISM
EQUALITY: Equality through equal individual sovereignty for all, expressed in the free choice for individuals of personal law systems, within the framework of volunteer communities that are only exterritorially autonomous and can provide for everyone the government or non-governmental society of his or her dreams. - J.Z., 2.6.00.
EQUALITY: Equality, as the term is used in the Declaration of Independence, … means the abolition of privilege - one law for all men alike because all men are one in their essential humanity.” - Edmund Opitz, THE FREEMAN, 6/76, 360. - They may be alike in their essential humanity but not in the laws they like to impose upon themselves and others. Thus the rightful meaning of "one law for all" can only be "one law for all within a voluntary community and its personal laws - and different personal laws for all other volunteer communities in a country and in the world. No territorial law to be imposed upon anyone. That totalitarian kind of law is to be abolished altogether. - J.Z., 31.5.00. - JUSTICE, PRIVILEGE, LAW, FREEDOM, TERRITORIALISM, PANARCHISM
EQUALITY: From the fact that people are very different it follows that, if we treat them equally, the result must be inequality in their actual position, and the only way to place them in an equal position would be to treat them differently. Equality before the law and material equality are therefore not only different but are in conflict with each other; and we can achieve either the one or the other, but not both at the same time.” – Friedrich von Hayek. - The Constitution of Liberty. - Quoted by Leonard E. Read, Having My Way, p.77. - I think that equality in basic rights, if one desires them for oneself, is much more rightful and important than equality before the law. The law may be quite wrong but equally applied to all. - Everyone has the equal right to the kind of government or society or community that he prefers for himself, and this without being entitled to an exclusive territory for it, except the real estate rightly owned by the members. - J.Z., 25. 11. 06. – INEQUALITY, LAW, RIGHTS, INDIVIDUAL HUMAN RIGHTS
EQUALITY: It is of the essence of the demand for equality before the law that people should be treated alike in spite of the fact that they are different.” - Friedrich Hayek. - Each should be equal before only that body of law, which he has voluntarily chosen for himself. Criminals offending against the laws others have chosen for themselves to be the only exceptions, apart from children and mental cases. - J.Z., 1.7.00. - BEFORE THE LAW
EQUALITY: Justice is equality before the law, and this describes a society where each person may freely pursue his own goals, provided he does not infringe the equal right of all the others to pursue theirs.” - Edmund Opitz, THE FREEMAN, 6/76, p.361. - When different laws have been chosen by different volunteer communities for themselves, then they will have their different kinds of equality under their chosen laws. Any territorially imposed constitution or law, which does not permit this free choice, based upon full individual sovereignty, between different laws and legalized institutions for different people, according to their own choice, is as such quite unjust. - J.Z., 31.5.00, 18.11.10, 1.5.12. – JUSTICE, PANARCHISM
EQUALITY: the authors are badly confused about equality. They are hung up on the term 'equality of opportunity.' Jefferson's 'equality' in the Declaration is, of course, what Hayek called isonomia -- equality before the law. Philosopher Robert Nozick called it process equality, which he carefully distinguished from end-state-equality. The authors pursue the latter of those mutually exclusive concepts." - Charles W. Baird, in his review (published in the April, 2000, issue of "Ideas on Liberty".) of "The Stakeholder Society" by Bruce Ackerman and Anne Alstott. – The unchecked assumption here is still that there should be only one set of laws for all the people in a territory and no equal right for everybody to choose for himself, together with like-minded people, a different set of personal laws for all the members of their community of volunteers, which would leave others to their kind of exterritorial autonomy, chosen by their individual for themselves. – J.Z., 5.1.08. – Let the various egalitarians also have their panarchies and let them try to enjoy them. – J.Z., 18.11.10. - OF OPPORTUNITY VS. EQUALITY BEFORE THE LAW, ISONOMIA OR PROCESS EQUALITY, EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY VS. TERRITORIALISM
EQUALITY: The supremacy of each constitutes the equality of all, while anything less than the supremacy of either would constitute so much political inequality between them, and any attempt of either, or of the majority, to subordinate any one of them, would at once become an element of war.” – Josiah Warren, True Civilization, p.147. - All have, e.g. the equal right to secede from an egalitarian or non-egalitarian government and society and the equal right to join or establish such a voluntary government or society - or any other. - J.Z., 4.6.00. – Equality means individual sovereignty or supremacy of every sufficiently rational adult or individualism with all its individual inequalities, individual rights and individual liberties, or panarchism or polyarchism etc. It is territorialism that makes everybody unequal in rights, liberties and responsibilities. It enforces the rule of some over all others in a country, divides society into tax-payers and tax revenue users, establishes the rule of a legalized aristocracy or class society or feudal society, one of lords, however temporary, and their serfs. Its victims are not given the right to opt out of it, without thereby losing a single individual right or liberty. – J.Z., 1.5.12.
EQUALITY: We are all equal enough to merit self-government not domination by any majority or minority. - J.Z., 21.11.82. - If we have freely and individually opted to become exterritorially autonomous together with the majority or any minority in any country, territory, continent or even in the whole world, forming our own and exterritorially autonomous community of volunteers, then and only then, as members of this self-chosen group, would we come to enjoy that degree of genuine self-government or self-determination, which we do prefer for ourselves. - J.Z., 29.5.00, 1.5.12. - SELF-GOVERNMENT VS. DOMINATION, INDIVIDUAL SOVEREIGNTY & VOLUNTARISM VS. TERRITORIALISM & ITS COERCION & MONOPOLY
EQUALITY: We don't have to be the same to be equal.” - Heading of an article by Bill Cope and Mary Kalantzis, in THE SYDNEY MORNING HERALD, 30.5.2.000. - The article does not clarify the meaning. To me it makes sense only as the equality of individual rights and liberties - to the extent that we do want to claim these rights for ourselves. Naturally, we do also have the right and liberty to renounce any of these rights and liberties for our own affairs, as long as we want to and can stand this. Then each can be as "equal" as he wants to be, to others, based upon his own abilities and efforts and also as unequal as he wants to be, according to his own free choice, without infringing the equal liberty of others to make their own choices for themselves. - PIOT, J.Z., 2.6.00.
EQUILIBRIUM: Statist interventionists in the economy often assert that they would have to maintain an economic equilibrium. They are not ready to admit that they disturbed the natural equilibrium already by all their numerous prior interventions. It lies in the nature of a free market economy that the equilibrium between all its factors does not have to be established by artificial interventions. The law of supply and demand, with its free pricing effects, maintains an economic equilibrium under conditions of freedom more justly and efficiently, very much better than any legal or bureaucratic intervention could and this any at much less costs and doing much less damage. But the free market is already artificially unbalanced or disturbed by e.g. taxes, monetary and financial despotism, protectionism, immigration barriers, compulsory licensing etc. On this unsound foundation further interventions can only make matters still worse. Once all these unnatural, monopolistic, centralistic and coercive interventions are removed, then interventionism would obviously become superfluous, wrong and harmful. A full and natural equilibrium, not only within a territorial nation but world-wide, can only be achieved when each individual is free to maintain his own balance, on his own feet, and is no longer pushed hither or thither by anyone or by any stop-and-go "policies" and coercive collectivist actions. - However, the faith in interventionism is so dogmatic and popular that all these faithful or true believers should be given the chance to apply their faith among themselves, however, at their own risk and expense only. That will, or might, finally, teach them! – It not, then only they should suffer under their own choices. - J.Z., 2.2.90, 23.5.00, 1.5.12.
EQUILIBRIUM: The level of the sea is not more surely kept than is the equilibrium of value in society by demand and supply; and artifice and legislation punish themselves by reactions, gluts and bankruptcies. - Ralph Waldo Emerson, quoted in: The Free Man's Almanac. – Let us have free demand and supply regulation even for societies, communities and voluntary or competing “governments”, all of them only exterritorially autonomous, with their own and diverse economic, political and social systems. That would also mean with different money, clearing, credit, banking, finance and value standard, trading, insurance, and protection systems. Only from such an all-over system (panarchism), which each of its diverse sub-systems (panarchies) can we expect as much of an equilibrium, balance, harmony, peace, progress, prosperity and satisfaction as human beings can achieve for themselves. Territorial constitutions, laws, jurisdictions, institutions, politicians, bureaucrats, policemen and soldiers cannot achieve this for us, not matter how hard they would try or how much we would be forced to pay them for their efforts. – J.Z., 18.11.10. – We do need full consumer sovereignty, combined with full free enterprise competition in this sphere as well, even for the enterprises of statists, with no group at all being granted any territorial powers or privileges. - J.Z., 1.5.12. - BALANCE, NATURAL HARMONY, FREE MARKET, LAW OF SUPPLY & DEMAND, CRISES, INDIVIDUAL SOVEREIGNTY VS. TERRITORIALISM
ERBE, HELMUT, Dr.: Die Hugenotten in Deutschland (The Huguenots in Germany), Essener Verlagsanstalt, 1937. Among the freedoms granted to them were tax-exemption for up to 20 years, communal self-administration (in an absolutist kingdom!) and their own schools and churches.
ERROR: All men are exposed to errors and most men are in many points through passions or interests tempted towards errors.” - Locke, Ueber den menschlichen Verstand, 2, 4, 20, 17. (Roughly re-translated.) - Let them be tempted by their errors to make their own mistakes. - J.Z., 22.7.86. - The own mistakes, at the own expense and risk, are among the fastest roads to knowledge. - J.Z., 15.5.00. - PANARCHISM
ERROR: All of us err but each of us errs differently.” - Weber, Demokritos, 2, 12. - The main argument for panarchism is the same as for freedom, namely the likelihood or possibility that one may be at least as much in error as others are and that people learn more from the own errors and the observed errors of others than from mere theoretical teaching and learning. - J.Z., 22.7.86, 1.5.12. - RED, PANARCHISM
ERROR: All of us err, but each in different ways.“ - Lichtenberg, Vermischte Schriften, III, Aufsaetze aus dem Goettinger Taschenbuch, 5. - (Wir irren allesamt, nur jeder irret anders.) - So let everybody err - at his own expense and risk, in every sphere, even those now preempted by governments. When the errors of territorial governments are imposed then much more wrong and harm occurs than would occur under self-responsible and voluntary experiments. - J.Z., 22.7.86, 24.5.00. - RED, PANARCHISM
ERROR: Be tolerant of errors that are tolerantly practised. - J.Z., 22.7.86. - But be very intolerant of major errors that are complacently imposed by rulers upon the whole population of a territory. - J.Z., 25.5.00. - PANARCHISM, VOLUNTARISM & TOLERANCE, TERRITORIALISM, INTOLERANCE
ERROR: Error is all-pervasive and must be allowed for. Panarchism does that. - J.Z., 27.7.86, 14.12.11. - PANARCHISM, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, VOLUNTARISM
ERROR: Error of opinion may be tolerated where reason is free to combat it.” - Thomas Jefferson. - And actions are free to refute it. - J.Z., 2/75, 18.11.10. See: EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, FREEDOM OF ACTION, PANARCHISM. REASON
ERROR: Everyone can err but only the fool persists in error.” - Cicero, Phillipiken, XII, 2, 5. - (Cuius vis hominis est errare! nullius, nisi insipientis, in errore perseverare.) - But even the fool has the right to persist in his errors - at his risk and expense. - J.Z., 22.7.86. - Naturally, it is more important that all somewhat enlightened or wise people enjoy full experimental freedom in all spheres - at their own risk and expense. - J.Z., 24.5.00.
ERROR: I think it is every man's right to be a damn fool if that pleases him and his foolishness does not constitute a clear danger to his fellows.” - Writer in North American Magazine CAR & DRIVER, quoted in GOOD GOVERNMENT, June 71. - RIGHT TO ERR, FOOLISHNESS, MISTAKES, TOLERANCE
ERROR: If error is corrected whenever it is recognized as such, the path of error is the path of truth.” - Hans Reichenbach. - But the optimal means to recognize and refute every error, as soon as its validity is doubted, have not yet been provided, e.g. by an encyclopedia of the best refutations. - J.Z., 29.5.00. – Or by full experimental freedom for volunteers. - TRUTH
ERROR: Man errs as long as he strives.” - Goethe, Faust, Prolog im Himmel (Der Herr). - (Es irrt der Mensch, solang er strebt.) - If you want him to continue to strive, let him err freely, in his chosen ways, at his own expense and risk. - J.Z., n.d. & 10.5.87, 24.5.00. - PANARCHISM, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY
ERROR: No one is without flaws. No one does never makes any mistakes. That's why no one should ever rule over all others. No error, mistake or flaw should be imposed upon all people in a country. - J.Z., 7.6.00. - RULERS, POLITICIANS, GOVERNMENT, STATES, POWER, TERRITORIALISM
ERROR: On the raft of our errors we row from half-truths to half-truths.” - Helmar Nahr. - Surrounded by multitudes of errors and half-truths, one does rarely gets in touch with a truth or does, sufficiently, comprehend it - if one does. - In the political, economic and social spheres our fates are determined by the errors, prejudices and myths of our rulers and of the majority of voting cattle, which support them. We are not free to make our own mistakes and learn from them or to apply in practice whatever degrees of enlightenment we have already attained. - J.Z., 28.5.00, 1.5.12. – TRUTH, TERRITORIALISM, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM
ERROR: One has to pay dearly for one's errors, if one wants to get rid of them, and then one can still count oneself lucky.” - Goethe, Maximen und Reflexionen, III, Nr. 103. - (Man muss seine Irrtuemer teuer bezahlen, wenn man sie loswerden will, und dann hat man noch von Glueck zu sagen.) - Experimental freedom can be expensive for volunteers who try to prove errors to be true. But experiments only among volunteer communities cost much less than errors forced upon a whole country and the experimenters can count themselves lucky to have got the chance to get rid of their errors fast in this way, without having to impose their false system upon all dissenters. Panarchies do greatly reduce, or even altogether abolish the opportunities for such impositions. When others are made to bear much of the cost and risk involved then one does not learn fast enough from the own mistakes. - J.Z., 22.7.86, 25.5.00. 1.5.12. - & PANARCHISM
ERROR: Prejudices rule. - J.Z., n.d. - Their over-simplifications, sheer number, frequent repetition and popularity sees to that, especially under territorialism. - J.Z., 23.5.00. - MYTHS & PREJUDICES
ERROR: Rather try in error, but tolerantly, than not try at all. - J.Z., 22.7.86. - Assuming that you really try for some worthwhile aim. - J.Z., 24.5.00.
ERROR: the socialization of error - compelling everyone in society to share the cost of the reform we advocate.” - Paul L. Poirot, THE FREEMAN, 7/73, 407. - Why equate territorial States with "society". Why use the misleading terms of one’s enemies? - J.Z., 5.6.00, 1.5.12. - THE SOCIALIZATION OF ERRORS VS. EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM & PANARCHISM, STATE, GOVERNMENT, STATISM, TERRITORIALISM
ERROR: Under panarchism more errors will be applied and mistakes made, even more than happen now, but more truths will be realized as well. Moreover, all will be practised voluntarily and tolerantly. - J.Z., 22.7.82 & 24.5.00. Only those, who made the wrong or irrational choices in their own affairs, would then suffer from them. – J.Z., 1.5.12.
ESCAPE: Escape? There is no place left to go. Once there was at least a free America one could flee to. What is there now? One can no longer flee from oppression. It is everywhere. So let us again, somewhere, and, finally, everywhere, “raise a standard to which the wise and honest can repair”. - J.Z., 17.10.75. - EMIGRATION, FREE COUNTRY, NEW COUNTRY MOVEMENT, PANARCHISM, EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY, INDIVIDUAL SOVEREIGNTY, SECESSIONISM & CHOICE OF SOCIETY OR GOVERNMENT, UNDER FULL EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY FOR VOLUNTEERS – EVERYWHERE!
ESCAPE: Next to the barrier to the excessive growth of government expenditure, the second fundamental contribution to the protection of individual freedom, which the abolition of the government monopoly of issuing money would secure, would probably be the intertwining of international affairs, which would make it more and more impossible for government to control international movements, and thus safeguard the ability of dissidents to escape the oppression of a government with which they profoundly disagreed.” – F. A. Hayek, Denationalisation of Money, p.97. - Presumably, he means mainly free trade, financial freedom and multinationals with this "intertwining". Escape and secession should not be confined to geographical options only. - J.Z., 5.6.00. – Voluntarism and exterritorial autonomy are required in every sphere, instead of territorialism with its legalized monopolies, coercion and collectivism. – J.Z., 1.5.12. – FREE MIGRATION, SECESSION, REFUGEES, DESERTERS, EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY, MONETARY FREEDOM, FREE TRADE
ESPIONAGE: In spite of the huge expense - in money and manpower - on both sides of the cold war, both espionage efforts failed - hugely. On the Soviet side they failed to discover economic liberties as the cause of most wide-spread prosperity, while the western spies failed to realize the inherent failures of all bureaucratic interventionism even when practised to an extreme degree, as under a totalitarian regime. The Soviets failed to imitate even the limited economic liberties existing in the West and the West repeated all too many Statist interventionist mistakes in its own economies. - J.Z., 4.5.94 & 30.5.00. - Moreover, the Soviets failed to discover the inherent contradiction between their policies of "liberating" the proletarians of the world and their nuclear strength policies, while the West failed to realize the contradiction between its nuclear strength policies and reports of the Soviet regime as a despotic imposition upon the Russian and dozens of other nations held captive under it. Neither espionage network discovered the wrongs and flaws of territorialism and monetary despotism on both sides. None discovered all the benefits of a fully free economy and of voluntarism for all communities and of free competition for all service suppliers. Espionage was just part and parcel of the wrong and harmful system of territorial, centralized, monopolistic and coercive power politics. - J.Z., 30.5.00.
ESTONIAN CULTURAL AUTONOMY: 1918 - 1940, by Peeter Lindsaar, 2pp, 207, in ON PANARCHY XVII, in PEACE PLANS 1,051. - First evidence, in writing, for me, apart from hints by Ulrich von Beckerath, that the Estonian constitution was most advanced regarding minority rights. In the thirties German friends of U. v. Beckerath had systematically surveyed all constitutions for this aspect. Who can supply the full text and a translation? - J.Z. - The modern Estonia seems also to have continued its tradition of respecting the rights of minorities. Even for Russians who were settled there under the Soviet Regime? No details are known to me. - J.Z., 31.8.04.
ETATISM, STATISM: demolishing the wall of etatism, which prevents society from assuming a human face. In my view, the wall of etatism can no longer be demolished in exclusively negative terms, in other words without something being put in its place. Anarchist anti-etatism will have to be couched in terms of organizational constructions, which provide optimal guaranties that human dignity - a tribute on which the socialist creed justly places great importance - can be safeguarded and preserved." - Holterman, Law in Anarchism, 14.
ETHICAL COMMUNITIES: See: JACOBSON, PHILIP E., Free Accord Law: Ethical Communities.
ETHICAL ENCLAVE: (El Ray)
ETHICS: Of learned men, the clergy show the lowest development of professional ethics. Any pastor is free to steal customers from the divines of rival sects, and to denounce the divines themselves as theological quacks.” - H. L. Mencken. – I think that the worst aspect of their theologies is that they show little knowledge and respect for genuine individual rights and liberties and that their notions of economics are largely confined to charity, instead of extending them to self-help rights and liberties, including freely chosen insurance and credit options. Even the best panarchies of volunteers will show the same tendency of wanting to share, whatever they consider to be truths, with as many other people as possible. But they do so in a tolerant way, tolerant towards all tolerant actions, as most of the modern clergy does by now in all countries in which religious liberty or religious tolerance are predominant.– Can one really “steal” or rob or conscript voluntary customers and members? In most countries no clergy has any longer a territorial monopoly and an Inquisition at its disposal. They have to compete like businessmen for customers. The privileges, which professionals claim as their property, are hardly amounting to a genuine ethics. One of the positive signs of the times is that the number of atheists and non-religious people is increasing, in spite of the propaganda of xyx churches and sects. – J.Z., 8.12.08, 1.5.12. - CLERGY, PRIESTS, PASTORS, THEOLOGY, CHURCHES, RELIGIONS.
ETHICS: Tolerance for all ethical systems and practices, no matter how different, as long as they are practised only among volunteers. Children abused and other sacrificial victims would, obviously, not provide the required and sufficiently informed consent. That much at least is widely agreed upon. Unborn children cannot and do not as yet consent to their liquidation. Nor could those, who are able and willing to act as their genuine guardians, give their consent to abort them. However, the whole question of abortion is still so controversial that a sufficient agreement, one way or the other, is not to be expected soon. Thus, for the time being, the best that can be achieved is: different communities for the abortionists and the anti-abortionists. One day, hopefully not too many decades or centuries away, these child sacrifices will become outlawed in all communities, just as child sacrifices of born children are already. - J.Z., 20.9.00, 1.5.12. - MORALITY, TOLERANCE, ABORTION, INTERNATIONAL LAW, PANARCHISM, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM
ETHNIC BORDERS: There are no ethnic borders - except around individuals. Whoever asserts otherwise is ignorant of the ethnic mixing during recorded history. - J.Z., 1972. - And what kind of ethnic border goes around individuals who combine e.g. 2-4 races or ethnic groups in themselves? As a panarchist I would say: Only those the individual chooses for himself! - J.Z., 12.6.00. - FRONTIERS, BORDERS, TERRITORIALISM, COUNTRIES, NATIVES, FATHERLANDS, MOTHERLANDS, NATIONALISM, HOME COUNTRIES, RACIST TERRITORIAL SEPARATISM
ETHNIC DIVISIONS: We must finally realize that among mankind, being as mixed up as it is now, there are no ethnic borders left except those around individuals and their freely chosen associates. - J.Z., 1974. - RACES, NATIONALISM, INDIVIDUALISM, CAPTIVE NATIONS, BORDERS, FRONTIERS, TERRITORIALISM, EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY FOR VOLUNTEERS, NAZIS, RACISM, MIXED RACES
ETTINGER, S.: The Legal and Social Status of the Ukrainian Jews in the Fifteenth to Seventeenth Centuries, ZION, 20, 1955, 128-52, in Hebrew.
ETTINGER, S.: The Modern Period, in BEN-SASSON, Editor, A History of the Jewish People. Sections 47 (The Jewish Community in Western and Central Europe) and 63 (Jews as a National Minority in East and Central European Countries between the Wars).
EUROPAEISCHER BEOBACHTER: Staaten auf neuer Grundlage, No.6, S.6. Also No.22, S.2, in PP 1290/91. - Kurt H. Zube (K.H.Z. Solneman) published this newspaper for a while. I have microfiched all 22 issues in PEACE PLANS 1290/91. - J.Z., 31.8.04.
EUROPE, UNITED: One should distinguish between a politically and territorially "united" Europe, under one European Federal Government, and one in which there are no trade, labor, passport, immigration and licensing barriers, no foreign exchange restrictions, custom duties, quotas, etc. - J.Z., 30.6.92. - United in freedom and justice, in respect for individual rights, it could and should be but coercively united and dominated by politicians and their single territorial government it should not be. Rightfully united it would need neither a single language, currency, law, jurisdiction, government or police force etc. Free market relationships would unite it much more justly and sensibly. - J.Z., 25.5.00.
EUROPE: United Europe needs not a united European government but, rather, free trade, free migration, free banking, freedom in finance, freedom of labor and enterprise, free militias, an individual rights code, a fully free market or laissez faire economy, one completely emancipated from all government restrictions, at least for all volunteer communities, full exterritorial autonomy for all who desire it for themselves. The remaining national, religious, ideological, ethnical and other differences could then no longer do much harm. - J.Z., 28.4.92, 27.5.00.
EUTHANASIA: A painless death for all hopelessly comatose patients, especially if they previously declared themselves in favor of that, and a life free of violence and also otherwise free for all the viable fetuses. - Those without a future, apart from an uncertain but possibly long period of mere mindless vegetation, artificially supported by others, should not be kept alive for a long time at the expense of the general community, especially while we still kill off masses of those who have a whole and healthy future ahead of them, just because they find themselves insufficiently protected in their mother's wombs against attacks by their own mothers and fathers and their medical assistants. This problem, too, can hardly be solved to general satisfaction in a collectivist and territorial way. The dissenters should sort themselves out in their own volunteer communities, all exterritorially autonomous under personal laws of their own choosing. - J.Z., 1.8.95, 22.5.00. – ABORTION, PANARCHISM
EUTHANASIA: About 20% of public health budgets goes just to keep old people in hopeless cases alive a bit longer. - Source? If that is their wish, then they should express this in their insurance contracts. Otherwise they should make living wills towards the discontinuance of life supports in such cases or towards positive euthanasia or supported suicides. By all means, have every aspect subject to public scrutiny, e.g. by not keeping out any journalists. - I am all for more longevity research. But this is not the way to achieve positive results. Not mere vegetation should be supported but lives that are of some value to the supported and the supporters. Friends and opponents of such measures should sort themselves out- into their own exterritorially autonomous communities, practising their beliefs and convictions only there. - J.Z., n.d. & 22.5.00. - PUBLIC HEALTH POLICY, LIVING WILLS
EVAN, WILLIAM M., ed.: Law & Sociology, exploratory essays, The Free Press of Glencoe, 1962, especially the contribution by William M. Evan, Public and Private Legal Systems, p. 165ff, on private law and arbitration courts.
EVANS, JAMES R.: 40, ON PANARCHY I, in PEACE PLANS 505.
EVERYBODY, TRYING TO PLEASE EVERYBODY: in divisive Israel, and not only there, anyone who wants to please everyone ends up doing almost nothing." - Nahum Bernea, Israel columnist, in YEDIOT AHRONOTH, quoted in THE SYDNEY MORNING HERALD, 20.50.00, p. 28. - EVERYONE, THE PEOPLE, THE NATION, TERRITORIALISM, POLITICS, TRYING TO PLEASE EVERYONE, POLITICIANS, DEMOCRACY VS. PANARCHISM, COLLECTIVISM
EVIL: To tolerate an evil is not an evil if it is a self-chosen evil. A self-chosen evil is not even an absolute evil as it has great educational value for people unwilling or unable to pay heed to rational warnings. – Once it is practically demonstrated in its reality and consequences - by others, at the expense and risk of the others, that example might enlighten them and some outsiders as well. - J.Z. in pamphlet on TOLERANCE, somewhat revised: 1.5.12. - VOLUNTARISM, NON-INTERFERENCE, ENLIGHTENMENT, EDUCATION BY A BAD EXAMPLE
EVOLUTION: Evolution is a continuous breaking and forming to make new, richer wholes. Even our genetic material is in flux. If we try to live as closed systems, we are doomed to regress. ..." - Marylin Ferguson, The Aquarian Conspiracy, p.184. - One should add, perhaps "or in" before "closed systems". However, people should even be free to regress - as long as they do not take others forcefully with them, under territorial rule. - J.Z., 8/4/89.
EVOLUTION: When evolution ceases, revolution begins.” - John Leitch, Man to Man, p.195. - Individual sovereignty, expressed in individual secessionism and exterritorial autonomy for volunteer communities makes something like a "non-compromising" compromise possible between evolution and revolution, namely, the non-violent one-man revolution of the individual secessionist who secedes from a State or society and joins another one, which he likes much more, without any violent action. As de Puydt said in his classical article Panarchy, only a drop of ink might be spilled in the process. It is only under territorialism that there is a great distinction between evolution and revolution. Moreover, only under territorialism is evolution made difficult for the reformers and does revolution often become necessary or seem necessary and it is only under territorialism that bloody revolutions will occur. - While confining itself to the territorial model, political science is not yet a science. - It is almost like examining only what happens at night and ignoring everything that happens in daytime. - Would e.g. a coin collector examine only one side of a coin? - J.Z., 6.6.00. - REVOLUTION
EXAMPLE: A good example is the best sermon.” - Thomas Fuller, Gnomologia, 1743. - And yet how many people are able to conclude from this e.g. upon: “Capitalism for consenting adults and Communism for consenting adults”? - J.Z., 25.5.00.
EXAMPLE: Albert Schweitzer, when someone asked him what was the greatest power and force in the whole world? replied: "Reason, persuasion and example, but the greatest by far is example." - "The stars shine only in the dark." - "All the darkness in the world cannot extinguish the light of a single candle." - "A single candle can light a million others." - Various proverbs.
EXAMPLE: by setting a good and workable example - for there must be actions as well as words - ... making it known to all men, forcing (J.Z.: better: inducing) mankind (J.Z.: enough of it) to follow our lead." - John Hargraves, Words In Wars, 1940, p. 211.
EXAMPLE: Example draws where precepts fails, / And sermons are less read than tales.” - Mathew Prior, Poems on Several Occasions, 1708. - If volunteer communities were free to demonstrate voluntary taxation, free trade, monetary and financial freedom, private social insurance options, and other benefits of a fully free market economy, among their members, how long would it take many to most outsiders to see the benefits and then to either join such communities or establish similar ones? However, even if, for centuries, no one else but existing freedom lovers and their descendants were to join them, they would already have achieved for themselves what they value highly. So why do even they largely ignore their exterritorial autonomy option and do not consider offering them to their enemies as well? - J.Z., 25.5.00, 14.12.11. – PANARCHISM, Q.
EXAMPLE: Example is an eloquent orator.” - Czech proverb. - In all spheres pre-empted by governments we have shut up most of these “orators” so that most people now cannot even imagine other than the bad examples set by territorial governments. - J.Z., 25.5.00. - PANARCHIES
EXAMPLE: Example is better than precept.” - English proverb, traced by Apperson to 1400. -And yet we have confined the setting of examples to territorial governments, i.e., politicians and bureaucrats, mostly lawyers - of all people, and to generals, in all too many most important spheres of living (Those of political, economic and social systems). Organized murder, mayhem and poverty are all too often and for all too long the result. "Free" people have been reduced by them to experimental animal. And they put up with this treatment, uncritically, never examining their exterritorial autonomy alternatives! - The theories of exterritorial autonomy for all volunteer communities and experiences with them are, objectively, much superior to the theories of territorial sovereignty and territorial experiments, nevertheless, we ignore the rights, liberties and opportunities of the former and put up with the wrongs and miseries caused by the latter! Should not at least most libertarians and anarchists be among the exceptions? - J.Z., 25.5.00, 1.5.12. - DEMONSTRATION, EXPERIMENTATION, PROOF & PANARCHISM, Q.
EXAMPLE: Example is more efficacious than precept.” - Samuel Johnson. - PANARCHIES
EXAMPLE: Example is not the main thing in influencing other people: It is the only thing.” - Albert Schweitzer. – It is not the only thing but almost the only thing. Even excellent records of historical facts and of current examples demonstrating how rights and liberties do work for their users, do not sufficiently influence the ignorant, dumb or prejudiced people. But who should care about that and them – once those, who do appreciate their individual rights and liberties, are quite free to practise them among themselves? EXPERIMENTATION, FREEDOM OF ACTION, INFLUENCE, PANARCHISM
EXAMPLE: Example is the school of mankind, and they will learn at no other.” - Edmund Burke, Letters on a Regicide Peace, I, 1797. - Another version, in Leonard E. Read, Having My Way, p.84: "Example is the school of mankind; they will learn at no other." - This version is also in Read's The Free Man's Almanac, Feb. 25. - Having to live within a large territorial “cage” or “zoo”, in which a territorial government practises numerous wrong and irrational experiments upon "its" people, does keep the experiments of other governments, in other countries, largely out of sight, limits the governmental experiments to those based upon the most popular and primitive prejudices and makes any positive and negative feedback, by the victims of these experiments, difficult and slow. For important decisions were an d are largely monopolized, for all too long already, in the hands and minds of territorial rulers. Their victims are not free to secede from them. Free experimentation by exterritorially autonomous communities of volunteers would take place all around everyone and almost instant decision-making on them, as far as the affairs of an individual are concerned, would be within reach of individuals, either by an individual seceding from or joining one such experiment or neutrally observing it from nearby. - J.Z., 25.5.00, 1.5.12. - LEARNING & PANARCHISM
EXAMPLE: Example moves the world more than doctrine.” - Henry Miller, The Cosmological Eye, 1934. – Panarchism attempts to introduce the freedom to set examples even into the last remaining spheres, where it has been coercively excluded, those of territorial governments. – J.Z., 8.12.08. - A bad example set only in another country, even if well reported by the mass media, is not as effective, educationally, as a bad example next door, in the same street or town. - J.Z., 18.10.11. - VS. DOCTRINE, TERRITORIALISM
EXAMPLE: Few things are harder to put up with than the annoyance of a good example.” - Mark Twain, Pudd'nhead Wilson, 1894. - EXPERIMENTATION, PANARCHISM
EXAMPLE: I’ll admit that the instant you can demonstrate it to me.” – James Blish, A Case of Conscience, Penguin SF, 1963, 68. - INSTANCES, FACTS, DEMONSTRATION, RED.
EXAMPLE: in the future human agglomerations which are more advanced in their social development will try to start an independent life; and that they will endeavor to convert the more backward parts of a nation by example, instead of imposing their opinions by law and force, or submitting themselves to the majority-rule, which always is a mediocrity-rule.” - Kropotkin, in NINETEENTH-CENTURY OPINION, 246. - CONVERSION BY EXPERIMENTS & PANARCHISM
EXAMPLE: Long is the road of the theorizer, short and efficient is the one using practical demonstrations.” - Seneca, d. j., Epistolae 6. (Longum iter est per preaecepta, breve et efficax per exemple. - Lang ist der Weg durch Lehren, kurz und eben durch Beispiele.) – d.j.: der juengere. (the younger) - FREEDOM TO EXPERIMENT VS. THEORIZING
EXAMPLE: Nobody is useless. He can still serve as a deterrent example.” - Bumper sticker seen in Freiburg/Br. - (Keiner ist unnuetz. Er kann immer noch als schlechtes Beispiel dienen.)
EXAMPLE: Nothing is so infectious as example.” - Charles Kingsley. - Yes, errors, myths and prejudices are, under present conditions. - If examples were ALWAYS sufficiently infectious then all the pro-freedom steps ever taken in the past would have been fast multiplied and adopted widely and finally universally. Alas, mental and physical resistance prevented that. (Naturally, also repressive territorial laws. – J.Z., 18.11.10.) Alas, we never had complete freedom of expression, with affordable media for this, combined with full freedom to experiment at the own risk and expense. Perhaps only under these conditions will this saying become largely true. - J.Z., 6.6.00. (*) – In other words, Since there are always at least some good people around, engaging only in rightful actions, we should, according to this saying, all have been “infected” by them, by now. But, are we? – J.Z., 8.12.08. – However, especially the best were never quite free and often more restricted than the ordinary people, no trying to achieve innovations. All, the best, the least productive and those in-between, suffer from e.g. monetary and financial despotism and are driven into desperate competition for jobs and earnings and the payment of their debts. Under full monetary and financial freedom earning a living would be relatively easy, the working hours would long have been reduced while the living standards at all levels would have been further increased. No more desperate competition for money. And this in peace and under various and self-chosen just systems, achieved by panarchistic individual choices. – J.Z., n.d. – (*) This still assumes that e.g. all the presently existing, powerful and affordable digital media options were and are efficiently used for the spread of all sound libertarian ideas. This was never the case, so far. Only then could libertarian enlightenment be spread fast and easily. – J.Z., 1.5.12. - LIBERTARIAN ENLIGHTENMENT OPTIONS & THEIR USAGE, PANARCHISM
EXAMPLE: The best preacher is always the one who preaches with his example.” - Horst Stowasser, Leben ohne Chef und Staat, 1986, S. 97. - Rough translation of: "Der beste Prediger ist immer noch der , der mit dem Beispiel predigt." – Provided that he is free to do so. If not, then this is the primary freedom that he ought to strive for. – J.Z., 18.11.10. - EXEMPLARY BEHAVIOR AS A TEACHING METHOD
EXAMPLE: What you are speaks so loud I cannot hear what you say!” - Emerson, quoted in Leonard E. Read: Having My Way, p.84. - VS. PERSUASION, THEORY & PROPAGANDA ATTEMPTS, EXPERIMENTS, ACTION, DEMONSTRATIONS
EXAMPLE: You should really be here and on the spot, firstly because people believe their eyes rather more than their ears, and secondly because the road is a long one if one proceeds by way of precepts but short and effectual if by way of personal example.” - Seneca, Letters VI, page 40. – Under panarchism different, including some better examples, would be all around one, in every country. – J.Z., 18.11.10. - EXAMPLE OR FREEDOM TO EXPERIMENT -RATHER THAN PERSUASION, VISUAL IMPRESSIONS, PANARCHISM, EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY, VOLUNTARISM, PERSONAL LAW
EXCELLENCE: Niebuhr was right, said Goethe, when he saw a barbarous age coming. It is already here, we are in it, for in what does barbarism consist, if not in the failure to appreciate what is excellent.” - Goethe, to Eckermann, 1831. - What Goethe failed to realize here is that the best ideas and talents are not even sufficiently known in the supposedly already civilized countries. The explanation for this lies in the absence of an ideas archive and talent registry, both serving as proper markets to this kind of supply and demand. - J.Z., 6.5.00. – Add to this the territorial suppression of free experimentation among volunteers in all spheres, which the government has monopolized in its own hands. Exterritorially autonomous and successful examples by dissenters could hardly remain long ignored. - – J.Z., 18.11.10. – Just imagine living next to members of communities that had abolished inflation, deflation, stagflation, unemployment and taxation among themselves and which would invite you to join them. – J.Z., 1.5.12. - VS. BARBARISM
EXCHANGE RATE: Australian Dollars to float from 9.12.83.” - Radio News. - Now we need only a free float and trading of the value of politicians, if any, subjectively and individually still wanted, do remain, in power over their remaining volunteers. - Actually, the dollar float was another dirty float, with much intervention by the Australia's central bank, the Reserve Bank of Australia, which continued with its dollar depreciation policies, made possible through its legal tender power and issue monopoly. And we are still far from free choice of governments and societies and free pricing for their "services". - J.Z., 9.12.83 & 6.6.00, 1.5.12. - FREELY FLOATING
EXCHANGE: Freedom exists where political effort is directed only at stopping interference with exchange. Freedom is lost with the first interruption of exchange, not the last.” - Joan Marie Leonard, THE FREEMAN, 3/77. - As if any territorial government had ever been rightly and efficiently provided only protective services for individual rights and liberties. The illusion that it has or can do so or is willing to do so, is comparable to the faith in an almighty God, as a loving father, looking out for us as his children. Consider, rather, the relevant facts and how “efficient” prayers and petitions as well as “free votes” and “territorial political representation” are – against them. - J.Z., 6.6.00, 1.5.12. – Territorial politics can even be defined as coercive and monopolistic interference with freedom of exchange, freedom of contract and freedom of association. – J.Z., 1.5.12. - FREEDOM OF EXCHANGE VS. INTERVENTIONISM, CONTROLS, INTERFERENCES, MONOPOLIES, TERRITORIALISM
EXCHANGE: Individuals and groups shall be permitted (have the right) to enter into voluntary exchanges of goods and services on terms of their own choosing, provided that neither force nor fraud is involved.” - B. R. Rogge, THE FREEMAN, 3/75. - Alas, like most of the free marketeers and libertarians, Rogge, to my knowledge, never considered applying this principle to the government's offers of "services", establishing a free market for government services and package deals of governments, all offered only to their individual voluntary customers or whole groups of them, who have subscribed to a government's or a society's package deal. - J.Z., 6.6.00.
EXCHANGE: Let government try, as best it can, to prevent all unwilling exchange. If successful, all then that remains is willing exchange. In a word, do away with all infringements of liberty and what is released is human liberty.” - Leonard E. Read, Deeper Than You Think, p.43. - Territorial governments, with their laws and taxes, do already introduce unwilling exchanges and prevent the competitive and free market supply of protective services. - Without competing governments we do not know whether a government protects as well as it could when run competitively rather than coercively and monopolistically. Territorialism constitutes the largest, most wrongful and most harmful one of all monopolies and all coercive interventions - yet, all too many libertarians insist on their continuance because they do not know and cannot imagine anything better! This is one of the main factors, which holds libertarianism back. - J.Z., 6.6.00. - WILLING VS. UNWILLING EXCHANGE, LIMITED GOVERNMENTS, LIBERTARIANISM, MINI-GOVERNMENTS, TERRITORIALISM, MONOPOLISM
EXCHANGE: The coercive doctrine is highly publicized and accounts for much of the ideological noise we hear. "Let the government do it," goes the deafening chant. But hark! At this very moment someone is exchanging the fruits of his labour for a tank of gasoline. Each party gains! Willing exchanges such as this occur by the billions day in and day out. Taken together in their enormity, these wealth-creating poverty-destroying actions give us all our net economic gain, every last measure of material progress. Unlike the doctrine of coercion, these willing exchanges - economic freedom in practice p are commonplace, unheralded, un-newsworthy. Thus, they go unheard, unseen, unappreciated. So impressive is the noisy babble for destructive coercion and so quiet is the performance of creative freedom that coercion is thought to be the cause of the progress we enjoy. Such mistaken correlations can be the downfall of any individual or group, of any nation, economy, civilization.” - Leonard E. Read, Deeper Than You Think, p.10. - For me the numerous panarchistic actions in our daily lives are another example. They are so frequent and so generally accepted that they are taken for granted and almost nobody bothers to express the principle and practice of exterritorial autonomy and voluntarism behind them and tries to apply them as well in the only spheres where they are not yet widely realized, namely the political, economic and social spheres. In this respect most people, libertarians included, go blind through their lives - even if that costs them all too many of their liberties, all too much of their property and earnings, or even their very life. - J.Z., 6.6.00. - WILLING, FREE OR VOLUNTARY EXCHANGE, PANARCHISM, VS. STATISM, GOVERNMENTALISM OR TERRITORIALISM.
EXCHANGE: Through the genuine nature of exchange it will create true solidarity between peoples.” - Proudhon, in St. Edwards, Proudhon, p.57. – Non-comprehension of free exchange in combination with monetary despotism, and the sales problems it creates, for labor, services and goods, has rather led, internally and externally, to hatreds and animosities against internal and external competitors - that antagonism has resulted in laws and restrictions against them under the false assumption that full competition in every sphere would lead to wrongful power and monopolism. If free exchanges were introduced only among volunteer communities, whilst all others would remain free to restrict their exchanges as much as they liked, under the assumption that they would and could benefit thereby, then free exchanges among a few volunteer communities would not automatically have led to full solidarity and harmony with all others but would have introduced sufficient tolerance for freedom experiments to give them a chance to grow peacefully and undisturbed, by more and more individual former opponents joining them. - J.Z., 6.6.00, 18.11.10, 1.5.12. – SOLIDARITY
EXCHANGE: Voluntary exchange is neither a game nor a war; it is a form of cooperation between buyer and seller to their mutual advantage - as each one determines advantage.” - Paul L. Poirot, THE FREEMAN, 5/75. - Any involuntary exchange is no longer an exchange. Likewise, any unwanted degree of liberty is no longer liberty. It is an unwarranted imposition. E.g. full laissez-faire capitalism should be practised only among consenting adults. - J.Z., 27.12.76, 6.6.00, 1.5.12. - VOLUNTARISM, TRADE
EXCLUSION CLAUSES FOR PARTIES, ELECTION SYSTEMS, 5 % CLAUSE, VOTING, REPRESENTATION: In some countries, e.g., Germany, people or parties can be elected into parliament only once they gained more than 5% of the votes. An informal but real 100% exclusion clause exists against the right, freedom and possibility of individual and minority group secessions and against voluntary and exterritorial communities of individual secessionists and seceded minority groups. - J.Z., 16.9.90, 10.1.93.
EXPERIENCE: Everyone is authorised to gain experience at his own expense and risk, even when the methods tried by him are considered as unsuitable by others, who consider themselves as experts. - Ulrich von Beckerath, in pamphlet on Tolerance. - Compare: "Try everything once - but nothing twice!" - I can think of a few exceptions to that humorous advice, and so could you. - J.Z., 15.10.11. - EXPERTS, PROFESSIONALS, LAYMEN, LEARNING BY TRYING, TOLERANCE, FREEDOM TO EXPERIMENT VS. EXPERTS
EXPERIENCE: Experience is the best teacher." - Proverbial wisdom. Given freedom to experiment there will always be some people who will make good use of this opportunity. - J.Z., 17.8.02. - LEARNING, TEACHING, ACTION, DEMONSTRATION, EXPERIMENTATION & PANARCHISM
EXPERIENCE: Experience is the teacher of fools.” - Livy, History of Rome, xxii, ca. 10. - In other words, most can only learn in this way. - J.Z., 12.7.86. - Should we deprive them of this teacher? - J.Z., 25.5.00. – Freedom to learn from the own experience, as well as from the experiences of others. – J.Z., 9.12.08. - PANARCHISM
EXPERIENCE: Experience keeps a dear school, yet fools will learn in no other.” - Benjamin Franklin, Poor Richard's Almanac, 1743. – “Experience keeps a dear School, but Fools will learn in no other, and scarce in that.” - Poor Richard, 1756. - Where would we be now if he had applied this principle to panarchies? - J.Z., 25.5.00. - Since there are more fools than wise men and since they would thus almost always outvote the wise men, we need experimental freedom for the fools as well as for the wise men. - J.Z., 8.6.82. - Each should be free to hold himself back as much as he likes - and also to advance himself, at his own cost and risk, as much as he likes. Thus enlightenment and progress would, in balance, be maximized and speeded up as much as possible. - J.Z., 6.6.00.
EXPERIENCE: His way of making a living had bred the hard-headed kind of attitude that the best way for people to learn fast and develop a sense of responsibility was to experience the consequences of their own decisions and mistakes.” - James P. Hogan, The Mirror Maze, 124. – They should become free to do so in every sphere now still monopolized, centralized and legally and bureaucratically mismanaged by territorial governments. – J.Z., 18.11.10, 1.5.12. - RESPONSIBILITY, MISTAKES, LEARNING, PANARCHISM
EXPERIENCE: innocence is the knowledge that you can do something and experience is the knowledge that you can't. - Experience is a method of endorsing prejudices… (*)… When did you last call upon experience? When you doubled your chances of success, that's when.” - Len Deighton, Billion Dollar Brain, 196/197. - Territorialism and its politics largely prevents the lessons of experience from being learned by the victims as well as by the victimizers. The victims have no power to influence what is done to them and the victimizers are not the main sufferers from their wrong decisions. - (*) E.g. by selected facts. - J.Z., 6.6.00. –INNOCENCE, KNOWLEDGE, TERRITORIALISM, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM
EXPERIENCE: Man really knows nothing save what he has learned by his own experience.” - C. W. Wieland, Oberon, II, 1780. - For reasons inherent in territorial nation States, their rulers rarely ever learn enough from their own experiences. The system and popular prejudices make it so easy to blame others for the results of the own mistakes and to impose the costs of the damages and all the risks upon others. - J.Z., 25.5.00. – Thus we need freedom for all their subjects to secede from them and to do their own things in their own exterritorially autonomous communities of volunteers. – A few of them might even make more and worse mistakes than the present territorial rulers do. However, their numbers would tend to shrink fast, while the membership in the successful experiments would tend to grow fast. - J.Z., 18.11.10, 1.5.12.
EXPERIENCE: Men are wise in proportion, not to their experience, but to their capacity for experience.” - G. B. Shaw, Maxims for Revolutionists, 1903. - Also in: Man and Superman, 1905. - How can they gain experience and wisdom without freedom to experiment and the opportunity to observe the experiments of others around them, in spheres now pre-empted by governments? Moreover, how could they become wise and understanding in a government-run education system? - J.Z., 12.7.86, 25.5.00. - Not all people are able or willing to learn form their own experiences or those of others but more people learn from experiences than learn from unasked-for advice or criticism. - Panarchism will cater to all types. - J.Z., 29.4.00.WISDOM, PANARCHISM, LEARNING, UNDERSTANDING
EXPERIENCE: Most dangers arise not from experiences that one has to get through but from those which one may not engage in.” - Hellmut Walters. - Outlawry of experiments does, indeed, save us from undertaking some risks but it also prevents us from learning from our mistakes and from undertaking experiments from which we could greatly profit and advance. - J.Z., 29.5.00. - SECURITY, RISKS & EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, PANARCHISM
EXPERIENCE: The reward of suffering is experience.” - Aeschylus, Agamemnon, ca. 490 B.C. - Without freedom to experiments, in all spheres now monopolized by territorial governments, sufficient experience will never be gathered widely enough. Subsidies and secrecy will hide the failures of many governments - and they are likely to repeat them over and over again, on the largest scale possible for them, i.e. territorially, treating all their subjects as their experimental rats, as their mere property. Typically, on the "news" on the government's ABC radio today, after shortly mentioning that one institution had dared to propose that the remaining 5% tariffs in Australia should be completely abolished, several protectionist comments were added, in the news reading - and not a single statement or argument in favor of free trade was added. These protectionist comments were the common errors of the last 200 years, which have been refuted over and over again, and still dominate all too many minds. What's to be done? Let all the protectionists have all the supposed advantages of protectionism for themselves, at their own expense and risk and let all the free traders have all the supposed disadvantages of free trade for themselves, at their expense and risk. That will teach 'em, if anything will. Not only regulated duty-free shops and industrial zones, with some exceptions from the usual impositions, but free trading for all businesses and enterprises for all who desire this for themselves, their employees, investors and customers. - J.Z., 25.5.00, 1.5.12.
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM & PANARCHISM: EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM IN POLITICS, ECONOMICS AND SOCIAL RELATIONS: By now we mostly favor rightful and sensible experimentation, i.e. at the own cost and risk, in science and technology, in the arts, in private life styles, in business and at work (at least to some extent) and in intentional alternative communities. Nevertheless, most of us have so far failed to GENERALIZE AND INSTITUTIONALIZE that kind of tolerance, experimentation and practised diversity. We have failed to extend it into the most important and large spheres, especially those of politics and economics. However, panarchists, as opposed to anarchists, did just that. Starting from the basic premises of the classical anarchists, they want to apply voluntarism, contracts, tolerance, diversity, in these spheres, too, quite independent of the territorial location of individuals and groups and of the dissenting views of other and larger minority groups and even of majority groups living around and between them, independent of the current territorial constitutions, institutions, laws and jurisdictions, customs and practices. - J.Z.
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM & PANARCHISM: That full experimental freedom or minority autonomy or freedom of action would be as rightful and helpful as it has long been in the spheres of religion, science, technology and private lifestyle preferences should be quite obvious by now. Possibly, better proofs may not exist for anything else. - J.Z.
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM & PROGRESS: By allowing all kinds of experiments - that can be tolerantly practised - panarchism allows proposed solutions to all remaining acute problems to be practised, at least on a small scale and among volunteers. It can thus become the foundation for most future social, economic and political progress - and this at speeds made possible for a long time in other spheres by the application of experimental freedom there. - J.Z., 10.7.87.
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM & TALK OR NEGOTIATIONS & DISCUSSIONS: Talk is overrated as a means of solving disputes." - Tom Cruise in film: Cocktail. - Thus let people act upon their own beliefs - but only at their own risk and expense and among like-minded people. - J.Z.
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM & TOLERANCE: Everyone may, together with his adherents, form a group practising - at the own expense and risk - whatever system he and they like for themselves. More cannot be demanded by any group, which does not want to be accused of attempting to set up an economic tyranny. Economists may say: Your system of typified clearing-house cheques will result in chaos and we do not have to put up with this. Answer: No, indeed, you do not have to put up with it. You have the right to be fools at your own expense and to consider the solution as chaotic. This is your right and it shall not be infringed. But it would go too far to legally stop us from applying among ourselves a system, which we found to be rightful, rational and suitable for us. Be tolerant or the devil may take you by milligrams. Starve with your system - if you like. We will not hinder you. It will be a task of the future political science to describe the spheres in which one cannot be tolerant. – J.Z., n.d., free after many such remarks by U. von Beckerath, 1882-1969.
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM FOR ALL PARTIES, REFORMERS & REVOLUTIONARIES: All parties and other reform or revolutionary groups to gain experimental freedom or minority autonomy on an exterritorial autonomy or personal law basis, i.e. to attain the liberty to run their own programs among their own voluntary members, at their own risk and expense. Anyone to be free to secede from any of them and to be free to join or form another such group. This experimental freedom would rapidly demonstrate e.g. which full employment programme does work. - J.Z. 14.12.92, 1.5.12.
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM FOR ALL REFORMERS & REVOLUTIONARIES: Let e.g. all the land reformers and monetary reformers have their own experiments among themselves, without forcing their preferred systems upon anyone else. Then, and only then, can we expect the desired degrees of freedom, justice, security, prosperity, progress and enlightenment etc. for all, in every case quite in accordance with free individual choices, and as long as they want to persist with them. Only then will we develop and finally, have enough good will towards all men and then and only thus will we finally come to have peace on earth, a lasting and just one, with ever improving conditions and opportunities for all willing to make a mental or a physical effort to improve their personal, economic, social and political conditions. - J.Z., Dec. 04, 1.5.12. - PEACE, TOLERANCE, ENLIGHTENMENT
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM FOR ALL TOLERANT LAND REFORMERS: PEACE PLANS 5, p.119, also in ON PANARCHY II, in PP 506.
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM IN THE SOCIAL SCIENCES, AMONG VOLUNTEERS, RUN BY THEMSELVES: It took even natural scientists all too long to recognize the value of scientific experiments and to conduct and interpret them properly and to insist upon freedom for them. And even now mistakes in experiments, misinterpretations of them as well as lies on their result are still not rare enough. - J.Z. 19.11.87, 2.4.89.
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM OR FREEDOM OF ACTION: The highest quality of theories and proposals is not enough to ensure success. Experimental freedom, right next door, among volunteers, i.e. under optimal conditions, is also required to speed up enlightenment sufficiently. Nothing could help general enlightenment more than the simultaneous practice of several different alternative solution attempts to the same problem - within sight and hearing of doubters and opponents. - J.Z., 2.5.89, 3.7. 89, 12.12.03. – Naturally, for free experiments in all spheres now territorially monopolized by governments nothing less than personal law or full exterritorial autonomy would suffice and the first step in this direction would be the right of dissenters to secede, individually or in whole groups from any existing government, any conscript army, any trade union or professional association with compulsory membership. – J.Z., 1.5.12.
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, EXTERRITORIALLY & AUTONOMOUSLY PRACTISED BY VOLUNTEERS, IN ALL SPHERES: Experimental freedom or freedom of action an ALL spheres, provided only it is done at one's own risk and expense only and that of one's voluntary followers. - J.Z. 10.9.88. - How can one express this notion so clearly, attractively and persuasively that it would act convincingly, in principle, upon first hearing or reading? The very survival of man may depend upon an ideal formulation of this idea and I ask readers to help me in finding it and to be patient with my seemingly endless search for and statements in the direction of such an ideal formulation. - J.Z., 3.4.89.
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, LIKE IN TECHNOLOGY, SCIENCE, ARTS ETC: Technology has been the most powerful of social forces because it offers the better answer first, before insisting that the old answer is inadequate. Therefore it can force social change." - John W. Campbell, Jr., Letters, Vol. I, p.126. – Natural sciences and technology permit experimental freedom and physical demonstrations. Territorial politics does not. Political, economic and social system experiments can become as effective as scientific and technological ones only under the same experimental freedom and this is only possible among volunteers and exterritorially, i.e. panarchistically. Campbell, ibid, still held with the old territorial model: "... you cannot change a society without destroying it as itself." - It can be changed over-all, in the long run, by permitting its volunteers from it to undertake all the changes they imagine or know to be required, at their own expense and risk, and this is possible only under full exterritorial autonomy for them. - J.Z., 31.3.89, 1.5.12. (*) – Society is not destroyed but released from its fetters once it is no longer subjected to territorial statism. – J.Z., 13.12.11. – (*) As soon as this can be freely practised the formerly territorially imposed regime becomes also a mere exterritorially autonomous community of its remaining members, who, since they did not or not yet secede, have to be considered as volunteers for it. – J.Z., 1.5.12.
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM: All life is an experiment. The more experiments you make the better.” - Ralph Waldo Emerson. - Seldes. – LIFE, PANARCHISM
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM: Always trying something, or, as Toqueville put it, having ‘the chance to make mistakes that can be retrieved,’ is the ‘great privilege’ of Americans. More than anything else, he thought, it is what defines the American spirit. … It spreads throughout the body a restless activity, superabundant force, an energy never found elsewhere.’ - Philip K. Howard, The Death of Common Sense, How the Law Is Suffocating America, Warner books, 1994, p.184. – Alas, in too many and too important spheres experiments there, too, were confined to those of territorial government authorities. In that respect “Americanism”, its free enterprise, free trade and laissez faire economics and religious tolerance were never sufficiently expanded as far as they could be and should be, for all races, faiths and ideologies, really replacing status by contract, as far as volunteers wish to do so among themselves. – J.Z., 18.11.10. – AMERICANISM, LAWS, LEGISLATION, TERRITORIALISM, AUTHORITARIANISM
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM: American architect Buckminster Fuller on the nature of human beings: "We were deliberately designed (*) to learn only (**) by trial and error. We're brought up unfortunately, to think that nobody should make mistakes. Most children get de-genuised by the love and fear of their parents - that they might make a mistake. But all my advances were made by mistakes. You uncover what is when you get rid of what is not." - Phyllis Theroux, THE WASHINGTON POST, Points to Ponder, quoted in READER'S DIGEST, July 87, p.123. - (*) naturally developed. – J.Z., n.d. – (**) Learning form books, pamphlets, articles, lectures, conferences, discussions and the advice of others is also possible. – J.Z., 1.5.12.
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM: and experiment, the first condition of discovery, was disallowed.” - Winwood Reade, The Martyrdom of Man, p.27. - DISCOVERY, INNOVATION, PROGRESS
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM: Another Kind of Libertarianism. Another Kind of Libertarianism - 2009 July 8. - 4 Comments - by patrissimo. - - Tyler Cowen categorizes the main strains of libertarianism, based on Tom Palmer’s new book, but leaves the Seasteading / A Thousand Nations approach out, as several of the commenters mention. - What should we call this strain? I wouldn’t characterize it as “seasteading” because that is just an implementation method. “Competitive government” or “Meta-libertarianism” or “Second-level libertarianism” are more accurate. - - Essentially, this viewpoint states that there are three levels on which we can focus: Policies, Systems/Institutions, and Industry/Ecosystem (the market for government). We believe it is short-sighted to focus on analyzing policy and suggesting better ones, because policies emerge from institutions, and democracy is not an institution which optimizes for good policy. Reforming institutions is worthwhile, and we believe the best way to do this is by making the governing industry more competitive by lowering the barrier to entry and cost of switching providers. This has a number of advantages over other methods, like the ones listed in my Cato Unbound Essay: It creates specific, real-world examples to point to when debating the merits of various systems. How many millions of words of academic papers about the benefits of free-markets does it take to add up to the two words “Hong Kong”? - - Prospective customers of the new system could actually experience it physically and emotionally, rather than as a mental abstraction, which is far more powerful for changing minds. For citizens of the USSR, a single visit to the West could outweigh years of Soviet propaganda. - - It enables proponents of an alternative system (like libertarianism) to live their dream much sooner, because they only need to get a small group together to experiment with their new society, rather than convince an entire existing nation (which may never happen). - - It supports an ongoing, evolutionary process where societies learn over time, and change with the world. - - It doesn’t assume there is one best society for everyone. People can attempt to live their ideals without having to impose them on others. Not only does it embrace multiple variants of libertarianism, but other goals and methods for creating a good society. It can gather vastly broader support than any fringe libertarian ideology. - - Some other advantages: It is humble about our knowledge of what values and institutions make for a good society. We believe the governing industry will, like any market, produce better products for its customers when it is more competitive, and it will do so even if we are currently wrong about how best to design a new nation. In other words, even if libertarianism is wrong or impossible, a more competitive market for government will still improve government. - - It includes a difficult but plausible implementation path (seasteading), whereas with the exception of agorism, none of the other strains have any realistic, incremental way to get from here to there. They may be fun to talk about and imagine, but without any realistic approach, they are idle speculation. Which means if anyone wins, we will. Floating cities are hard, but converting the United States to a Misesian, Catonian, or Hayekian culture is absolutely impossible. - - We will be advocating this path, with references (lots of Mancur Olson), but little to no mention of libertarianism, in our upcoming seasteading book.
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM: Apathy, ignorance and prejudices of the masses or the majority are no longer obstacles to progress as soon as free experimentation among volunteers is permitted, or otherwise achieved, under exterritorial autonomy or personal law systems for individuals and their groups of volunteers, i.e. for all internal nonconformists or dissenters, also for all asylum seekers, refugees, deserters and illegal as well as legal immigrants. All must become free to secede and to do their own things to or for themselves, at their own risk and expense. - J.Z., 20.11.93 & 31.5.00.
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM: As far and as fast as possible, every error should be experimented out of our beliefs and systems. - J.Z., 21.3.88. - As far and fast as is rightful and possible every error should be freely experimented with among its believers - and thereby, gradually, eliminated out of our heads, laws, systems, methods and practices. - J.Z., 21.3.88 & 29.5.00, 1.5.12. - PANARCHISM
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM: As it is useful that while mankind are imperfect there should be different opinions, so it is that there should be different experiments of living; that free scope should be given to varieties of character, short of injury to others; and that the worth of different modes of life should be proved practically, when any one thinks fit to try them.” - John Stuart Mill, On Liberty, p.49/50.
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM: Bastiat realized that unless men are allowed to experiment, to choose, to make mistakes and pay for them, in short, to act for themselves on their own responsibility, they are denied precisely that quality of free choice which makes them men. The individual who is relieved of responsibility for his own actions incurs the gravest possible handicap for future development of his own personality. Soon such men find no capacity in themselves and turn to government for the solution of all problems.” - G. C. Roche III, Frederic Bastiat, A Man Alone. - Anarchists, even at present, still do not have the liberty to turn to their alternative and exterritorial no-government or self-governments experiments. - J.Z., 25.7.92. - Unfortunately they do not clearly strive for this freedom for themselves as well as for all archists. - J.Z., 23.5.00. - MISTAKES, FAILURES, SUCCESSES & ANARCHISM, STATISM, TERRITORIALISM
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM: Being grown up means - we can have our own way - at our own expense."- Source? This was meant as a counsel to children. But aren't we all treated like children by bureaucrats, whom we finance, involuntarily? - J.Z., n.d.
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM: But we must begin thinking outside the worn grooves of the past 300 years. We can no longer solve our problems with the ideologies, the models, or the left-over structures of the Second Wave past. - - Fraught with uncertain implications, such novel proposals warrant careful local (*) experimentation before we apply them on a broad scale. - Alvin Toffler, The Third Wave, Pan Books & Collins, 1980/81, p.440. - - (*) Voluntary experiments are more rightful and rational than local experiments, especially since local people are often even more conservative, intolerant and ignorant than are city people, country populations and their rulers. Local people are often the strongest opponents to new experiments to which they would be submitted according to Toffler. But even these opponents would usually not object if the intended experiments are carried out only at the expense and risk of the experimenters. - J.Z., - VOLUNTARISM VS. LOCALISM
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM: Causation in human affairs is multiple - in other words, any given event has many causes. Hence it follows that there can be no single sovereign cure for the diseases of the body politic. The remedy for social disorder must be sought simultaneously in many different fields.” - Aldous Huxley, Ends & Means, 8/9. – In many different ways and always only by volunteers, free to experiment with their time, energy, labor, thoughts, ideas and property – among themselves. – J.Z., 9.12.08, 1.5.12.
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM: Clearly the most progressive method is that whoever perceives new facts should possess free opportunities to apply and experiment upon them.” - Auberon Herbert, in Mack edition: Auberon Herbert, p.70.
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM: Don't fail for want of trying… give it a go!” - W. G. P., 1977 - Collins Desk Calendar. - TRY
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM: Every individual would have been "Free" to entertain any theory of government whatever for himself or herself, and to test it by experiment within equitable limits; an issue would be raised only when this sacred right was denied, or against any who should have undertaken to enforce any theory of government whatever upon any individual against his or her "consent". - Josiah Warren, True Civilization, 15/16. - INDIVIDUAL SOVEREIGNTY
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM: Experiment in freedom.” - G. C. Roche III, THE FREEMAN, 7/73, p.397.
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM: Experimental freedom for all systems and utopias, among their voluntary adherents and exclusively at their own expense and risk. - J.Z., 19.10.07. – (Freie Bahn fuer alle Systeme und Utopien – unter ihren Anhaengern und nur auf deren Kosten und Risiko. – J.Z., 16.6.04.) – SYSTEMS, UTOPIAS, AMONG VOLUNTEERS, PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM: Experimental freedom for all, to the extent that it does not infringe the genuine human rights of others or threatens them, i.e., this freedom of action must be realized always at the own expense and risk. – J.Z., 19.10.07. (Experimentierfreiheit fuer alle – soweit sie die Menschenrechte anderer nicht verletzt oder bedroht, d.h. diese Handlungsfreiheit muss auf eigne Kosten und eignes Risiko beschraenkt sein. – J.Z., 16.6.04.) – When will such thoughts become, finally, optimally expressed, in slogans that will rapidly „conquer“ world opinion? – J.Z., 19.10.07.
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM: Experimental Freedom in ALL spheres, provided only it is done at one's own risk and expense only - and those of one's voluntary followers. - J.Z., 10.9.88. - FREEDOM OF ACTION & PANARCHISM
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM: Experimental freedom in all spheres, rather than merely further fine-tuning libertarian theories! - J.Z., 3.4.89.
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM: For every action there is an equal, and opposite, government program" - David Veal (Usenet). - FREEDOM OF ACTION, EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY FOR VOLUNTEERS, TERRITORIAL DESPOTISM, EVEN IN DEMOCRACIES, LAWS, REGULATIONS, LICENSING
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM: Freedom to Differ. Freedom for you to do (at your own cost or within your own sphere) what I may consider wrong, foolish, or inexpedient, is the vital principle of peace and all progress; for your experiments may prove that you are right.” - Josiah Warren, True Civilization, p.144.
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM: Full experimental freedom or minority autonomy or freedom of action, even when it comes to whole political, economic and social systems. This would be as rightful and helpful as it has long been in the spheres of religion, science, technology and private lifestyle preferences. This should be quite obvious by now. Still better proofs, approaches and methods to arrive at truths, at workable solutions to the remaining problems in the political, economic and social system spheres may not exist at all. - J.Z., 04-11. – Mere freedom of expression and information, territorial voting and representation systems as well as conventional education and enlightenment efforts have, obviously failed for all too long. Powerful politicians and bureaucrats, in most cases, cannot even enlighten themselves sufficiently and stay on the wrong paths for all too long or choose them again and again. – J.Z., 1.5.12.
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM: Go on and try it!" - “Give it a try!” – “Have a go at it!” - Proverbial wisdom.
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM: Groups or associations intending to realize at their own expense and risk any particular economic system among themselves - may not be hindered to do so, even when those who believe to be experts do not agree with the system.” - Ulrich von Beckerath, 1882-1969, 31.8.1953. - As a panarchist Beckerath believed in the same experimental freedom for the political and social spheres. - J.Z., 6.6.00. - PANARCHISM
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM: However, one can achieve reason only through one's own experience and one must be free to be able to undertake them. …” - Kant. - REASON, EXPERIENCE
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM: I am entirely in favour of experimentation - indeed for very much more freedom than conservative governments tend to allow.” - Hayek, The Fatal Conceit, p.53. - And I favor much more freedom than limited but still territorial governments, of the kind that Hayek and others proposed, would allow. - J.Z., 23.5.00, 1.5.12. - LIMITED GOVERNMENTS & PANARCHISM
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM: Indeed, it is a valid truth that whatever I know, I know properly only for myself. As soon as I utter my knowledge, I am bombarded with conditions, assertions and contradictions. Thus the safest way is to attempt to put our ideas into practice. Afterwards, the others may talk and argue about it as they please.” - Goethe, in letter to Zelter, 30.10.1828. – KNOWLEDGE, IGNORANCE, COMMUNICATION, DIS.
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM: Let people fail - but also, let them succeed! - J.Z., 9/72.
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM: Liberty and experiment alone can determine the best forms of society.” - Voltairine de Cleyre, in: Reichert, Partisans of Freedom, p.347. - PANARCHISM
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM: Life itself is supremely an experiment, and he who knows nothing of experiment and adventure, morally, ethically, spiritually, knows nothing of life. - William Thurston Brown, in Reichert, Partisans of Freedom, p.455.
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM: Nobody likes being made the victim of an experiment over which he has no control.” - John Campbell, ASTOUNDING SCIENCE FICTION, June 1956. - TEST RABBITS, NATIONAL & TERRITORIAL OR GOVERNMENTAL EXPERIMENTS WITH INVOLUNTARY SUBJECTS, PEOPLE AS PROPERTY
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM: One example is more valuable than 20 precepts written in books.” - Roger Ascham
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM: Only free experiment can solve that problem; and the notion that any body of men should have power to enforce their views on other men … shows a lack of imagination that is frightening.” - Henry Meulen, THE INDIVIDUALIST, 12/77, p.65. – However, in his last letters to Ulrich von Beckerath, he opposed the consistent application of this and related other statements in the form of panarchism. – See: www.butterbach.net/epinfo/instead.htm
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM: Panarchism is, fundamentally, just an extension of the already existing experimental freedom and freedom of association. - J.Z., 19.8.11.
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM: Research and record keeping, discussion, criticism, experimentation and publication are still not free, extensive and effective enough, especially in the “social sciences”, which are mostly not yet genuine sciences when based merely upon the territorial, centralized, collectivist, monopolistic and coercive model. – J.Z., 19.10.06, 26.10.07. - ESPECIALLY IN THE SOCIAL SCIENCES, RESEARCH, PUBLISHING
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM: Since the costs of State activities are much higher than in the market, experiments with systems of choice and competition would suffice to show their striking superiority.” - Milton Friedman, From Galbraith to Economic Freedom, p.51/52. - Alas, M. F. has not advocated panarchistic experiments for those spheres, which even limited governments have still reserved for themselves. - J.Z., 26.1.02. - Perhaps his son David or his grandson Patrick will do so one day. They are already very active in the libertarian movement. – J.Z., 18.11.10. – They may have done so already. I would be grateful for any reference of this kind. – J.Z., 1.5.12.
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM: Social, economic and political experiments as well, are more rightfully and efficiently undertaken by volunteers only, in a completely decentralized way, that is, under full exterritorial autonomy rather than centrally and territorially imposed upon whole countries and their populations. Only thus can frictions, going from resistance and terrorism to full-scale civil wars, revolutions and international wars, become minimized or altogether avoided and the individual rights of all dissenters remain untouched. Territorialist politicians, ideologues, reformers and political scientists have not yet learned this lesson, although it does establish a sound framework for peaceful cooperation, rapid progress or the forms of societies which free people desire for themselves, no matter how backward or reactionary or foolish others think them to be. - J.Z., 9.11.99, 22.5.00. - MINORITIES, MODERATION, DECENTRALIZATION, PANARCHISM, GRADUALISM, RADICALISM, CONSERVATISM, PROGRESS & VOLUNTARISM
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM: Society must have a new experiences as a new basis. Instead of one crude theory after another being forced upon the whole (by the tyranny of the whole, or of a majority) - having freedom to differ, there will be as many different experiments going on all at once, in every department of human affairs, as there are parties willing to take on themselves the risks and "costs" of trying them, and the race will leap, is it were, instead of slowly struggling up the rugged hill of experience, from which, while reposing on their own bright, pure atmosphere, they will look down only with sorrowful wonder upon the dark, pestilential past.” - Josiah Warren, True Civilization, 182/83, POINT 567. – PANARCHISM, VOLUNTARISM & EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY FOR VOLUNTEERS VS. TERRITORIALISM
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM: Some reasons for wanting to introduce it are expressed in the following sayings: (1) "A clever enemy is worth more than a rash friend." (2) "A wise man profits more from his enemies than a fool from his friends." (3) "One man's mistakes are the other man's lessons." (4) "Common men will grasp an idea only when it has been realized. Wise men recognize already its seed." - Thus let everybody plant seeds - at his own expense and on his own land! - (5) Most people learn only through their own mistakes. Wise men are able to learn from the mistakes of others. - J.Z., n.d. & 6.6.00.
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM: Stand up on your own feet, take your own risk to succeed or fail on your own abilities.” - John Singleton, 2/75.
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM: that what educated men and developed strong qualities of character was the doing of a thing rather than the thing done, that the doing of a thing by free men and women, without compulsion, without officialism, with much experiment and comparison of method, so that the better methods gradually disclosed themselves out of the resulting failure and success, with strong interest evoked on all sides, and with friendly cooperation and friendly ties created between those directly and those indirectly concerned, formed the true education, intellectually and morally, of the individuals of a nation. Apart from this practical education, all progress would be partial, lopsided, disappointing, and even dangerous.” - Auberon Herbert, in Mack edition, Auberon Herbert, p.210. - EDUCATION, VOLUNTARISM, FREEDOM
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM: The liberty of going wrong is the seamy side of the priceless privilege of going right by free choice rather than by compulsion.” - William Ernest Hocking, The Coming World Civilization. - RIGHT TO EXPERIMENT
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM: The public knows what it wants only when it gets to see that what it wants.” - Sam Goldwyn. - From the German version, quoted by Manfred Delling, in DIE WELT, 6.10.56: “Das Publikum weiss erst, was es will, wenn es das, was es will, zu sehen bekommt.”
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM: The true method of knowledge is experiment.” - William Blake, 1788. – KNOWLEDGE, PANARCHISM
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM: There is no better way in which men can become more enlightened about their economic interests than by observation of the economic success of those who employ the correct means of achieving their ends.” - Carl Menger, quoted in F. A. Hayek, Denationalisation of Money, p.55.
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM: There is one very comfortable principle: Whoever crawls cannot fall. Ladies & gentlemen, let us stand upright, even if one or the other of us should fall down as a result.” - Dr. Paul Ronge, Die Menschenrechte, Oct. - Dec. 1955. - While we are crawling we might not even see whether we are crawling in the right direction. And crawling upon command - in a direction some commander wants us to go, is even worse. - J.Z., 6.6.00.
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM: Thus it is that every huge administrative system tends to that barren uniformity which is a kind of intellectual death, and from which that essential element of progress, experiment, is necessarily absent. (*) When you have constructed a universal system, embracing the whole nation, you can't experiment. (**) The thousands of wheels must all follow each other in the same track with undeviating uniformity. Even if your official feelings would allow of such an unorthodox proceeding, it is mechanically very difficult to interfere with the regularity and precision that make the working of universal systems possible. (***) - Auberon Herbert, Mr. Spencer and the Great Machine, p. 69. – (*) Or reduced to a few superficial governmental experiments, usually with the wrong means and towards wrong objectives. – (**) Not under optimal conditions! – (***) Do they work? – J.Z. - TERRITORIALISM, UNIFORMITY, BUREAUCRACY
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM: To each not only his own garden, menu choice, hobby, craft, fashion, reading matter or sport etc., – these private liberties are already largely achieved – but also free choice or consumer sovereignty and free enterprise regarding social, political and economic experiments, systems, communities, and societies, for individuals and their groups of volunteers. – J.Z., 16.6.04. – No more territorial monopolies for anyone, any group or system, corporation, constitution, society or State, no matter how good and just they may be or are supposed to be. – For such monopoly decision-makers are now largely armed with ABC mass-extermination devices, not only with monopolistic conventional forces, paid for out of tribute levies, which were and are wrong and bad enough already. - J.Z., 19.10.07.
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM: To each the own way or supposed solution, task, scheme, system, hobby or commitment. No territorial monopoly any more for anyone or any system or institution or process, not even for the otherwise most limited territorial government. – J.Z., 16.4.07, 19.10.07. - EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY FOR VOLUNTEERS: PANARCHISM
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM: we can approve procedures for deciding conduct that amplify and ramify human experience in expanding waves, and reject ways of causing that impoverish and stunt experience in the spastic jerks of irrationality.” - Silvert, Man's Power, p.152. – Fools should, however, also have the freedom to make even more fools out of themselves, with their own experiments, than they appeared to be, in the eyes of others, when they merely talked about their false or flawed ideas. – J.Z., 9.12.08.
EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM: You don't mean we might actually live through this! Really? … Dr. Chuka, she said gently, you have accomplished the impossible. Ralph, here, is planning to attempt the preposterous. Does it occur to you that Mr. Boardman is nagging himself to achieve the inconceivable? It is inconceivable, even to him, but he's trying to do it!” - Murray Leinster, Sand Doom, ASTOUNDING SCIENCE FICTION, May 1956, British Edition. - Try to accomplish the impossible, attempt the preposterous, even go for the inconceivable - and keep trying, at your expense and risk, if only it's any aim you consider worthwhile. - J.Z., 1977. – THINK, EXPERIMENTS, IMPOSSIBLE, INCONCEIVABLE, IMPRACTICABLE, PREPOSTEROUS, UTOPIAN, CANNOT BE DONE! DIS.
EXPERIMENTATION & CREATIVITY: progress towards the heaven we all desire arises from the leaven within each of us, and not from aggressive control. ... Society is deprived of the invaluable advantage of voluntary contemporaneous experiment upon man himself ..." S. Hutchinson Harris, The Doctrine of Personal Right, p.328.
EXPERIMENTATION, SUCCESS & ARGUMENTS: Erfolg ersetzt alle Argumente." - Graff. (Success makes all arguments superfluous.) Failures as well as successes of free experiments among volunteers could replace most of our arguments and fights about political, economic and social ideas and ideologies and systems. J.Z. 8.7.92, 6.1.93.
EXPERIMENTATION: I am entirely in favour of experimentation - indeed for very much more freedom than conservative governments tend to allow. - Hayek, The Fatal Conceit, 53. - However, he stopped short of full exterritorial autonomy for volunteer groups or competing governments, just as Ayn Rand did, and he wanted to retain territorial governments which were limited and predictable according to his preferences. And this after many years of discussions with anarchists like Rothbard. Monetarily he remained similarly uninformed on monetary freedom options, already published long before he finally defended the denationalization of money and a large degree of monetary freedom from 1975 onwards. Well, everything good comes never together - except perhaps within an ideal ideas archive and information service. A single brain cannot gather and embrace all truths and facts. - J.Z. 8.1.93, 2.5.12.
EXPERIMENTATION: We should be encouraging social, economic and political experimentation on a massive scale in all countries." - Carl Sagan, guest editorial on experiments and utopia in "ANALOG", Oct. 73, p.7. - No more "encouragement" is needed than a) permitting individual secessionism and b) the granting of exterritorial autonomy to volunteer communities for their experiments, often only on a small and cheap scale. It is not the size of an experiment that is enlightening but the degree of freedom that is involved and the ways in which it is being used. The most massive experiments are undertaken, in a monopolistic and coercive way, by governments. And this approach condemns them in most cases to failure, and be it only through the limited enlightenment steps that can be thus undertaken and the opposition which even these limited but territorially enforced “reforms” do thus provoke. - J.Z., 23.4.92, 13.1.93, 2.5.12.
EXPERIMENTS, THEIR WRONGS, HARMS & RISKS: After numerous failures of experiments undertaken by territorial governments the slogan: “No more experiments!” has finally become relatively popular and was even used in election campaigns. But in order to reduce the wrongs and harm done by experimentation only the territorial government experiments, with their many involuntary victims, ought to be discontinued, while free and voluntary experiments by volunteers and their communities ought to become unrestricted to the extent that they are only undertaken at their own expense and risk. Then the benefits derived from such experiments will become widely known, soon, and the risks and costs of flawed experiments will be confined to those who volunteered for them. Compulsory experimentation upon involuntary victims and at their expense by territorial, monopolistic and more or less collectivistic governments ought, indeed, to become outlawed. It was these that gave experimentation a bad reputation. – J.Z., 28.1.05, 2.5.12.
EXPERIMENTS: Bastiat realized that unless men are allowed to experiment, to choose, to make mistakes and pay for them, make proper decisions and be rewarded by them, in short, to act for themselves on their own responsibility, they are denied precisely that quality of free choice, which makes them men. The individual who is relieved of responsibility for his own actions incurs the gravest possible handicap for the future development of his own personality. Soon such men find no capacity in themselves and turn to government for the solution of all problems.” – G. C. Roche III, Frederic Bastiat, A Man Alone, p.162/3. - FREEDOM TO EXPERIMENT, SELF-RESPONSIBILITY, SLAVE-MENTALITY, STATISM, TERRITORIALISM
EXPERIMENTS: Don't experiment with other people than yourself and volunteers. - J.Z. in pamphlet on TOLERANCE.
EXPERIMENTS: Events are the teachers of fools.” - Livius, XXII, 59. (Eventus stultorum magister est. - Der Erfolg ist der Lehrer des Thoren.) - Since there are more fools than wise people and since even fools can learn from experiments, the significance of freedom to experiment is rather obvious. Those able and willing to learn from the experiences of others will acquire their knowledge more cheaply and easily but their way is not the only way or an easy enough path for most people. - J.Z., 6.6.00. - EXPERIENCE, EVENTS, SUCCESS, FAILURES, LEARNING FROM THE MISTAKES OF OTHERS OR FROM THE SUCCESSFUL OWN & FREE EXPERIMENTS.
EXPERIMENTS: Everyone has the right to undertake social, economic and political experiments at his expense and risk - as long as he does not infringe the principle of tolerance. - Grant experimental freedom even to socialists and others of your enemies. - Governments should not be free to experiment with individuals but individuals should be free to experiment with themselves and like-minded individuals - under their own exterritorial governments, or free societies, which are truly based on individual consent. - J.Z., free after U. v. Beckerath, in pamphlet on TOLERANCE. - In other words: He must concede the same freedom to all others, even to his enemies. - J.Z., 6.6.00.
EXPERIMENTS: Governments should not be free to experiment with individuals but individuals should be free to experiment with themselves and like-minded individuals - under their own exterritorial governments, or free societies, which are truly based on individual consent. - J.Z., On Tolerance.
EXPERIMENTS: Grant experimental freedom even to socialists and others of your enemies – but always only among their own kind of volunteers and personal law, with all dissenters remaining free to secede from them and to do their own things among themselves, under full exterritorial autonomy as well. – J.Z., n.d. & 2.5.12.
EXPERIMENTS: Groups and associations intending to realize at their own expense and risk any particular economic system among themselves, may not be hindered to do so, even when those who believe to be experts do not agree with the system." - U. von Beckerath, 1953.
EXPERIMENTS: is it so difficult to permit men to experiment, to feel their way, to choose, to make mistakes, to correct them, to learn, to work together, to manage their own property and their own interests, to act for themselves, at their own risk and peril, on their own responsibility? Do we not see that this is what makes them men? Must we always start with the fatal premise that all those who govern are guardians and all the governed are wards?” - Bastiat, in G. C. Roche III, Frederic Bastiat, A Man Alone. - FREEDOM TO EXPERIMENT, HUMAN NATURE & PANARCHISM, TERRITORIALISM, GOVERNMENT, INDIVIDUALISM & SELF-RESPONSIBILITY OR VOLUNTARISM VS. AUTHORITARIANISM
EXPERIMENTS: Men must be free to try their ideas in a competitive and voluntary market." - John C. Sparks. - Even in a free market for whole political, economic and social systems, tolerantly practised by volunteers, at their expense and risk, under personal law or full exterritorial autonomy. - J.Z., 18.10.11.
EXPERIMENTS: No experiments!" - is often a popular election slogan. It can rationally and morally only mean: "No compulsory experiments, which endanger the lives, liberties and property of dissenters - without their consent." But this means, at the same time: Free experimentation among volunteers and at their own expense and risk. This is within everybody's interest and rights. Experiment with yourself and what is your own, not with myself and what is my own. - J.Z., 21.9.91, 13.1.93. - FREE, AMONG VOLUNTEERS, EXTERRITORIALLY AUTONOMOUS
EXPERIMENTS: Nobody may be forced to adapt his life-style to any temporarily prevailing theory. Thus the State may not interfere with any law in any theoretical scientific dispute and any scientific experiment in the economic, social, juridical and political sphere, as long as they take place exclusively at the expense and risk of the experimenters. - J.Z., free after U. von Beckerath.
EXPERIMENTS: Only volunteers or their property are expendable - by their own choice. - J.Z., 22.2.84, 2.5.12. - FREEDOM TO EXPERIMENT, TOLERANCE, VOLUNTARISM
EXPERIMENTS: Progress depends upon a great number of small changes and adaptations and experiments constantly taking place, each carried out by those who have strong beliefs and clear perceptions of their own in the matter; for the only true experimenter is he who finds and follows his own way, and is free to try his experiment from day to day. But this true experimentation is impossible under universal systems. An experiment can only be tried on a small scale by those who are the clearer-sighted amongst us, and are aiming at some particular end, and when those who are affected by it are willing to take the risk. You can't rightly experiment with a whole nation; and the consequence is that the sin and mistakes of every universal system go on silently accumulating, until the time for the next periodical tearing up by the roots of whatever exists comes due, and once more we start afresh.” - Auberon Herbert, Mr. Spencer and the Great Machine, p.70, quoted in Sprading, 412. - FREEDOM TO EXPERIMENT VS. COLLECTIVE OR NATIONAL EXPERIMENTS OF GOVERNMENTS WITH PEOPLE AS THEIR PROPERTY, PANARCHISM VS. TERRITORIALISM, AUTHORITARIANISM, DESPOTISM, MAJORITARIANISM
EXPERIMENTS: So little of what commonly passes as knowledge in the "social sciences" is based on social experiments, scientifically observed and evaluated. Moreover, few of the sound experiments that did occur are sufficiently paid attention to in public policies. Under territorial sovereignty, whether of the dictatorial or democratic kind, this is almost inevitable. - J.Z., 28.3.95, 22.5.00. - PANARCHISM
EXPERIMENTS: Success replaces all arguments.” - Graff. - Free and successful as well as failed experiments can replace most arguments and fights. - J.Z., 8.7.92. - SUCCESS
EXPERIMENTS: The most important one of all - freedom to try." - John C. Sparks. - "Give it a try!"- "Have a stab at anything!" - "Fair go!" - are, supposedly, typical Australian sentiments. - Alas, they are rarely ever applied to the spheres pre-empted by territorial monopoly governments. - J.Z., 18.10.11. - RELATED TERMS, STATISM, TERRITORIALISM, GOVERNMENTS.
EXPERIMENTS: The people, organizations and individuals, have the right to undertake at the own expense and risk social experiments - even when based on errors and when making mistakes. The freedom to correct their errors and to learn from the own experiences and then to undertake, at the own expense and risk, new experiments, belongs to the human rights. - J.Z., free after U. von Beckerath.
EXPERIMENTS: Why think? Why not try the experiment?” - John Hunter: Letters to Edward Jenner, Aug. 2, 1775. - Think AND experiment! - J.Z., 12.7.86. - And allow others to do their experiments among themselves, at their own expense and risk! - How many more centuries will have to pass before we are prepared to accept as simple truths? - Haven't we been wrongly experimented with by governments, without our individual consents, for long enough? - J.Z., 25.5.00. – Thoughtful and voluntary experiments rather than prejudiced and compulsory experiments by territorial governments. – J.Z., 2.5.12. - EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, THINK
EXPERTS: Among the alternative experts offering their cures or panaceas there are at least as many charlatans as among the officially recognized quacks. - J.Z., 29.1.89. - Nevertheless, all of them should enjoy full freedom to experiment - among their followers. Nobody's real or pretended expertise should be imposed. - J.Z., 24.5.00, 2.5.12.
EXPERTS: Become an expert in freedom philosophy, and have fun.” - Perry E. Gresham, THE FREEMAN, 6/73. – Trying to apply it to our lives is, certainly, not all fun and games! – J.Z., 9.12.08. – When we try to experimentally apply our new knowledge we find out about the legal prohibitions and our nation-wide prison cell. – J.Z., 18.11.10. - FREEDOM TO EXPERIMENT VS. TERRITORIALISM & THE OPINIONS OF SUPPOSED EXPERTS, MERELY UPHOLDING THE STATUS QUO.
EXPERTS: By all means, listen to advice from experts, but never allow them to make decisions for you, for they know too much about too little.” - Hugh Frazer, n.d., probably 70's. – Alas, the territorial politicians legally and juridically force us to obey them, in very important spheres, not yet open to free experimentation, as if they were really experts. – J.Z., 18.11.10, 2.5.12. - DECISION-MAKING
EXPERTS: Every professional, as soon as he forces his disservices (as judged by their victim) on anyone, like a government health or building inspector or a government planning architect, becomes at least morally a criminal like any other person committing a criminal assault. - J.Z., 16.10.75. - GOVERNMENT INSPECTORS & OTHER BUREAUCRATS, CRIMES WITH VICTIMS
EXPERTS: Everybody considers himself to be an expert and almost all others consider him a fool. Thus only one way out remains: Each tries his system with his followers - at the own expense and risk - and also concedes to all others the right to take measures at their expense and risk, no matter whether they appear to him to be completely foolish.” - Ulrich von Beckerath, to Dr. Mann, 16.6.53. - TOLERANCE, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, PANARCHISM
EXPERTS: Exterminate the sage, discard the wise, and the people will benefit a hundred-fold.” - Lao Tse, quoted in THE CONNECTION, No. 64. – Rather, let each be free to be as wise as he can be or as stupid, ignorant or prejudiced as he still wants to be, but always only at his own risk and expense! – J.Z., 9.12.08. - EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, PANARCHISM, RIGHT TO MAKE MISTAKES, SCHOLARS, LEADERSHIP, PROFESSIONALS, LAWYERS, ECONOMISTS
EXPERTS: For every expert there is an equal and opposite expert.” - Bob Rickard, FORTEAN TIMES, London. n.d. – But some of them have either the government’s “ear” or mass media support and thus the others do not count for much, in practice, under territorialism. – J.Z., 9.12.08.
EXPERTS: Full freedom for individuals and voluntary groups to choose their own experts and to apply their advice among themselves, at their own expense and risk. Under that condition the presently ruling experts and their governmental policies would become more and more confined to fewer and ever followers, while more and more people would join, individually, the successful experiments of others. Choose your own doctor, prime minister, minister of trade etc. - and don't impose your choices upon others. That will teach you, if anything can. - J.Z., 10.1.94, 31.5.00, 2.5.12.
EXPERTS: The enemy is always the same: experts, professionals, men who claim special authority over other men.” - Isaiah Berlin, Russian Thinkers, p.246, on Tolstoy. - ENEMIES
EXPERTS: there simply cannot be experts in deciding what people ought to have or do …” - Tibor R. Machan, REASON, 5/72. – INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS & LIBERTIES, VALUES, CHOICES
EXPERTS: we should not allow experts, no matter how smart they are – or think they are – to control any aspect of our lives.” - Walter E. Williams, More Liberty Means Less Government. Our Founders Knew This Well, Hoover Institution Press, 1999, http://www-hoover.stanford.edu – p.234.
EXPERTS: When a great many people are unable to find work, unemployment results.” - Calvin Coolidge, in his syndicated daily article. - Stanley Walker, City Editor, p. 131. - Another version: “When more and more people are thrown out of work, unemployment results.” - Calvin Coolidge: Immortal Remark, N.Y. HERALD TRIBUNE, Sep. 29, 1954. – What lets the leaders get away with as uninformed and stupid remarks? - J.Z., 9.12.08. – Most voters are even more ignorant, stupid and prejudiced than these clowns. But if all were free, then a few could set attractive examples among themselves, on what to do to overcome any particular crisis. – J.Z., 18.11.10. – LEADERSHIP, TERRITORIALISM, PRESIDENTS, PRIME MINISTERS.
EXPLANATIONS OF THE MAIN TERMS OF PANARCHISM: See under Definitions, Names, Terms. Peruse at least some of this whole alphabetical listing. – J.Z.
EXPRESSION, FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION: I may not share your views, but I will fight to the death for your right to express them.” - Remark attributed to Voltaire - but not found in any of his writings. - To such remarks one should now, finally, add: Moreover, I do likewise favor your right to practise or realize your views among volunteers and at your own expense. What more can you rightfully demand as a fallible human being? - J.Z., n.d. - PANARCHISM, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, EXTERRITORIALITY, FREEDOM OF ACTION
EXPROPRIATION: Under voluntary taxation, free choice of governments and the expropriation of all territorial governments to the exclusive benefit of their subjects or their direct and indirect tax victims, all territorial governments would soon be reduced to voluntary associations and communities held together by their remaining common interests and beliefs. - J.Z., 14.9.94, 22.5.00, 2.5.12. - EXPROPRIATION OF GOVERNMENTS, PANARCHISM, VOLUNTARISM, VOLUNTARY TAXATION, COMPETING GOVERNMENTS
EXTERNAL THREATS: Well, historically, a nation with internal problems will externalize. And nothing draws a country together like an external threat. Or a perceived external threat. It’s the classical method, historically, to unite a country.” – Tom Clancy, p. 313 of SSN, Berkley Books, 2000. - Nations or populations have little if anything to say on external affairs and war and peace decisions. These are monopolized by territorial governments. Internal problems are primarily created by governments imposing a territorial system upon all dissenting minorities. If, instead, all dissenters were allowed their own personal law communities - then most external threats would disappear and these communities would have many allies in other countries. Most of the pretences or excuses for wars would be gone and the diverse panarchies or polyarchies, all as free as they want to be, would automatically tend to stand together against any real external threat from any despotism. They would be united through their freedom in diversity and mutual tolerance against all intolerant regimes. All the civilian and military victims of the despotic regime would be natural allies of the free societies their regime wants to attack and conquer and thus the despotic regime could be relatively easily overthrown. Its supposed unity would also become dissolved into the diversity of its various communities of volunteers. The invading conscripted soldiers of a despotic regime, if taken prisoner or if deserting his armed forces, would not be hated as enemies but rather welcomed as liberated people and, potentially, as comrades against the dictatorship, or at least as people who want to be neutral rather than fight for a dictatorship. They would also be welcomed as future liberators against the dictatorship that sent them to fight for it. Wrongful definitions, terms and ideas lead to wrongful actions. Correct definitions, terms and ideas lead to rightful actions and finally liberty for all, as much as anyone wants for himself and like-minded people. – J.Z., 28.9.07. - NATIONS & COUNTRIES, POPULATIONS, PEOPLES, TERRITORIALISM, WARFARE STATE, DEFENCE, AGGRESSION, PEACE, PANARCHISM, WAR AIMS, LIBERATION, CAPTIVE NATIONS, GOVERNMENTS IN EXILE
EXTERRITORALISM MIGHT LEAD US TO THE STARS MUCH FASTER: Through exterritorialism to extraterrestrialism! All "space-nuts" could combine their talents, ingenuity, labour and spare resources to promote private space research and contacts with alien intelligences. - J.Z., 20.12.87, 2.4.89.
EXTERRITORIAL & AUTONOMOUS COMMUNITIES OF VOLUNTEERS: plan 20, page 2, in ON PANARCHY II, in PP 506.
EXTERRITORIAL & AUTONOMOUS DECENTRALIZATION FOR VOLUNTEER COMMUNITIES: Aldous Huxley saw decentralization as the alternative to Left and Right. - Ferguson, The Aquarian Conspiracy, 243. - I would rather qualify this by saying: EXTERRITORIAL & AUTONOMOUS decentralization for volunteers only ... - J.Z., 8.4.89.
EXTERRITORIAL ASSOCIATIONISM: PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, NAMES, TERMS, DEFINITIONS
EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY & DIVORCE: Let's “divorce” ourselves from all those politicians, bureaucrats and juridical systems that we do not like and establish, rather, our own, our personal laws and institutions - among ourselves - but all this only on a voluntary basis and at our own risk and expense, in exterritorially autonomous communities of volunteers. With that radical change all wrongful barriers would fall and wars, revolutions, civil wars, organized resistance and terrorism would soon come to an end. - Only competitive systems would remain for prosecuting, punishing, and attempting to reforM genuine criminals (those with involuntary victims) and extracting indemnification from them. - J.Z., 21.1.04, 24.3.04, 18.10.11.
EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY COOPERATIVE: PAN Genossenschaft für die Organisation einer territorial unabhängigen Rechtsgemeinschaft auf Basis der Gleichen Freiheit Aller - Wir über uns - Die "Genossenschaft für die Organisation einer territorial unabhängigen Rechtsgemeinschaft auf Basis der Gleichen Freiheit Aller" wurde am ... um ... auf dem Längengrad ... und dem Breitengrad ... als exterritoriale Unternehmung gegründet. - Sie ist somit auf internationalen Gewässern im Atlantik gegründet worden und unterliegt keinem staatlichem Gesetz. Sie war deshalb in der Gestaltung der Satzung völlig frei. - Die Gründungsdokumentation ist bei einem Notar hinterlegt. Die Adresse des Notars kann auf Wunsch angefordert werden. - Die Gesellschafter der Genossenschaft sind unterschiedlicher Nationalität oder Staatenlose. - Um Attacken gegenüber den Gesellschaftern der Genossenschaft seites der Staaten zu vermeiden, werden die Namen der Gesellschafter verschwiegen. Auch die Anzahl der Gesellschafter wird verschwiegen, solange die Anzahl nicht 5 Millionen überschritten hat. Schließlich ist zur Zeit ein Leben auf diesem Planeten Erde kaum möglich, ohne einem Staat unterstellt zu sein. Denn der bewohnbare Boden der Erde ist unter den Staaten aufgeteilt, womit es keinem Menschen möglich ist, außerhalb von Territorien zu leben. - Nur die Namen des Vorstandes und des Vorsitzenden sind öffentlich. - Die Genossenschaft unterhält Konten, Postadressen und Webseiten. Dies erfolgt in Staaten, die einen Identitätsschutz bieten. - © 2008 by Genossenschaft für die Organisation einer territorial unabhängigen Rechtsgemeinschaft - Einführung | Wir über uns | Satzung | Vorbemerkung zur GFA | GFA | Sicherheitsdienstleister - Gerichte | Datenschutz | Philosophie | FAQ | Aufnahmeprozedur | Diskussionsforum - Artikel Symbole Schmuck Fingerprintleser - Mitgliedschaft Antrag Ausweis Registerauszug - Genossenschaft Extraanteile Spende Gerichte Versicherung Haftpflicht - Draft by K. F. - Vorbemerkung zur GFA: Freiheit schließt eine zwangsweise Umlage auf alle aus. Unbeteiligte zu Kosten, die andere verursacht haben, heranzuziehen, ist gegen deren Freiheit gerichtet. Deshalb ist die Sicherstellung des Verursacherprinzips von entscheidender Bedeutung für eine Gesellschaft auf Freiwilligkeit und freiwilligem Beitritt. - Das Rechtssystem einer auf Freiheit basierenden Gesellschaft sollte also das Verursacherprinzip widerspruchsfrei integrieren. Staatsbürger/Umverteilungsanhänger sind schwer zu überzeugen, innerhalb eines Staatsgebietes/Territoriums jedem den "Staat seiner Träume" zu gestatten. Somit bleibt für die Organisation dieser freien Gesellschaft nur übrig, diese außerhalb aller staatlichen Territorien durchzuführen, auch wenn deren Mitglieder in territorial organisierten Gesellschaften (Staaten) leben. - Sonderbare Formulierungen im GFA-Rechtssystem: "Verursacher des Kindes": Wir wissen nicht, was in Zukunft möglich wird. Der Begriff "Eltern" klingt weicher, könnte aber den Sachverhalt nicht universell abdecken. - "Informationen des Gehirns": Wer weiß, was sich in ferner Zukunft für Möglichkeiten ergeben, ungeäußerte Gedanken elektronisch zu ermitteln. - Zu "§8.1. Eine Kündigung der Versicherten ist nicht erlaubt, es sei denn, der Versicherungsbeitrag wird nicht vertragsgemäß gezahlt ...", und spezell bei der Formulierung "... der Versicherungsbeitrag wird nicht vertragsgemäß gezahlt ...", ist zu bedenken, daß in dem GFA-Rechtssystem eine Verursacherkaskade besteht. Wird beispielsweise der Mensch völlig unselbständig, dann übernimmt die seit Geburt für ihn abgeschlossen Haftpflichtversicherung die Beitragszahlung für die Krankenkasse oder andere notwendige Versicherungen. Es wird deshalb hier nicht gesagt "wenn der Vericherungsnehmer nicht vertragsgemäß zahlt" oder ähnliche Formulierungen, sondern die Formulierung wird wegen des Bestehens einer Versicherungskaskade allgemein gehalten. - - Methode des GFA-Rechtssystems: Es gilt eben nicht das Prinzip des expliziten Erlaubens, wie zum Beispiel in anderen privaten Menschenrechtsentwürfen. Bei diesem Rechtssystem wird völlig Abstand vom "Strafrecht" genommen. Kennzeichnend bei dem GFA-Rechtssystem ist die Wiedergutmachung. So könne man diese Recht auch als ein "Wiedergutmachungsrecht" bezeichnen. - Die Methode bei diesem Grundrechtsentwurf ist es, dynamische Grenzen zu ziehen, das nicht Erlaubte zu benennen und einige Pflichten dieser GFA-Rechtsgemeinschaft darzulegen, die die Durchsetzung des Verursacherprinzips ermöglichen. Der Rest ist Freiheit. Hierbei ist es nicht notwendig, daß die "Geldfreiheit", "Meinungsfreiheit, "Gewährung völliger Vertragsfreiheit" und anderes erwähnt wird. Alles ist erlaubt, was die Freiheit des anderen nicht verletzt. - Durch die Praxis der Rechtsprechung gewinnt das Rechtssystem mehr und mehr an Profil und erhält historisch seine Ausgestaltung. - - Hauptintention des GFA-Rechtssystems: Ideologische Anliegen, wie "Soziale Gerechtigkeit" oder "Menschenwürde", können von dem GFA-Rechtssystem nicht berücksichtigt werden, weil sie sich einer exakten und unstreitigen Definiton entziehen. (Siehe hierzu auch die Diskussion in "Wikipedia" u.a.: "... Daher ist die These, dass Menschenwürde als ethisches Grundprinzip in ihrer Konzeption zeitlos sei, als Maßstab über jeder historischen Gesellschaftsform stehe und darum übergeordneter Maßstab für menschliches Handeln überhaupt sei, innerhalb der Rechtstheorie ebenfalls strittig. ...".) - Das Hauptanliegen ist Verteidigung der Freiheit der Mitglieder, der Verteidigung der gleichen Freiheit aller Mitglieder dieser Gesellschaft. Dabei ist vorrangig die Sicherstellung der Freiheit, so daß eine Schadensregulierung durch denjenigen, der die Freiheit des anderen willentlich oder versehentlich verletzt hat, erfolgen kann. Hier ist die Analogie zur KFZ-Haftpflicht, bei der ebenso eine statistisch mögliche Gefährdung die Berechnungsgrundlage ist. Das Prinzip ist hier das gleiche wie bei dem GFA-Rechtssystem: die Wiedergutmachung von Schaden. - - Mitgliedschaft in der GFA-Rechtsgemeinschaft: Wer mit dem Rechtssystem nicht einverstanden ist, tritt einfach nicht ein. Bei Unzufriedenheit mit dem Rechtssystem kann das Mitglied austreten, vorausgesetzt er ist seinen Verpflichtungen nachgekommen, d.h., er hat anderen keinen Schaden zugefügt oder ist der Wiedergutmachung zu 100% nachgekommen. - - Warum Festlegung der Organisationsform in diesem GFA-Rechssystem? - Diese Rechtsgemeinschaft setzt zentral auf das Eigentum. Sie hat auch keine politischen Führer, die das Rechtssystem manipulieren können. Es gilt eben nicht das Prinzip der Demokratie, in dem Mehrheiten die Minderheiten dominieren kann. Die einzige Form der "Abstimmung" ist, aus dieser Rechtsgemeinschaft auszutreten, genauso wie man ihr bei Zustimmung beitreten kann. Aber eine Veränderung des GFA-Rechtssystems ist nicht möglich. - Wie sonst soll dann hier der auf Eigentum basierende Organisationsrahmen festgelegt werden, wenn nicht im Rechtssystem selbst? - In dieser Rechtsgemeinschaft ist die Genossenschaft in einigen Fällen als Träger auch deshalb zuverlässig festgelegt oder "festgeschrieben" worden, damit bei Eintritt in die Rechtsgemeinschaft die Organisation unstreitig klar ist. - Warum wurde gerade die "Genossenschaft" als Trägergesellschaft für allgemeine Belange gewählt, wie z.B. für Gerichte? - Die Eigentümergemeinschaft kann innerhalb der Genossenschaft über die Wahl des Aufsichtsrates auf die Ausgestaltung ihrer Organisation einwirken. Jedes Genossenschaftsmitglied hat nur eine Stimme, hat aber die Möglichkeit unterschiedlich große, (handelbare), Genossenschaftsanteile zu besitzen. Bei einer Aktiengesellschaft bestimmt die Anzahl der Anteile das Stimmrecht (Dominanz des großen Kapitals). Der Verein wäre auch eine Option der Organisation, bietet aber nicht die flexiblen Möglichkeiten einer Anteilseigentümerschaft. - © 2008 by Genossenschaft für die Organisation einer territorial unabhängigen Rechtsgemeinschaft - - Gleiche Freiheit Aller: Grundrecht für Menschen: §1. Die Freiheit (Handlungsfreiheit) des Menschen endet dort, wo die Freiheit des anderen Menschen beginnt. Es gilt die gleiche Freiheit Aller (GFA). Die Freiheit des anderen wird verletzt durch Belästigung (Verschmutzung der Atemluft, Gestank, Lärm, Bedrohung, Einschüchterung, Ausspionieren, Beschatten, verbale und optische Bedrängung, psychische Verletzung), Körperverletzung, Bewegungseinschränkung (Einkesselung, Gefangennahme, Fesselung) und Tötung. Ferner besteht eine Verletzung der Freiheit in Diebstahl, Eigentumsschädigung und -vernichtung. - - §2. Jeder Mensch hat zwar das Recht zur Defensive, der Verteidigung seiner Freiheit. Revanchehandlungen, die den Rahmen der reinen Defensive überschreiten, sind gegen die GFA gerichtet und nicht erlaubt. - - §3. Jeder Mensch kann der GFA-Rechtsgemeinschaft beitreten, wenn er sich zur GFA bekennt. Die Aufnahme erfolgt durch ein Registrierungsgericht, dem zur eindeutigen Identifizierung mindestens ein aktuelles Paßfoto und von zwei Fingern je ein Fingerabdruck übermittelt werden muß. Fehlen alle Finger, entscheidet das Gericht über andere kostengünstige, biometrische Merkmale zur Identifizierung. - - §3.1. Eine Namensänderung kann nur erfolgen, wenn dazu keine Namen von toten oder lebenden anderen Personen gewählt werden oder andere Namensrechte verletzt werden. - - §3.2. Auskunft, ob eine Person der GFA-Rechtsgemeinschaft beigetreten ist, erfolgt nur bei berechtigtem Interesse des Anfragenden und konform zur GFA. In Bezug auf Auskunft zu Eigentumsverhältnissen gilt gleiche Verschwiegenheit des Registrierungsgerichts (Beispiel: Eigentum an Unternehmen, die beim Registierungsgericht eingetragen sind). - - §4. Es gilt für alle Menschen das uneingeschränkte Verursacherprinzip. Jeder mündige Mensch ist für sein Handeln gegenüber dem oder den Geschädigten uneingeschränkt haftbar. Für Handlungen eines nicht mündigen Menschen sind Vormund und Betreuer ersatzweise voll haftbar. Haftbar bedeutet: Der Mensch hat für jedes Handeln oder jede Veranlassung sicherzustellen, daß er für jede eventuelle Entschädigung und Wiedergutmachung auch die verfügbaren Mittel besitzt. Er kann dies zweckmäßiger Weise auch über eine Versicherungsgesellschaft sicherstellen. Haftungsbegrenzungen widersprechen dem Verursacherprinzip. - - §5. Unternehmen mit beschränkter Haftung können sich auf ihre Haftungsbeschränkung nur bei Gegenparteien, die mit dem Unternehmen Verträge frei eingegangenen sind, beziehen. Darüber hinausgehende Schäden, die das Unternehmen nicht per Versicherung abgedeckt hat, trägt der für das Unternehmen Verantwortliche. Er selbst muß dann per Haftpflichtversicherung oder anderen Sicherheiten seine Fähigkeit zur Entschädigung und Wiedergutmachung nachweisen. - - §5.1 Wird die Geschäftsleitung von den Eigentümern entlastet, dann tragen diese die volle Haftung, was auch Nachschußpflicht beinhaltet. Die Eigentümer müssen dann sicherstellen, alle Forderungen an das Unternehmen begleichen zu können. - - §5.2 Für die Aktiengesellschaft gilt das gleiche Verfahren wie für Unternehmen mit beschränkter Haftung. Bei Entlastung des Vorstandes haften die Aktionäre entsprechend ihrem Aktienanteil, ebenso mit Nachschußplicht im Falle eines Konkurses. Die Aktionäre des Entlastungsjahres müssen dann sicherstellen, alle Forderungen an das Unternehmen begleichen zu können. Regelungen, die Haftungseinschränkungen bzgl. der Haltedauer von Aktien vorsehen oder anderes, können Bestandteil der Satzung der Aktiengesellschaft sein, aber nicht Gesamthaftung umgehen. - - §6. Bei fehlender Zuordnung im Falle von Wiedergutmachung oder Vererbung (trotz sorgfältiger Recherche) fällt der volle Umfang der Entschädigungsbeträge oder das Erbvermögen an die zentrale "GFA-Recht" stiftende Organisation, der Genossenschaft des Registrierungsgerichts. - - §7. Jeder Mensch ist in der GFA-Rechtsgemeinschaft uneingeschränkter Eigentümer von sich selbst, seiner Person und seines Körpers (seiner genetischen Information und der Information seines Gehirns). Jeder kann mit sich selbst beliebig verfahren. Für andere gilt die Umkehr der Beweislast, diese Eigentumrechte nicht verletzt zu haben. - - §7.1. Für neugeborene Menschen sind deren Verursacher verantwortlich und voll haftbar. Die Verursacher sind unmittelbar nach Geburt Vormund und Betreuer des Kindes. - - §7.2. Die Verursacher des Kindes haben sich für das Kindeswohl einzusetzen und Schaden vom Kind fernzuhalten. - - §7.3. Die Verursacher des Kindes müssen die langfristigen humanitären Kosten des Kindes tragen und die Zahlung langfristig sicherstellen (zum Beispiel bei Behinderung oder kriminelle Entwicklung dieses Menschen). Die Sicherstellung von Entschädigung und Übernahme humanitärer Kosten erfolgt zweckmäßiger Weise durch eine Versicherungsgesellschaft. Die Nachweise (gefülltes Sperrkonto oder Versicherungspolice) sind dem Vormundschaftsgericht unaufgefordert und unverzüglich nach Geburt zuzusenden. Eine Risikoherabstufung erfolgt mit Feststellung der Mündigkeit des Kindes und entsprechend seines Entwicklungsstandes. - - §7.4. Die Verursacher des Kindes müssen alle Kosten tragen, die mit Wachstum und Entwicklung des Kindes zusammenhängen. Bei Ausfall der Verursacher des Kindes, wegen Krankheit oder Tod, tritt ihre eigene Versicherung (oder sonstiges Vermögen) für die Kindeskosten ein. - - §7.5. Vormund und Betreuer haften ersatzweise für Schäden, die das unmündige Kind verursacht. - - §7.6. Ein Wechsel der Vormundschaft kann nur in zweifelsfrei bezeugter Übereinstimmung mit dem Kind erfolgen oder kann in zweiter Priorität über einen Richterentscheid erfolgen, dann um Schaden vom Kind abzuwenden. Die Gerichtskosten tragen die Verursacher des Kindes oder die entsprechende Versicherungsgesellschaft. - - §7.7. Kinder können die Ausübung ihrer Eigentumsrechte an sich selbst per Gericht zugestanden bekommen. Wird Kindern die Ausübung zugestanden, dann endet die Vormundschaft über das Kind. Das Kind ist dann in allem für sich selbst verantwortlich. Grundlage für die richterliche Entscheidung ist die volle Haftungsfähigkeit des Kindes für sein eigenes Handeln (wirtschaftliche Kraft zur Haftung). - - §8. Versicherungsunternehmen ist untersagt, bei natürlichen Personen, die Mitglieder der GFA-Rechtsgemeinschaft sind, einen Aufnahmeausschluß nach Gesundheit, Alter oder ausgeübten Beruf vorzunehmen, außer der Antragsteller setzt sich privat vermeidbaren Gesundheitsrisiken aus. Der wissenschaftliche Nachweis, daß es sich um ein Gesundheitsrisiko handelt, ist vom Versicherungsunternehmen zu erbringen. Pro Versicherungsprodukt darf keine auf den Versischerungsnehmer bezogene Differenzierung des Versicherungsbeitrags erfolgen. - - §8.1. Eine Kündigung der Versicherten ist nicht erlaubt, es sei denn, der Versicherungsbeitrag wird nicht vertragsgemäß gezahlt oder der Versicherunsnehmer ist nicht mehr Mitglied der GFA-Rechtsgemeinschaft. - - 8.2. Die Versicherungsunternehmen haben das Deckungskapital ihrer Versicherten in nachweislich aktuell sicherste Anlagen zu investieren und Vorkehrungen zu treffen, die den zugesagten Versicherungsschutz garantieren. Das Deckungskapital ist Kollektivvermögen der Versicherten. - - §9. Das (intellektuelle, informationelle und materielle) Eigentumsrecht der natürlichen und der juristischen Person wird durch die Rechtsgemeinschaft geschützt. Eigentum "an sich" verpflichtet zu nichts. Werden Eintragungen gewünscht, ist eine Abteilung des Registrierungsgerichts dafür zuständig. - - §10. Der Eigentümer von Gegenständen oder Boden haftet für die Entsorgung. Er hat sicherzustellen, daß durch seine Hinterlassenschaften anderen kein Schaden entsteht. - - §10.1. Eine Verletzung der Gleichen Freiheit Aller liegt auch vor bei Schädigung oder Vernichtung der planetaren Lebensgrundlagen der Menschen, insbesondere bei Luft, Wasser, Eisareale und Ökosysteme. Jeder direkte Nutzer (z.B. ein Walfänger) hat eine Regeneration der planetaren Lebensgrundlagen (z. B. Regeneration einer Tierart oder Pflanze) nachweisbar sicherzustellen. - - §11. Noch eigentumslose oder ungenutzte Ressourcen, Gebiete oder Räume (von Meeren, arktischen Gebieten, Weltraumobjekten und des Weltalls selbst) dürfen nicht in persönliches Eigentum überführt werden und müssen für die Nutzung aller, im Sinne der Gleichen Freiheit Aller, offen bleiben. - - §12. Alle Mitglieder der GFA-Rechtsgemeinschaft sind verpflichtet Tiere nicht zu quälen, gefangen gehaltene Tiere keinem Stress durch Mangel an Flüssigkeit oder Nahrung auszusetzen, sowie Tiere keinem anderem krank machenden Stress oder vermeidbaren Todesstress auszusetzen (z.B. Tiere einer Witterung auszusetzen, die nicht artgemäß ist). Diese Verpflichtung ist nicht aus der GFA ableitbar und als Ausnahme ein Gesetz dieser Rechtsgemeinschaft. Es sind bei Zuwiderhandlung geeignete Restriktionen durch ein Gericht zu veranlassen. - - §13. Die Kosten der Freiheitssicherung (Gerichtskosten, Sicherheitsdienste, Haftpflicht) tragen alle Mitglieder der GFA-Rechtsgemeinschaft individuell. Die Verteidigungskosten hingegen sind eine gestaffelte Umlage auf alle. - -§14. Die Gerichte sind unabhängig und nur an dieses Grundrecht für Menschen gebunden. Sie sind in einer Genossenschaft organisiert, haben eine Genossenschaft als finanziellen Träger. Richter werden vom Vorstand der Genossenschaft eingestellt oder per Honorar beaufragt. Alle Mitglieder der GFA-Rechtsgemeinschaft sind automatisch Eigentümer dieser Genossenschaft. Gerichte sind angehalten Gerichtskosten zu erheben, bei denen mindestens keine negative Bilanz für die Genossenschaft entsteht. - - §15. Sicherheitskräfte sind in der GFA-Rechtsgemeinschaft an die GFA gebunden (und behandeln Menschen unabhängig, ob es sich um Mitglieder der GFA-Rechtsgemeinschaft handelt oder nicht, d.h., Außenstehende haben keinen geringeren Rechtsstatus). Die Sicherheitskräfte, Sicherheitsunternehmen oder Sicherheitsgenossenschaften erhalten für ihre Errichtung und Ausübung eine Lizenz durch die Gerichte der GFA-Rechtsgemeinschaft. Bei Verstoß gegen die GFA erfolgt der Entzug der Lizenz. Die Sicherheitskräfte rechnen ihre Leistungen eigenständig mit den Versicherungsgesellschaften oder einzelnen Personen ab. - - §16. Aufforderungen oder Anstiftungen zur Verletzung der GFA, sowie das Bestreben von Organisationen, welche die Minderung der Freiheit des Einzelnen bewirken sollen, sind verboten und führen zum Ausschluß oder Schadensersatz. - - §17. Der Besitz und die Verbreitung von Massenvernichtungswaffen sind verboten, sind der Freiheit des Einzelnen (und der Verteidigung der Freiheit) entgegengesetzt und überschreiten jenen Rahmen der reinen Defensivwaffen zur Abwehr von Aggression. - - §18. Die Errichtung der Streitmacht (zwecks Einsatz gegenüber Außenstehenden) bedarf der Lizenz des obersten Gerichtes der GFA-Rechtsgemeinschaft. - - §18.1. Die Streitmacht der GFA-Rechtsgemeinschaft hat nur die gleiche Freiheit der Mitglieder der Rechtsgemeinschaft nach außen sicherzustellen. Sie hat aber Angriffshandlungen zu unterlassen. Präventive Maßnahmen, welche die Herstellung, den Handel und den Besitz von Massenvernichtungswaffen entgegenwirken, sind zulässig. - - §18.2. Die Einrichtung und Finanzierung der Streitmacht haben in Form einer Genossenschaft zu erfolgen. Alle Mitglieder in der Rechtsgemeinschaft sind automatisch Eigentümer dieser Genossenschaft. Abhängig von der finanziellen Beteiligung ist mehrfaches Stimmrecht der Eigentümer dieser Genossenschaft möglich, jedoch nicht mehr als dem 10fachen Stimmrecht eines einfachen Mitgliedes. - © 2008 - - Philosophie: Die Genossenschaft für ein territorial unabhängiges Recht für Menschen knüpft an den Freiheitsbegriff an. Es geht ihr bei der Freiheit um eine Freiheit der Menschen in ihrem Tun und den Grenzen ihrer Taten. Es gibt Tätigkeiten, die darauf gerichtet sind, Eigentum zu mehren. Beispiel: Ein Betreiber einer Kohlenmine gewinnt durch sein Tun (Abbau von Kohle) Eigentum an Kohle. Wenn er es unterläßt, den leeren Kohlenflöz wieder mit anderem geeigneten Material zu füllen, kann es zur Bodenabsackung kommen, was darüberliegendes Eigentum (Häuser) schädigen kann. Hier wird klar, dass die Freiheit im Handeln auch Grenzen hat. In diesem Fall liegt die Grenze im Tun darin, das Eigentum des anderen nicht zu schädigen, bzw. den Auswirkungen des Tuns kompensatorisch entgegen zu wirken. - Neben dem auf Erwerb gerichteten Handelns, gibt es auch eines, das sich nicht in Materialisierung oder Vermögen auswirkt. Beispiel: Ein Spaziergang. Indem ich einen Spaziergang tue, schaffe ich kein Vermögen, sondern nur Lebensgenuß für mich. Aber auch hier sind Grenzen gesteckt, indem ich fremdes Eigentum (z.B. Gärten) nicht durchschreiten kann. - Die Tat als Ausdruck der Freiheit kann also auf Schaffung von Eigentum gerichtet sein, als auch auf anderes. Eine freie Gesellschaft schließt eine auf Eigentum basierende Gesellschaft zwar mit ein, beinhaltet aber, mit ihrer weitergehenden Handlungsfreiheit mehr als nur Eigentum. - Die Freiheit bzw. Handlungsfreiheit in unserem Rechtssystem bezieht sich auf den rechtlichen Rahmen, den Spielraum, den Einschränkungen der Handlungen. Die neuronale Ebene der Handlungsentscheidung oder die Frage des freien Willens braucht hier nicht berücksichtigt werden, hat keine Relevanz für die Bildung eines rechtlichen Rahmens von Handlungen. Das Zustandekommen von Handlungen beim Menschen, also das Ausgestalten des Handlungsspielraums, ist hier nicht Thema, sondern nur die Grenzen des Spielraums. Die Argumente der Technokraten und Freiheitsgegner, die die Freiheit der menschlichen Entscheidung in Frage stellen, prallen hier deshalb ab, weil wir uns nur um Begrenzung des Handlungspielraums sorgen und nicht darum, wie die Handlungen entstehen. - Zur Reflexion ein anderes interessantes Erlebnis: Als der Autor dieses Textes Junggeselle war, hörte er eines Tages im Treppenflur eine Katze miauen. - Das ging sehr lange so, und er öffnete die Wohnungstür. Schnell kam die Katze in seine Wohnung und inspizierte alles. Es war ein warmer Sommer und so gab er ihr Wasser und etwas Milch. Nach einer Weile lief die Katze zur Wohnungstür und wollte hinaus. Natürlich öffnete er die Tür und die Katze lief hinaus. Sie stoppte nach ein paar Treppenstufen mit dem Rückblick zur Wohnungstür. Nachdem die Wohnungstür sich langsam zu schließen begann, kam die Katze schnell zurück, um doch noch durch den Türspalt schlüpfen zu können. - Ab diesem Zeitpunkt konnte die Tür immer weit offen stehen, aber die Katze verließ nicht mehr die Wohnung. Sie hatte sich stattdessen einen Lieblingsplatz am Fenster ausgewählt. - Machen Sie sich Ihr eigenes Urteil über diese Episode, ob sie zum Thema Freiheit etwas beitragen konnte. - Öffnen wir einfach die Tür zur Freiheit, so oft als möglich und testen wir unsere Entscheidungen, wodurch sie immer auch entstanden sein mögen. - Wenn uns die Sonne zu einem Spaziergang lockt, sind wir dann weniger frei, wenn wir der Verlockung nachgeben und spazieren gehen? Das können nur Sie für sich selbst beantworten. - © 2008. - K. F. has, obviously, spent much thought on developing his proposals. As opposed to my own bad habit, he is also considerate enough to have keep most of his files short. Do look up all his other websites if you can read German. - J.Z., 14.9.11. -EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY COOPERATIVE, DRAFT FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A FIRST ONE.
EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY FOR INDIVIDUALS & THEIR VOLUNTARY COMMUNITIES: We are not to be mere clones, robots or slaves of territorial monopolies and coercive powers but, instead, voluntary citizens of our own and freely chosen or constituted communities, of the large variety of such enterprises and service organizations and package deals that should and could be offered in any territory and world-wide., J.Z., 13.1.93. See: BECKERATH, ULRICH VON: On Panarchy.
EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY FOR VOLUNTEER COMMUNITIES, PANARCHISM: Panarchies enable different volunteer communities to advance in any direction desired by them, at once, in the same country or even the whole world and at the same time, as long as they can do so responsibly, i.e. without infringing any rights and liberties of non-members. – J.Z., 8.8.95, 7.1.99.
EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY FOR VOLUNTEERS VS. TERRITORIAL DOMINATION OVER INVOLUNTARY SUBJECTS: What is important to notice is that the aspiration to autonomy and the desire to enjoy goodness are part of human nature and that there will always be somebody somewhere fighting openly against tyranny and for his home. - Therefore, the planting of an atomic bomb by an individual, albeit an absolutely abominable deed by whomever and for whatever motive performed, nevertheless should not be seen as an abnormal act (abnormal would be fighting with swords and muskets) but as the most ordinary occurrence, that is the use of the latest and most powerful weapons in a conflict whose motivations are so old and persistent that they might even be considered as intrinsic components of human nature, likely to operate until the end of time. - We should, then, focus on the reality of tyrants/tyranny and patria/home at the turn of the 21st century if we want to go to the root of the problem. - We should ask ourselves first: Who are presently the tyrants, besides the classic image of somebody who seizes absolute power and makes the life of the people subject to him horrendous or just utterly miserable? - Again we can clarify this point with the aid of a quotation that does not give room for any misunderstanding: "Whoever lays his hand on me to govern me is a usurper and a tyrant, and I declare him my enemy." - Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, Confessions of a Revolutionary, 1849. - - To make things even clearer for those who are so often distracted by shiny appearances and verbal decoy, it is helpful to cite another classic author who stated: "There is no crueller tyranny than that which is perpetrated under the shield of law and in the name of justice." - Montesquieu, Considérations sur les causes de la grandeur des Romains et de leur décadence, 1742. - - To carry on with our reflection we should then ask ourselves: what is this patria for which some people are ready to sacrifice their lives? - The answer to this question might make us discover the existence of two facts leading to some specific conclusions: Firstly, that patria is, for many individuals, their minority, secessionist, or opposition group, united in the aspiration to live according to their own rules without being prevented from doing so by the territorial power under which they live; - Second, that in order to affirm the right to their patria they must aim at the reclamation/appropriation of a certain territory because this is, up to now, the only way to achieve full autonomy. - - - From those facts, it follows that, in current times, one's patria can be perceived and pursued only through the reclamation/appropriation of an exclusive territory. In the presence of contrasting territorial claims, this matter, that is this zero-sum game where my territorial dominion is your political subordination and vice versa, has been, is and probably always will be resolved through war. - - The real tragedy in all this is that, in order to escape tyranny, a group must fight for the supremacy over a territory otherwise it would remain in a state of permanent subjection, if not even in a state of continuous peril. (*) In fact, in the course of history and especially during the 20th century, those people who were without a territory (e.g. Jews, Armenians, Kurds) have been murdered in large numbers by the dominant power of the territorial state. The tragedy of the absolute necessity, within the present political context, to fight for a territorial homeland, is compounded by the fact that, once the dispossessed people have grasped/regained a territory in which to exert their dominion, they are likely to oppress the minorities living in that area, because this is in the very nature of any territorial state sovereignty. - And so the cycle of oppressions and revolts and further oppressions and further revolts goes on and on. - To come full circle, the person reflecting on the surrounding reality, and focusing his attention especially on the aspects related to territorialism (i.e. exclusive rule over a territory and all its inhabitants) in the 21st century, and how people will fight over it, must come to a? very important realization understanding? Insight?. – And this is? the realisation (is) that, in our age, there exist the political circumstances, which will motivate and the technological conditions, which will allow somebody to make (himself) an atomic bomb and to detonate it. And this because s/he considers his existence and that of his fellow brothers totally ruined by the intrusion of an external power against which s/he wants to take revenge even at the price of annihilating his life and that of innumerable other people whom s/he considers accomplices or servants of the territorial tyrant. - Tyranny and territory appear then to be the crux of the problem, i.e. the source of deep-seated and widespread grievances that are likely to lead to the occurrence of horrible violent events at a gigantic level. - Let us then analyse the phenomenon of war (i.e. protracted violence on a large scale) paying especial attention to the reality of territorialism (tyranny over territory). - Gian Piero de Bellis in his "Waiting for the bomb." - Appendix: Waiting for the Bomb? - There is no territorial and just solution to the many problems that territorialism does inevitably cause. - (*) Unless individual and group secessionism and reorganization of volunteers in their own personal law associations does become recognized and realized as a basic individual right and liberty. - J.Z., 26.8.11. - TERRITORIALISM, POWER, TYRANNY, RESISTANCE, LIBERATION, WAR, DEMOCRACY, AUTHORITARIANISM, CENTRALIZATION, VOTING, MAJORITY DESPOTISM, JUSTICE, GENOCIDES, MASS MURDERS
EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY OF VOLUNTARY COMMUNITIES: It is not that all countries will break up. The key is that there will be tens of thousands of different cross-crossing communities co-located on the same territories. Territory as a defining concept will become increasingly meaningless. A world of 100 countries is a metaphor for moving beyond the nation-state. Countries will become more and more irrelevant. The shift will be from 200 or 600 countries to a million “hosts” or networks that are all tied together. The people we network with will become more important as the country we happen to operate out of becomes less important.” - John Naisbitt, Global Paradox, 39/40. – Members, subscribers, customers, providers of goods and services, shareholders and other investors, even members of firms and contractors will be more and more dispersed all over the world, rather than being combined in one large building. - - Milton Friedman recently made the point that it is now “possible to produce a product anywhere, using resources from anywhere, by a company located anywhere, to be sold anywhere.” Increasingly this is being done through webs of strategic alliances”. - John Naisbitt, Global Paradox, 14/15. - For many services, apart from quite personal ones, this is similar. Compare the provision of texts, movies, music, software, even impersonal medical advice and jet-set lecturers, as well as radio, TV and other lectures provided on audio- or video tape or discs or online. VS. TERRITORIALLY ENFORCED “UNITY” OR SUBMISSION, ELECTRONIC & VOLUNTARY COMMUNITY NETWORKS
EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY RATHER THAN TERRITORIAL SUPREMACY: Replace permanent or temporary supremacy by permanent autonomy - based on individual consent. - J.Z., 21.7.87.
EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY, DISSENTERS, ENEMIES, REVOLUTIONARIES, TERRORISTS: Exterritorial autonomy for all dissenters will tend to pacify even your worst enemies and provide you with the benefits of experimental freedom in every sphere in which it has so far remained suppressed by territorial States. - J.Z., 04-11. - PACIFICATION, PEACE, COEXISTENCE, VOLUNTARISM, TOLERANCE.
EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY: Exterritorial autonomy for all volunteer communities, based upon individual secessionism and associationism, is, so to speak, just the other side of the coin, which has so far largely been left out of the discussion of public affairs. Once a sufficient public discussion of the panarchistic options for everybody would occur, the victory of panarchism would be almost certain. The best arguments and facts are all on its side - as well as the very nature of man. - - Exterritorial autonomy means not being a subject to the territorial sovereignty claims of a territorial State. It takes the concepts of "consent", "free choice", "individualism", "self-government", "self-rule", self-determination", "individual rights", "freedom", "morality", "ethics", "liberty" and "pluralism" quite serious and rejects all rationalizations for majority despotism. - J.Z., 30.8.04.
EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY: It does not mean that you have to love your enemies but that you owe them the justice of their own exterritorially autonomous communities, with their own personal laws. If you conceded them this right in theory and respected it in practice, would they remain very hostile enemies of you for long? And would you have many good reasons to fear them under this condition? - J.Z., 25.5.00.
EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY: It matters when political allegiance doesn't matter. - J.Z., - 5.10.79. In PEACE PLANS 415. - What I meant is: We are not born into slavery, duties or obedience to territorial States, never mind the various pretenses of statist legal minds. - J.Z., 10.6.00. – VOLUNTARISM, PANARCHISM, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM
EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY: It means "disentanglement" for individuals. - J.Z., n.d. - FOR VOLUNTEER COMMUNITIES COMBINED WITH INDIVIDUAL SECESSIONISM
EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY: Only it offers free choice, free enterprise, free contracts, full individual responsibility, individual sovereignty and consumer sovereignty in every sphere, including those so far preempted by territorial governments. - J.Z., 30.7.98.
EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY: Punishment, rehabilitation, welfare, jurisdiction, policing, indemnification, education, etc., without subjection to territorially imposed policies and rules and collectivist and coercive decision-making. Thus we could, each voluntarily, go off in all kinds of directions at the same time, for fruitful experiments among volunteers only. - J.Z., 25.7.91, 13.1.93.
EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY: Rather than “land rights” for Aborigines. - J.Z., 19.11.93.
EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY: Recognize everybody's exterritorial autonomy and nobody's territorial sovereignty. - J. Z., 26.5.00. - VS. TERRITORIAL SOVEREIGNTY, VOLUNTARISM VS. COMPULSION
EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY: Through exterritoriality everyone could become as independent and free or as united and federalized, with like-minded volunteers, as he wants to be. - J.Z., 13.1.89. - FOR VOLUNTEER COMMUNITIES
EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY: War is merely the continuation of territorial politics with other means. - J.Z., 18.1.89. – PEACE & WAR, EXTERRITORIALISM VS. TERRITORIALISM, VOLUNTARISM, PANARCHISM, PERSONAL LAW
EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY: What is more important for you: an opportunity for you to live and act undisturbed by opponents, together with like-minded people, largely according to your own (and their) ideas or a chance for you (and them) to force all who think different from you, to live and act also according to your concepts (and those of your friends)? - Solneman, [K. H. ZUBE] MITTEILUNGEN DER MACKAY GESELLSCHAFT, Maerz 1979. - EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY FOR ALL VOLUNTEER COMMUNITIES
EXTERRITORIAL GOVERNMENTS & THEIR COMPETITION: Governments are to become choosable and refusable for free citizens, sovereign individuals, who were formerly largely involuntary subjects and taxpayers. Governments would thus become reduced to the status of churches and to rulers over their remaining faithful only or to insurance and mutual aid associations in accordance with the desires of their clients or voluntary members. – J.Z., 8.6.97, 10.1.99, 2.5.12.
EXTERRITORIAL IMPERATIVE VS. TERRITORIAL IMPERATIVE, ARDREY'S TERRITORIAL IMPERATIVE: Robert Ardrey in his book 'The Territorial Imperative' says that all of us seek three things: identity, stimulus, and security. We avoid: anonymity, boredom, and anxiety. Success of an idea depends on how well it satisfies these drives." - Henry M. Boettinger, Moving Mountains, 8. - Ardrey's hypothesis fails this test. The positive 3 aims can all be best achieved under exterritorial autonomy for volunteers. Likewise, the 3 things to be avoided can be best avoided via one's chosen panarchy. - J.Z., 15.6.92, 13.1.93.
EXTERRITORIAL IMPERATIVE, THE, & PANARCHISM: See ARDREY, ROBERT, WAR, MORALITY, VOLUNTARISM, CHOICE, VOTING.
EXTERRITORIAL IMPERATIVE, THE: Table of Contents/Table des matières/Inhaltsverzeichnis - The Exterritorial Imperative. - Introduction/Introduction/Einführung - Old home page/Ancienne page d'accueil/Alte Eingangsseite - - Partner site/Site partenaire/Partnerwebsite: Panarchy.org - Peace Books: Book One: WHAT HAS TO BE CHANGED IN THE CONSTITUTIONS OF ALL STATES TO MAKE A LASTING PEACE POSSIBLE AND HOW CAN THESE REFORMS BE REALIZED? by John Zube - - Book Two: AN ABC - AGAINST NUCLEAR WAR, by John Zube. - www.butterbach.net/epinfo/abc.htm - Book Three: The Manifesto of Peace and Freedom. The Alternative to the Communist Manifesto. English translation of "Das Manifest der Freiheit und des Friedens/Der Gegenpol zum Kommunistischen Manifest" by K.H.Z. Solneman [= Kurt H. Zube (1905-1991)]. RTF download here. - HTML version. - INSTEAD OF A MAGAZINE = Correspondence, what is left of it and has been found, between ULRICH von BECKERATH, 1882-1969 & HENRY MEULEN, 1882-1978. - Compiled, edited and commented upon by John Zube. - Ulrich von Beckerath on free banking and monetary freedom. A compilation with comments by John Zube of short texts on the subject (in German and English). - DOC download here and some explanations here. - UNTITLED - on Free Banking & Monetary Freedom. by John Zube. HTML version (442 pages in Word!) - Voting, by John Zube. Notes on voting and territoriality versus panarchism ~ what it all means (a compilation which will be part of his forthcoming SLOGANS FOR LIBERTY). - In Defense of Jews (or Not?) by John Zube. An essay analysing, explaining, proposing the epoch-making and revolutionary concepts of exterritorialism or a-territorialism and panarchism in capsule form with topical references - Further, very topical, texts by John Zube on the workings of territorialism: Libertarians and Terrorists ~ Common Traits - Immigration within the Right Framework - WAR AGAINST IRAQ OR A COUNTER-TERRORIST STRIKE AGAINST THE TYRANT RULING THE PEOPLE OF IRAQ? (An older, but prophetic article) - - Appeal to establish a COSMOPOLITAN UNION (English translation of German original) - - Déclaration de principes de l'UNION COSMOPOLITE (traduction française de l'original allemand) - - Die Cosmopolitische Union (original German text/texte original allemand) - - The Right to Secede! A Troublesome Document: Musings on July 4 - by David MacGregor. - - Qua lege vivis? - To the Monopolists of All Parties - by Richard C.B. Johnsson. - - "The Exterritorial Imperative" weblog - - The Clearinghouse - Pay Without Money - Short of cash and money for suppliers? Hard to collect outstanding IOU's? Want to get rid of such problems? Want to pay without money? Is that possible? Indeed, by simply clearing short-term debts against short-term assets. - - - (To be followed/à suivre/Fortsetzung folgt) (This site is in the process of being reorganized/site en transformation/Website im Umbruch) - Home page/Page d'accueil/Eingangsseite - Copyright © 1998-2005 Christian Butterbach. All rights reserved.
EXTERRITORIAL IMPERATIVE, THE: THE EXTERRITORIAL IMPERATIVE is the title of a forthcoming or at least planned book by John Zube, the author of most of the writings on this web site. (This is no longer the case by now. The planned book with that title has still not been written by me, but should be written - by someone. Maybe, I will still get around to it once my Pan A to Z updating has been completed, as far as I can and as far as it should be, by others. Otherwise, a better writer than myself might get around to write it. The sooner the better. - J.Z., 2.9.11.) - The Webmaster has chosen this striking title as the overall heading for this project. - We want to introduce you to little known, but essential new concepts to heal our world. - No need for a long introduction. - Most everything you should want to know about the meaning and importance of the concepts of exterritoriality and panarchism are to be found within the two books first published online here: (I would deny that. They are merely two long contributions towards this subject by myself and are still very far from covering it. After all, a whole new and genuine science of politics is involved. One that does not ignore the exterritorial and voluntary alternative to territorial and imposed politics. - It needs thousands of contributors to establish it on a solid foundation. - J.Z., 2.9.11.) - Book One: WHAT HAS TO BE CHANGED IN THE CONSTITUTIONS OF ALL STATES TO MAKE A LASTING PEACE POSSIBLE AND HOW CAN THESE REFORMS BE REALIZED? - click here - - Book Two: AN ABC - AGAINST NUCLEAR WAR. - click herehttp://www.butterbach.net/epinfo/abc.htm - You will be astonished by the scope and the richness of the ideas in these two long texts and their appendices, also by what is provided through the links in it. (Being only my first two books and my native German and my English still being all to flawed and also both written many years ago, both titles leave much to be desired. But I tried, as best as I then could, to convey some very important ideas, most of which I had inherited from Ulrich von Beckerath, 1882-1969, who had either collected them or developed them since he was 16 in 1898, when, largely through the writings of Theodor Hertzka he discovered that the greatest social reforms could be realized on a voluntary basis, by people, who fully appreciate their individual rights and liberties. Later he specialized on full monetary freedom. Altogether he collected or developed between 200 to 300 significant social reform ideas and tried his best to record and publish them, even to realize some of them and at least to pass all of them on to some people, who would be likely to adopt them. - J.Z., 2.9.11.) - The Webmaster decided to publish the texts for the time being as they are, in order not to let you wait any longer. But it is planned to add more links, information, comments, to maybe enhance both the design for more appeal and the usability for better navigation and search. - PIOT, C.B. - - - WELCOME to the Web Sites of Christian Butterbach. I am proud to be able today, December 22, 2002, to inaugurate at long last the much awaited content of this website combining the domains exterritorial.info and panarchism.info and to be the first to publish online some of the most important writings of and for our time. - Please visit also butterbach.net/exterritorial.net - the portal site for all my sites. - - - BIENVENUE sur les sites sur la toile de Christian Butterbach. Je suis fier d'être à même aujourd'hui, 22 décembre 2002, d'inaugurer enfin le contenu tant attendu de ce site combinant les domaines exterritorial.info et panarchism.info et d'être le premier à publier en ligne quelques-uns des écrits les plus importants de et pour notre temps. Ce site-ci publiant surtout en anglais, veuillez, pour les autres langues, vous rendre sur mon site-portail butterbach.net/exterritorial.net - - - WILLKOMMEN auf den Websites von Christian Butterbach. Ich bin stolz, heute, am 22. Dezember 2002, endlich in der Lage zu sein, den lang erwarteten Inhalt dieser Website, die die Domains exterritorial.info und panarchism.info verbindet, zu eröffnen, und der erste zu sein, der einige der wichtigsten Texte unserer und für unsere Zeit online veröffentlicht. Diese Website veröffentlicht hauptsächlich auf Englisch; für andere Sprachen gehen Sie bitte zu meinem Portal butterbach.net/exterritorial.net - [C.B.] - - - Alas, after all these years this book, announced already so many years ago, is still not written but many other relevant writings by myself and others have appeared, instead, online. I may still get around to write it once my Pan A to Z has been updated by myself and others, or others might come to write it and they would, most likely, do a better job of it than I could. - J.Z., 2.9.11.
EXTERRITORIAL IMPERATIVE: If some people pretended that history or geography gives them the right to subjugate other races, nations, or peoples, there can be no peace.” – Ludwig von Mises, Omnipotent Government, p.15. - TERRITORIALISM VS. PANARCHISM & TOLERANCE & MINORITY AUTONOMY
EXTERRITORIAL IMPERATIVE: If you want to survive, organize exterritorially! - The subdivision of the Earth's surface among territorial States causes most wars and tends to deteriorate any fighting into total war. - Atomic destruction devices make it now more imperative than ever before that man leave the old territorial organizations and reorganize himself in exterritorial ones in which he has spent most of his social and political development. Absolute territorial rule was in the main only an aberration of the last 300 years, an offshoot of the new religion of Statism. Exterritorial organization is required if mankind is to survive and be free. - This recognition might well be imposed as a peace condition on a defeated enemy - in order to make its introduction easier. Such a step might be undertaken only out of the nationalistic motive to destroy an enemy country's potential aggressive capacity permanently. But the influence of such a measure would go far beyond that. The "victim" would soon find that no burden has been imposed upon him but the very foundation for a free, peaceful and prosperous society. (See plan 234 in PP 14.) - Extract from PP 16-18: An ABC Against Nuclear War. - SURVIVAL, WAR & PEACE, NUCLEAR HOLOCAUST, ABC MASS MURDER DEVICES
EXTERRITORIAL IMPERATIVE: Live and let live - even if all of you use the same territory. - J.Z., 74 & 27.5.00. Equal freedom of action for all, which includes respect for the rights and liberties of all others and tolerance for their very diverse actions - within their rights and liberties. Let each fill his "shopping cart" with the kind of public or societal services that they do want for themselves and are prepared to pay for. - J.Z., 27.5.00. - TOLERANCE, PANARCHISM, FREEDOM OF ACTION, EQUAL FREEDOM
EXTERRITORIAL IMPERATIVE: The reading of history and anthropology in general give us no reason to believe that societies have built-in self-preservation systems. And therefore we can't say that man will be sensible enough not to destroy himself. He never has been sensible enough not to destroy himself, but he lived in small groups so that when he destroyed himself he didn't destroy everybody. So the necessity for new inventions for the conduct of the world cannot possibly be over-emphasized.” - Margaret Mead: Conversations with Henry Barndon, NEW REPUBLIC, June 13, 1958. - Seldes. - DECENTRALIZATION, PANARCHISM
EXTERRITORIAL STATUS OF OCCUPATION FORCES: Occupation forces have often operated under their own territorial laws in other countries. Only to that extent did they set an example for exterritorial laws coexisting with local territorial laws, as far as members of the occupation forces are concerned. This law amounts rather to an extension of territorial laws than a recognition of exterritorial law for volunteers. The soldiers and officers involved were also not given an individual choice in this matter. It was decided for them, supposedly in their own interest. This kind of law is also imposed law, not self-chosen law. The soldiers could not secede from it and adopt for themselves e.g. the laws of the occupied country or any others. If they had tried to do so they would probably have been subjected to what is called “military justice”, which, as some wit said, has as much to do with justice as military music has with music. – However, it tended to establish and preserve at least a degree of friendly relations between the occupiers and the occupied. Neither felt, thereby, too much threatened by the other. – That aspect of it is important. - J.Z., 6.7.04. – PANARCHISM, PERSONAL LAW, COMPETING LAW & JURIDICAL SYSTEMS, INSTANCES
EXTERRITORIAL TOLERANCE: Let us have the same relations politically, economically and socially as we have in music, theatre, painting, poetry etc. Each chooses or produces his own favourite types and does not interfere with the choices others make for themselves. - J.Z., 26.7.87.
EXTERRITORIAL UTOPIAS VS. TERRITORIAL UTOPIAS: Attempts to design the ideal utopia for all people, in detail, are as utopian as are attempts to design the ideal clothing, car, house, meal, book or entertainment for all. - J.Z., 5.9.87, 2.4.89.
EXTERRITORIAL VS. TERRITORIAL AUTONOMY OR SOVEREIGNTY, FULL MINORITY AUTONOMY: The coercive, centralistic and monopolistic or territorial features of all present policies, States, constitutions, laws, courts, parties and movements are to be discarded in favour of full exterritorial autonomy for all volunteer groups, i.e. for all prepared to live at their own expense and risk under personal laws, in their own freely chosen institutions. - J.Z. 19.9..88, 3.4.89.
EXTERRITORIALIS: We are all in a condemned cell awaiting a peculiarly brutal form of execution. Perhaps it will be carried out within five years, perhaps we shall be kept waiting a little longer than that. - Is there any chance not so much of breaking out as of making the walls and bars of this nightmare prison dissolve away?” - Jaquetta Hawkes, in PEACE PLANS No.415. - She put the question but did not supply the panarchistic answer. - J.Z., 10.6.00. - TERRITORIALISM & THE HOLOCAUST THREAT FROM ABC MASS MURDER DEVICES TARGETING WHOLE TERRITORIES & THEIR POPULATIONS:
EXTERRITORIALISM & SIMILAR OR RELATED TERMS, DEFINITIONS: It occurred to me that, perhaps, the problem resides in the fact that we do not have clearly defined 4 concepts that emerge continuously. They are: - territorialism - a-territoriality - micro-territoriality - extra-territoriality. - - While on the train I jotted down these definitions or better characterizations that I just copy: Territorialism: one monopolistic territorial ruler on a vast territory inhabited by people with different cultures and political orientations. - - - A-territoriality: communities that form themselves without reference to a specific territory. The rules followed by the individuals are those of the community and are distinct (in many respects) from the rules prevailing in the territory. Example: Churches, Jews. - - - Micro-territoriality: small territorial communities that exist as independent entities in a specific territory. They could remain even in the presence of a scenario where a-territorialism prevails. Example of micro-territoriality: Montecarlo, Vatican City. - - - Extra-territoriality: some communities or individuals enjoy full a-territorialism within a prevailing reality and orientation that is still characterized by territorialism. This is the situation less threatening for the existing powers and where monopolism for monopolists can be very well implemented. Example: Duty-free shops, Embassies. - - - After having scribbled down these words I added some questions. The questions are: 1. Do these distinctions exist? And if yes - - 2. Can they be characterized in the way I did (more or less)? - - 3. Can these positions co-exist? If yes - - 4. Do they lead to compatible or incompatible strategies? - - 5. If they cannot coexist or lead to incompatible strategies which one we favour (position and strategy). - - I think that if I do not answer to this questions I will be stuck. - I hope to receive from you some enlightenment. - Gian Piero de Bellis, in email of 4.12.04. "Last Few Questions"- I think these definitions are pretty good and should be supplemented by related terms: Exterritorialism, or Exterritoriality, Non-territorialism, exterritorial autonomy, personal law communities etc. The number of terms and interpretations in this sphere is currently multiplying. - - A condensed list of at least the definitions of the major terms should be attempted and added to this Pan A to Z, to reduce confusion. - However, I think that that a mere two people like Gian and myself should not attempt to lay down the "law" on this for all others, but merely state our understanding of them and invite corrections and better and clearer terms or interpretations form others, in a gradual process. - This, too, should be a work in progress, with maximum participation by others. - J.Z., 15.10.11. - - - GPdB, also in email of 4.12.04: A territory comprises a large and various set of natural and human-made resources that constitute the so-called world common heritage. This like an open resource for the benefit and enjoyment of present and future generations. - - - Territorial sovereignty or territorialism is the pretence of exclusive or restrictive sovereignty (e.g. national state sovereignty) by some entity. - - - A-territorialism means the non-recognition of any claim to territorial dominance by any power, institutional or not. - According to a-territorialism, no so-called sovereign power can rightfully appropriate and monopolize the use of or access to a river or a passageway or any resource that is part of the common heritage or dictate rules that are binding for all the people living on the same territory. - - - Nobody should also [ever? – J.Z.] infringe the property rights of individuals or groups. The use of and access to their properties (e.g. a building, a specific tract of land, a. cultivated field, etc.) is regulated directly by the owner and the rules affect only the owner and those who have been granted use-access. These property rights and property rules are valid only in so far as they do not become impositions spreading out into the common heritage. - - - The only general rules acceptable and desirable in a territory are norms of expediency (e.g. driving on the left or on the right) and health regulations (e.g. standards of hygiene). - - - A-territorialism means then to achieve, in due time and through a voluntary process, the overall extinction of every territorial sovereignty and the promotion of self-rule. - - - - Notes: I have chosen the term a-territorialism because this is the one that, according to the Webster Dictionary, more precisely qualify exclusive monopolistic sovereignty. Territoriality is defined as "persistent attachment to a specific territory"; and so it misses the point). - -(Territorialism is the coercive subjugation or voluntary submission to a territorial government. – J.Z., 2.5.12.)(I have eliminated the expression public domain in order to simplify the text. Clearly even common heritage has territorial connotations. We live on earth and we are confronted with problems affecting territories. The difference, in my opinion, is that we go beyond the monopolistic rule over vast territories (accepting the monopolistic management of personal properties, land included). - - (In other words whenever we refer to a territory it doesn't mean that we are for territorialism. Our task is to make very clear that a territory can be managed even in the absence of territorialism that is in absence of a supreme power. And self-management doesn't mean lack of management.) - - (Perhaps we should clarify the territory-territoriality-territorialism distinction otherwise it seems that we live in a virtual world and we cannot mention the word territory or public domain for fear of being seen in favour of territorialism. I am for virtuality only when it involves the exchange of information; virtual libraries, virtual universities or virtual conversation like this one between you and me. Otherwise I am pretty in favour of being down on earth).
EXTERRITORIALISM & TERRITORIALISM: Exterritorialism does not attack the rightful claims of individuals to stand or move on the tiny spots they require, at least temporarily, to go on living and supporting themselves and their dependents. It does not attack the tiny “territories” upon which their homes or business enterprises are situated, or which are used for their gardens or farms, but merely the coercive and monopolistic claims of some leaders or political systems over all such tiny private or cooperative patches of land, in a whole country or even continent, regardless of the consent or dissent of their victims. People and what is theirs are not to be considered as property of the State or nationalised milking cows. Any public service should be offered competitively and at market prices, which are to be haggled out between the providers and the consumers. Free enterprise for the providers and consumer sovereignty for the consumers of “governmental” services. Competing - rather than imposed governments! Obviously, this requires exterritorialism rather than monopolized territorial turfs for the locally predominant political mafia groups. – J.Z., 13.4.98, 10.1.99, 2.5.12.
EXTERRITORIALISM VS. TERRITORIALISM: Exterritorialism has at least the potential to make territorialism obsolete and to do so fast and efficiently, once it is widely enough appreciated and consistently applied. One of the main questions is whether territorialism might not destroy all of us before we get around to practise this reform or revolution, i.e., before exterritorialism is given its chance to liberate us and make us wealthy by our own productive efforts and gives us the chance to live in our own preferred ways, following our different individual dreams and convictions. – J.Z., 3.5.98, 10.1.99.
EXTERRITORIALISM VS. TERRITORIALISM: It is often assumed that territorial legislation and jurisdiction would eliminate conflicts of laws and jurisdiction. Many legal textbooks are available to refute that notion and to describe to what extent personal law survives even today. For instance: P. E. Nygh: "Conflict of Laws in Australia", 4th. ed., Butterworths, 1984, indexed, 548 pp, priced $ 49.00 in 1987. If it were not for the price of this book, I would have bought it. - J.Z., 1.4.89.
EXTERRITORIALISM VS. TERRITORIALISM: The territorial problems are territorially insolvable. - J.Z., 25.4.88. However, exterritorially they could be solved, fast, rightfully and by volunteers, at their own risk and expense. - J.Z., 12.12.03. – Then all others would be free to adopt the thus proven solutions at no cost to themselves, e.g. the solution to the problem of involuntary unemployment and of a governmentally imposed inflation and tax burden. – J.Z., 2.5.12.
EXTERRITORIALISM VS. TERRITORIALISM: Why should the options for personal and group independence be confined to the democratic model or a return to or the maintenance of any old or new, exclusive, tribal, religious, cultural, national or racial TERRITORIES? Let each have the independence or government of his own dreams, at his own expense and risk, wherever he lives. Let membership be freely determined like that in his church or in his sports club. - J.Z., 22.2.88.
EXTERRITORIALISM, CONSISTENT & COMPREHENSIVE VS. INCONSISTENT & INCOMPLETE TERRITORIALISM: The territorial model of thinking and acting has a strong and persistent hold upon the thinking and actions of most human beings, like all customs and traditions and established institutions. It takes time and effort to free oneself from all the false premises, myths and prejudices that maintain and promote territorialism. At least until all the "assets" or facts and writings on exterritorial autonomy for volunteers have been combined and sufficiently, permanently and cheaply published, in all major languages. See under Encyclopaedia of Panarchism.
EXTERRITORIALISM: It is possible to act otherwise than territorially. This is even the only quite free, just and genuinely social way. - J.Z., Dec. 04.
EXTERRITORIALISM: Land isn't sacred. Beliefs are - at least to their believers. Land is just a platform for all kinds of faiths, ideologies, experiments, societies and communities. Private and cooperative property, combined with membership lists, can distinguish them sufficiently. - J.Z., 29.8.01, 31.1.02. - EXTERRITORIALISM VS. TERRITORIALISM, PANARCHISM, PERSONAL LAW AUTONOMY
EXTERRITORIALISM: Territorialism, the absurd idea that law should adhere to a territory rather than a person, that it should be imposed upon rather than chosen by people, could only have occurred to a legal "mind". - J.Z., 26.12.78, in PEACE PLANS No.415. - VS. TERRITORIALISM, LAWYERS, LAWS, LEGALISM, CONSTITUTIONALISM
EXTERRITORIALISM: The exterritorialism of panarchism is in politics something akin to the 4th dimension in Science Fiction stories. Through it, rather than an imposed territorial uniformity, each adult member of the population can become interconnected and associated with all like-minded people in the same country and even world-wide, to attempt to realize their own ideals or dreams of perfection, as far as it can be done by voluntary cooperation and at the own risk and expense, unhindered by local majorities and central territorial hierarchies, without election campaigns and winning them, without prolonged enlightenment attempts. The first volunteers would already be free to do their own things for and to themselves, like they do already in so many other spheres that are no longer monopolized by territorial governments. In most SF stories this opportunity is provided to the dissenters only on whole alien planets, one for each of these groups of intentional community people or utopists. The science fiction novel or utopia describing this exterritorial autonomy option and doing this quite believably and in details, referring to many historical precedents and part realizations, as a possibility to achieve peace, freedom, justice and progress on Earth, may still have to be written or to be made sufficiently known. It would have at least the potential to become a best-seller. – J.Z., 13.2.99, 23.3.09. – SCIENCE FICTION
EXTERRITORIALISM: the fact that your culture is butting its head against a stone wall. It's painful to watch, so we're going to show you how to get around the wall.” - Algis Budrys, Multifarious, ASTOUNDING, Oct. 53. - Territorialism cannot solve the many problems, which Exterritorialism could easily solve. Nevertheless, territorialism is still much more popular. The exterritorialists have not yet got their acts together. - J.Z., 10.6.00. - VS. TERRITORIALISM
EXTERRITORIALISM: The right of the group to live its own life does, as a rule, include the claim to make the territory occupied by the group into a separate State. But there are countries with greatly mixed populations in which the individual groups cannot be allocated to a definite territory, but are scattered throughout the country. These have been called national minorities, and minority rights for the groups or the individuals have been developed. They will require further development; every minority must have the right to constitute itself as such by a group resolution. - But even that will not always suffice to meet the demand for separate State life. Autonomy is not necessarily bound up with a territory. Many branches of administration permit of several administrations existing side by side in the same territory, in the manner accepted as a matter or course at the present day in questions of church administration. In exactly the same way administrations of different nationalities could work side by side on the same territory, and deal separately with such matters as education, social welfare and health, and likewise justice among their members, the remaining matters being dealt by all in common. (*) - The old state frontiers will remain so long as those most concerned wish to maintain them. But they must not form an obstacle to the demand of a people or a race for independence. Whether the people or the race lives within the frontiers, or extends over parts of a number of States, whether complete separation or self-government inside an existing State is aimed at - all these are questions of organization which each people must in principle decide for itself. Only when conflicts arise must the Federation intervene and have the matter put to the vote under its supervision. - One of the most important tasks of the Federation is the recognition and the protection of rights of man and rights of groups. …” - Frank E. Warner, Future of Man, 132/233, copied from PP 415. - And if the autonomous communities do not want to form a federation or another federation, they do have the right to do so, too. Moreover, which federation has so far ever been very good in upholding the rights of man and of groups? – (*) Why? - J.Z., 10.6.00. - UNDER PERSONAL LAWS
EXTERRITORIALIST COMPETITION AGAINST TERRITORIALIST MONOPOLIES: The territorial, constitutional, legislative, juridical, administrative, policing and military privileges of governments must be abolished. They must be fully exposed to competition, i.e. reduced to exterritorial autonomy among their voluntary followers. Then only would at least some of them become able to supply their followers with some real services at competitive prices - unless even there, in the remaining and supposed government spheres, private contractors would outbid them in every respect. - J.Z., 17.3.88, 2.4.89, 2.5.12.
EXTERRITORIALIST REVOLUTION: Territoriality and exterritoriality are simply opposites, separated by a simple mental step and yet for hundreds of years most people have failed to seriously consider this alternative. When it was pointed out to them, even then it has often taken decades before they grasped at least a fraction of all the implications of this revolution or reversal. - J.Z., 2.4.89, 2.5.12.
EXTERRITORIALITY & EXTRATERRITORIALITY: 11, ON PANARCHY I, in PP 505.
EXTERRITORIALITY & PANARCHISM: Politicians and bureaucrats should have no more power over us, our lives, our property, our earnings, our money, our trades, than have Woolworth, Coles and MacDonald's. We should insist upon full exterritorial autonomy towards all territorial power mongers and addicts. - J.Z., 21.1.04, 24.3.04.
EXTERRITORIALITY VS. TERRITORIALISM BY RESULTS: Exterritoriality as a precondition for peace, justice freedom, harmony, tolerance, voluntarism, individual and minority group autonomy, rapid progress, widespread wealth, rightly acquired, stable competing currencies, full employment, genuine education and enlightenment. - Territoriality or territorialism should, finally, be seen as a condition making for war, civil war, revolutions, despotism, party struggles, corruption, terrorism, collective responsibility, stagnation, poverty, inflation, deflation, economic crises, large scale involuntary unemployment, miseducation. – J.Z., n.d. & 2.5.12.
EXTERRITORIALITY, COMMUNITIES: For Kropotkin the commune is not just a territorial agglomeration, but “… a commune of interests where members are scattered in a thousand towns and villages.” – Ava Kumovi, Kropotkin, 312, quoted by George Woodcock.
EXTERRITORIALITY, PRECEDENTS, OCCUPATION FORCES: die in Europa befindlichen Kasernen anderern Maechte exterritorial sind, …” - “… the military camps of other powers in Europa are exterritorial, …” – Heinrich Rittershausen, “Wirtschaft”, Das Fischer Lexikon, Feb. 1976 edition, page 21.
EXTERRITORIALITY: A community is not a set of atomistic member who happen to be located within some boundary line but a web of relationships. Emotional attachments and networks of relationships may create benevolent sympathy for persons in the community and for the community as a whole, and this sympathy can be tapped for the voluntary provision of non-excludable civic goods. A community therefore has the feasibility of providing for club goods by catallactic (commercial exchange) means and for non-excludable goods by sympathetic means as well as by tie-ins to club and private goods. This feasibility does not make the provision of non-excludable collective goods automatic or inevitable, but possible. What transforms the possibility into actuality is entrepreneurship.” - Fred E. Foldvary, Proprietary Communities and Community Associations, in: “The Voluntary City, Choice, Community and Civil Society, ed. by David T. Beito, Peter Gordon and Alexander Tabarrok, Foreword by Paul Johnson, The Independent Institute, The University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 2002, page 284. – - Alas, entrepreneurship or freedom of action or freedom of experimentation is not yet free and going far enough in most countries. The primary conditions, individual secessionism and exterritorial autonomy for voluntary communities are missing as constitutional, legal and juridical options. Even in most official human rights declarations these liberties are not yet included but only in some of the private ones, which I offer in my digitized and supplemented edition of PEACE PLANS 589/590. (Included in my CD reproduced at www.butterbach.net.) If I remember right, Fred Foldvary was also one of the few who gave some panarchistic replies to my peace questionnaire, digitized in PEACE PLANS 650. His current email address FFoldvary@scu.edu - J.Z., 2.12.08. - NON-TERRITORIAL CONSTITUTIONS & COMMUNITIES, PANARCHISM & POLYARCHISM, PERSONAL LAW, MILLET SYSTEM
EXTERRITORIALITY: Although each of you pretends to be interested in liberty and peace, all of you show only interest in territorial "liberty" - which is the key to oppression and war - and no interest whatsoever in exterritorial liberty (including personal laws, monetary freedom, individual sovereignty), which holds the key to peace and freedom. - J.Z., 27.9.80. – One of the positive signs of the times is that interest in this alternative has been multiplying, although it is still far from shaping public opinion. – J.Z., 2.5.12. - ITS PEACE VS. TERRITORIALISM & ITS WARS ETC.
EXTERRITORIALITY: bondage of the people who were denied the privilege of enacting their own laws.” - Patrick Henry. – Rather, a freedom option for people that they ought to try to realize as long as they are denied the right to live under self-given laws, in self-chosen communities, societies or governance systems. – J.Z., 18.11.10, 2.5.12. - PERSONAL LAWS VS. TERRITORIAL BONDAGE
EXTERRITORIALITY: Exterritorial, individual secessionism and autonomy is the only thing that can unite all the (presently infighting) parties, resistance and revolutionary groups against any territorial repressive or authoritarian regimes, even if they are, formally, merely democracies, republics or constitutional monarchies. - J.Z., 30.11.81. - in PEACE PLANS No. 415. - Exterritorially autonomous communities and individual secessionism are the … - J.Z., 10.6.00. – Revised: 5.2.12. - UNITY & THE FIGHT FOR LIBERTY AGAINST REPRESSIVE REGIMES
EXTERRITORIALITY: Full exterritorial autonomy for every volunteer or volunteer group, in place of any imposed territorial apartheid or integration or uniformity or majority or minority despotism. - J.Z., 14.10.80, in PEACE PLANS No. 415.
EXTERRITORIALITY: he argued that no man can rightfully be required to join or support an association whose protection he does not desire.” - Carl Watner, on Lysander Spooner, in REASON, 8/76. - EXTERRITORIALITY & VOLUNTARY MEMBERSHIP VS. TERRITORIALITY & COMPULSORY STATE MEMBERSHIP, SECESSIONISM, INDIVIDUAL SOVEREIGNTY
EXTERRITORIALITY: his "inalienable right" to choose his own government, which the "Declaration" guarantees in explicit terms to every one.” – Josiah Warren, True Civilization, p.19/10. - Obviously, it was not explicit enough for most to so understand it. - J.Z., 10.6.00. - CHOICE OF GOVERNMENT FOR INDIVIDUALS
EXTERRITORIALITY: I began every case with a brisk "Chinese law & custom, I presume, Mr. Lo?" For two years, I succeeded in not hearing a single case according to English Common Law. Whenever a complainant opted for it, it was because he believed he would score an advantage by it.” - Austin Coates, Myself a Mandarin, quoted in READER'S DIGEST, June 86, p. 164. - For seven years A. C. was a special magistrate in Hong Kong. - COMPETING JURISDICTION, PERSONAL LAW, PANARCHISM PRECEDENTS, HONG KONG
EXTERRITORIALITY: I take issue with "I see no practical means for moving toward a free society…" The means I see is NON-GEOGRAPHIC GOVERNMENT.” - Robert Hawkins, in LEFEVRE'S JOURNAL, Summer 1977. - NON-GEOGRAPHICAL GOVERNMENT & THE FREE SOCIETY, PANARCHISM
EXTERRITORIALITY: If government is in the hands of a few, they will tyrannize the many; if it the hands of the many, they will tyrannize over the few…” - Alexander Hamilton, WORKS, II, p.413. - Thus each group ought to rule only itself. - J.Z., n.d. - Hamilton made sure, as a territorialist, that his prediction would come true. - J.Z., 10.6.00. - VS. TERRITORIAL GOVERNMENTS, TYRANNY OF THE FEW OR THE MANY, DEMOCRACY, MAJORITY, MINORITIES, INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS
EXTERRITORIALITY: If their object had really been to abolish slavery, or maintain liberty or justice generally, they had only to say: "All, whether white or black, who want the protection of this government, shall have it; and all who do not want it, will be left in peace, so long as they leave us in peace." Had they said this, slavery would necessarily have been abolished at once; the war would have been saved; and a thousand times [as? – J.Z.] noble union than we have ever had would have been the result. It would have been a voluntary union of free men. …” - Fred D. Miller, Jr., in REASON, 5/76. - From PEACE PLANS No.415. - PERSONAL LAWS, FULL AUTONOMY, SLAVERY & THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR, VOLUNTARISM, FREE CHOICE, CONSENT, UNION
EXTERRITORIALITY: Individual secessionism rather than war! - J.Z., 14.1.89. - Exterritorial autonomy for volunteer communities rather than war! - J.Z., 29.5.00. - PEACE, INDIVIDUAL SECESSIONISM VS. WAR
EXTERRITORIALITY: It is frequently assumed that the emergence of militarily organized territorial monopolies over violence (that is states) extending their powers through conquest, is the only conceivable or even normal form of political organization. Counterexamples are presented by Hendrik Spruyt in The Sovereign State and Its Competitors (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994.), which examines other forms of political organization, often of a far more voluntary nature, such as the Hanseatic League of German merchants, and forms of non-territorial organization, such as the Roman Church and the Holy Roman Empire.” - Tom G. Palmer, The Literature of Liberty, in: David David Boaz, ed., The Libertarian Reader, The Free Press, 1997. (Claiming copyrights even to the writings of Paine, Madison, Tocqueville, Mill, etc.! – J.Z.), p.441. – I can only hope that this title does not confine itself to these examples only but goes more into the panarchistic or polyarchic direction. – J.Z., 4.10.07. - VOLUNTARISM VS. TERRITORIAL COERCION & MONOPOLY
EXTERRITORIALITY: It took an American, Whitman, to speak of the IGNOMINY of a nativity. In his eyes, it was not what one was born, but what one BECAME that gave a man his proper home. Whitman regarded the ties of blood and race as something to be overcome if men were to enter into the fullest world of manhood. Also he saw that the civilized community is not a herd of blood brothers but an organization of men for a purpose and a spiritual brotherhood.” - Dorothy Thompson, The Pocketbook of America, IX. - NATIVE COUNTRY, FATHERLAND, MOTHERLAND, HOME COUNTRY, NATIONALITY, COUNTRYMEN, PEOPLE, COMMUNITY
EXTERRITORIALITY: Just as injurious as it would be to an amphibian to cut off its branchiae before its lungs were well developed; so injurious must it be to a society to destroy its old institutions before the new have become organized enough to take their places.” - Herbert Spencer, The Study of Sociology, ch. 16. - Old institutions need not be replaced - except the territorial ones. Instead, they can be and should be supplemented and competed with by individually and freely chosen alternative institutions. Formally they would then be continued by and for their remaining followers, even within the old borders, but in practice, they would be reduced, via individual secessionism, to applying personal laws to their remaining followers, just like all those who seceded from them and established their own and exterritorially autonomous organizations. Sooner or later they might then wake up to the fact that they could also gain new followers outside their former national borders, from people living and working all over the world. Numerous exterritorially autonomous communities could come to peacefully coexist, like religions, with followers and contributors spread all over the world, however centralized or decentralized they want their organizations to be. There might come into being independent branches of them among all of the former nations, peoples or States. Some might be so open to "foreigners" and "aliens", who are moral and rational enough to respect the individual rights of others that, in advance, they would offer even extraterrestrials, if they ever arrive or are contacted, honorary citizenship in their communities, but also with the option to apply their own rules among themselves. - J.Z., 9.10.02, 2.5.12. - RADICALISM & CONSERVATISM COMBINED, ALTERNATIVE INSTITUTIONS, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM
EXTERRITORIALITY: Live like Gods - under your own laws. - J.Z., 19.11.80. - PERSONAL LAWS, VS TERRITORIAL UNITY & LAWS
EXTERRITORIALITY: Man has not succeeded in developing political and economic forms of organization which would guarantee the peaceful coexistence of the nations of the world.” - Albert Einstein, A Message to Intellectuals, 1948. - A. E. gave no sign, according to my knowledge, that he knew anything of the history - and potential - of exterritorial and autonomous organization of volunteers under personal laws. - J.Z., n.d. - He only searched for a unified theory in the field of physics, not human, State and societal relations. Some correspondence with him by H. L. Follin and Ulrich von Beckerath, who tried to enlighten him in this respect, has been micro-fiched in PEACE PLANS 585. I suspect he just discarded it as contributions from some more cranks. Not every great mind is open-minded to ideas that differ from his own. - J.Z., 9.10.02. - PANARCHISM, VOLUNTARISM, PEACE & COEXISTENCE
EXTERRITORIALITY: Neither the Western nor the Asiatic nor the Middle-East powers, the voters everywhere not even most of the “scientists” of the “social sciences” do know and appreciate their exterritorial and voluntary autonomy traditions, think about them and built upon them. Thus they remain, everywhere, victims of territorialism and its powers and coercion and victimization. – J.Z., 4.11.04, 7.10.07, 2.5.12. - TRADITIONS:
EXTERRITORIALITY: Nobody can rightly demand that the people, with a polite bow before the helpless governments of the world, prepare themselves for their end, which may come any hour now. On the contrary, they must become authorized (they already have the right) to organize themselves in autonomous organizations to which the subjects of all governments are invited as members. - The foremost purpose of these new powers would be to destroy or render harmless, in a suitable way, all weapons which are outlawed by international law, and referendums confirming it, especially nuclear devices. - Ulrich von Beckerath, 1882-1969. - An exterritorial society would have neither the motive, the finance, the targets, the obedience, the secrecy, the conscription and the decision-making power, nor any of the other powers required to prepare and carry out a nuclear war. - J.Z., n.d. & 2.5.12. - Compare PP 12/221, PP 16-18 & PP 61-63. - EXTERRITORIALLY AUTONOMOUS COMMUNITIES OF VOLUNTEERS OR PANARCHIES FOR ALL WHO DESIRE THEM FOR THEMSELVES VS. THE TERRITORIAL WARFARE STATES & THE NUCLEAR WAR THREAT
EXTERRITORIALITY: Patriotism knows neither latitude nor longitude. It is not climatic.” - E. A. Storrs, Political Oratory, ch. 2, quoted in PP 415. - NON-GEOGRAPHICAL PATRIOTISM
EXTERRITORIALITY: Secession: Every rational being has the right to give notice of withdrawal from a free contract or association and to secede from every unnatural association based on compulsory membership, including e.g. the State, the army, unions, and totalitarian parties, in the same way as it may resign from a church, without losing even a single human right or natural right. - COMMENT: The social contract is neither voluntarily concluded between individuals nor is it unnatural. Its compulsion consists only in the inescapable duty to protect the human rights and natural rights of reasonable beings. (Compare: 48. - 21.) Associations and Exterritorial and Autonomous Communities of Volunteers: Every rational being has the right to join or form private associations. It may not be forced to join or to remain in any of them. - All rational beings have, furthermore, the right to associate in exterritorial and autonomous communities, even within the territories of those States from which they have seceded, as long as these new communities permit secession themselves and act within the framework of the human rights and the natural rights of rational beings. - Rational beings have the right to join even several such communities simultaneously, according to their free choice, and the right to change their membership. Nobody may be arbitrarily deprived of it. But every community may refuse to accept or keep someone who has obstinately offended against its laws. - COMMENT: Every rational being has e.g. the right but is not obliged to belong to a party standing for the human rights. It is free to leave it any time and to set up another party. - No State or exterritorial and autonomous community may enforce membership in any form and under any pretence, even in wartime. Compare 48-53. - Rights 20 & 21 give - not only the majority in each generation but every individual rational being - the right to choose for itself the form of government it believes to be most conducive to its happiness. In other words, these rights give the opportunity for full self-government and independence to all minorities, no matter how small they are. They would thus help to avoid wars and civil wars. Only police actions against aggressive totalitarians would still be necessary. - The Court of Taranto, Italy, gave a ruling in 1954, in which it state that the tendency today is "to regard citizenship as an essentially voluntary relationship, the implication being that one has to accept the principle of the freedom of will of the individual and to concede to his claims to an opportunity of shaping his life according to his own free choice." - From the Human Rights Draft in PP 4 & 61-63: 20. - Concerning unions see: 24. - Copied from the version in PEACE PLANS 415. - EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY BASED UPON INDIVIDUAL SECESSIONISM, HUMAN RIGHTS, INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS, INDIVIDUAL SOVEREIGNTY, PANARCHISM, VOLUNTARISM
EXTERRITORIALITY: The absence of a thing, … this can be as deadly as the presence. The absence of air, eh? The absence of water? The absence of anything else we're addicted to. - Frank Herbert, Dune, Complete & unabridged edition, p.224. – Those addicted to territorialism can ultimately only be saved by their conversion to exterritorial autonomy. As territorialists they remain targets for ABC mass murder devices, as long as notions of collective responsibility predominate. – J.Z., 2.12.08. - FREEDOM, ABSENCE OF THINGS OR CONDITIONS, UTOPIANISM, PANARCHISM, FREEDOM TO EXPERIMENT, INDIVIDUAL & GROUP SECESSIONISM, INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS & LIBERTIES.
EXTERRITORIALITY: The exterritorial and autonomous protective associations of volunteers are the "open cooperatives" in the sphere of political, social and economic systems. - J.Z., 8.3.82. - They break the territorial monopoly in the same way as "open cooperatives" break the economic monopoly consisting in the exclusive possession of natural monopolies (natural resources). - J.Z., 18.9.82. - In PEACE PLANS No. 415. & OPEN COOPERATIVES
EXTERRITORIALITY: The legitimacy of government derives from the consent of the governed in exterritorial communities, which are united by historic ties, mutual loyalties, common literature, customs and institutions, and generally, thought not always, common language. - J.Z., replacing: "geographical" by "exterritorial" before communities, in a remark by R. V. Sampson: The Discovery of Peace, p.187. - CONSENT & LEGITIMACY, VOLUNTARISM & PANARCHISM
EXTERRITORIALITY: The thinking of those people had been inextricably earthbound.” - Gordon R. Dickson, Mission to the Universe. - EARTHBOUND, THINKING, PANARCHISM, TERRITORIALITY, FALSE PARADIGMS
EXTERRITORIALITY: War will cease only when all land will be turned into no-man's land as well as every-man's-land!” - J.Z., 3.7.82, in PEACE PLANS No. 415. & WAR:
EXTERRITORIALITY: We need what Milton Friedman seems to think impossible: "Separate legislative enactments for each 'party' represented." - M. F., Capitalism & Freedom, p. 23. - They even should have their own parliaments if they want to, rather than one parliament trying to make laws for all the different volunteer communities. This is one of many freedom options that M. F. has not yet seriously considered, to my knowledge. - J.Z., 10.6.00. - Perhaps we should start with separate parliaments e.g. for women and for young and old people, to give them a chance to get rid of whatever legal restrictions remain imposed upon them? Racial and religious minorities might also prefer their own, and so would many ideological groups. To each his own! - And some might prefer to operate without any parliamentary law factories at all, finding them wrongful, harmful and superfluous. - J.Z., 9.10.02. - PERSONAL LAWS, VOLUNTARISM
EXTERRITORIALITY: What is the sum of all wisdom and experience with territorial sovereignty? It is wrong, murderous, oppressive, exploitative and impoverishing. And yet most political science books, lectures, seminars, discussions, articles, letters to the editor, news reports, essays, pamphlets, leaflets, comments and international conferences do deal only with this model and ignore the alternative of exterritorial autonomy for volunteer communities, which is unobjectionable in theory and in the practices is has had and still has now in limited and private spheres. None is so blind as he who will not see! - J.Z., 25.5.00. - VS. TERRITORIALITY
EXTERRITORIALITY: When a government takes an action, there are some who favor that action. They have a right to favor it. They simply have no right to favor it at the expense of those who do not favor it. … When a policy is favored by some, it is imposed on all.” - Robert LeFevre, OUTLOOK, Dec. 72. - AUTONOMY & VOLUNTARISM VS. CONVENTIONAL STATE POLICIES & ACTIONS, FREEDOM OF ACTION & EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM VS. MONOPOLIZED & CENTRALIZED & COERCIVE DECISION-MAKING FOR ALL
EXTERRITORIALITY: When the States resemble churches (with a home base or point of origin but no geographical boundaries), force will end. The idea is that cities, counties, countries, and combinations of countries would continue to exist but individuals could live anywhere and opt to (or not to) affiliate with his (*) own, or any other city, county, or country. This could be the end of "the package plan": you live in a certain place; therefore you must pay taxes on demand to all the geographical entities that include you.” - Robert Hawkins, LEFEVRE'S JOURNAL, Summer 1977. – (*) their – J.Z. - TERRITORIAL STATES & THEIR POWER & COERCION
EXTERRITORIALITY: Whereas the earlier discussion is centered around territorial communities Tullock (1985) (*) proposes non- territorial constitutions for contractions (contractive? – J.Z.) associations. He notes the example of the Millet system (dhimmis – J.Z.) of the old Turkish empire, under which autonomous non-Muslim religious communities were formed. (**) Tullock proposes associations with quasi governmental power, which would be without a specific geographic location. They would provide services that are not geographical in scope, somewhat like those that churches provide today. Aspects of law that these “sociological” associations could assume might include those concerned with family, probate and contract. (***) – Fred E. Foldvary, Proprietary Communities and Community Associations, in: “The Voluntary City, Choice, Community and Civil Society, ed. by David T. Beito, Peter Gordon and Alexander Tabarrok, Foreword by Paul Johnson, The Independent Institute, The University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 2002, page 283. - (*) As if he had been the first to do so! – J.Z., 29.9.07. - - (**) And existed peacefully for a long time. - - (***) The last-mentioned possibility is not futuristic at all but still the personal law practice in some countries. I saw several thick and expensive law books on that, too expensive for me. – However, they had to pay a head tax, a cheap price for religious liberty and community autonomy. - - Have the collaborators in this book, by now, written something more on this subject? I do not know. – But at least in the background such ideas do spread. An Internet search might reveal how widely. – How can one bring them to the foreground of the public debate? I have made xyz proposals on that, which remain to be sufficiently and publicly discussed as well. - J.Z., 29.9.07. (Reference mentioned in the above: Tullock, G. 1985. A New Proposal for Decentralizing Government Activity. In: Rationale Wirtschaftpolitik in komplexen Gesellschaften, ed. H. Milde and H. G. Monissen, 139-148. Stuttgart: Verlag W. Kohlhammer.) – NON-TERRITORIAL CONSTITUTIONS & COMMUNITIES, PANARCHISM & POLYARCHISM, PERSONAL LAW, MILLET SYSTEM
EXTERRITORIALITY: Will it take as long or even longer to establish exterritorial autonomy for volunteer communities in the political, economic and social spheres as it took to establish the degrees of religious tolerance that we now enjoy, and this with all the extra communication media now at our disposal? I don't think mankind will survive as long - if it remains addicted to the territorial model. - J.Z., 24.5.00. - PANARCHISM, TOLERANCE, RELIGIOUS LIBERTY
EXTRATERRESTRIAL INTELLIGENCES: SHOULD WE TRY TO CONTACT THEM? Let's fully communicate with terrestrial intelligences first! - J.Z., 28.9.78. - I wish that SF writers had much more explored these possibilities of "releasing everybody's creative energies" and making use of the best ideas so far found - now largely buried in unpublished or in out-of-print libertarian writings. - J.Z., 9.6.00.
EXTRATERRITORIALITY & EXTERRITORIALITY: See: Exterritoriality. - Moore, A Digest of International Law (Washington, 1906), vol. ii, p. 593: "Owing to diversities in law, custom, and social habits, the citizens and subjects of nations possessing European civilization enjoy in countries of non-European civilization, chiefly in the East, an extensive exemption from the operation of the local law.This exemption is termed 'extraterritoriality.' "
EXTRATERRITORIALITY & ITS MODERN WRONGFUL DEVELOPMENT:  Kayaoglu (2002) tells us that "[e]xtraterritoriality is a form of jurisdiction where home states continue to claim jurisdiction over the activities of their citizens are immune from local, host country’s jurisdiction." In this modern version of extraterritoriality, a territorial state extends its reach beyond its own borders with the consent of the host state, but not necessarily with the consent of the individual. Today there is an even more scrupulous interpretation along the same line of thought; extraterritoriality is today often assumed to refer to the right of a territorial government to impose its law also outside of its territory, in the territory of another territorial government, given that the home state law is stricter than the host country’s. This could be related to for example accounting laws, trafficking and brokering of military equipment, child pornography and trafficking, etc. This, of course, is not what extraterritoriality originally was (for or against). - RCBJ in his review of SHI SHUN LIU'S book. - INTOLERANCE, TERRITORIALISM, IMPERIALISM
EXTRATERRITORIALITY: Alan Hudson, Beyond the Borders. [August 2002] - http://www.alanhudson.org.uk/borders.pdf - An interesting essay about globalization, sovereignty and extra-territoriality. - A hint at www.panarchy.org - Among his references: "(26) P. Gann, ‘Issues in extraterritoriality - Foreword’, Law and Contemporary Problems 50/3 (1987) pp.1-10; K. Meessen, Extraterritorial jurisdiction in theory and practice (London: Kluwer Law International 1996); S. Picciotto, ‘Jurisdictional conflicts, international law and the international state system’, International Journal of the Sociology of Law 11/1 (1983) pp.11-40; P. Slot, E. Grabandt, ‘Extraterritoriality and jurisdiction’, Common Market Law Review 23/3 (1986) pp.545-565. - (27) J. Griffin and M. Calabrese, ‘Coping with extraterritoriality disputes’, Journal of World Trade Law 22/3 (1988) pp.5-25; F. Mann, ‘The doctrine of jurisdiction in international law’, in F. Mann (ed.), Studies in International Law (Oxford: Clarendon Press 1973) pp.1-139; F. Mann ‘The doctrine of international jurisdiction revisited after twenty years’ in F. Mann (ed.) Further Studies in International Law (Oxford: Clarendon Press 1990) pp.1-83. - (28) J. Trachtman, ‘Externalities and extraterritoriality: The law and economics of prescriptive jurisdiction’, in J. Bhandari and A. Sykes, (eds.), Economic dimensions in international law: Comparative and empirical perspectives (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1997) pp.645-686. - Obviously, the literature on extraterritoriality and exterritoriality is already larger than any individual may be able to acquire and fully study. - With territorialism one merely continues old troubles but cannot arrive at solutions of the numerous and vast problems that it does create and uphold. - J.Z., 28.11.11, 2.5.12.
EXTRATERRITORIALITY: It was natural that trade should begin; it followed that numerous Arulians should come here to live; and, as you say, it was quite proper to grant them extraterritoriality.” - Poul Anderson, The Long Night, p.57. - Exterritoriality goes beyond the miniature territoriality that is expressed in extraterritoriality. It amounts to personal law, which a man takes with him wherever he goes. Only quarantine requirements and the house-rules of proprietors and the civilized laws binding both hosts and their guests, put limits upon this personal law or individual sovereignty. A clothed host does not have to put up with the preferences of a nudist, nor do nudist hosts have to put up with the preferences of those addicted to clothing. But on some occasions they might agree to tolerate their different preferences, at least when applied within the limits of personal hygiene, e.g. still sufficiently separated from each other on large beaches – but not in crowded public transport systems. Monogamists can deny membership to bigamists and polygamists and vice versa. But neither can lay down the law for private actions of the other. - J.Z., 9.2.02, 2.5.12. - EXTERRITORIALITY
EXTREMISM, RADICALISM, TERRORISM, FANATICISM, ZEALOTS, FUNDAMENTALISTS & PANARCHISM: Panarchism is not only for enlightened people and moderates. To keep the general peace, freedom and justice, internally as well as externally, it is most important that it is extended also to the extremists, including even totalitarian communists and Nazis, revolutionaries, terrorists etc. – under the inherent conditions of panarchism, namely voluntary membership, individual secessionism and confinement to exterritorial autonomy. That would keep them, mostly, sufficiently busy, doing their own things for and to themselves, in their self-chosen ways and less hateful towards those who happen to disagree with them. Moreover, in this of fully self-responsible situation they cannot blame and accuse outsiders for the results of their own flawed principles, actions and institutions – but only themselves. Having to pay and labour for all their mistakes themselves will have a very salutary, educational and enlightening effect upon them, not otherwise obtainable by mere persuasion attempts. Their experiments will be conducted under optimal conditions, in the absence of all internal enemies, among those only who do largely agree with them. They will no longer have to try, mostly vainly, to persuade the local majority to adopt their views, which can be very frustrating and has led many radicals to adopt violence as a supposedly more effective means to achieve their aims. – However, extremism and radicalism in the pursuit of liberty is, as someone once said, certainly no vice. He should have added: Even the greatest degree of liberty should not be imposed upon dissenters and their preferred ways of living together with like-minded people. – J.Z., 27.1.05, 2.5.12.EXTREMISM, REVOLUTION, EVOLUTION & PANARCHISM: If there were more extremists in evolutionary periods, there would be no revolutionary periods." - Byington sticker. - Via panarchistic extremism, revolutions and evolutions would coexist and proceed without bloodshed. Indeed, revolutions would become individualized and self-responsible and thus part of the peaceful evolutionary process. At the same time, the evolutionary process under these conditions could lead to quite revolutionary changes but all of them freely chosen by the individuals concerned and only for themselves. Then this whole distinction between revolution and evolution would cease to make much sense. Unless one would see it as a change from legal and revolutionary violence (considered as revolutionary for all) to reforms and radical changes that are non-violent (and evolutionary for individuals and society as a whole), because they are taken only by exterritorially autonomous individuals and groups and at their expense and risk, under personal laws. The territorial system was and is one of coercive changes. The exterritorial system is one one individually chosen changes. To each his own. - - Only individual choices would matter, to the individuals concerned, i.e., voluntarism plus individual sovereignty plus individual secessionism plus exterritorial autonomy. - - No longer: The same for all, by territorial fiat. Only free individual choices can make sense to all people, as individuals, doing their own thing. Choices territorially imposed upon others, whether by changes of territorial laws or by violent revolutions or usurpations, can never make much sense to their involuntary victims. - J.Z., 5.8.92, 14.1.93. & 23.5.00. - EVOLUTION, PANARCHISM & REVOLUTION