The Theory of Multigovernment
Note by the Author
Multigovernment will present to every individual the right to expand the choice of options in every aspect of his lifestyle. It will introduce a new dimension of freedom not yet experienced by mankind.
Not only is Multigovernment workable, but with the advent of sophisticated atomic weapons, it is necessary to save civilization as we know it.
I have written notes, outlines, and syllabuses on Multigovernment since the idea came to me in 1967. They have been Xeroxed, mimeographed, hectographed, and printed twice. They were originally designed for teaching in experimental colleges and for giving lectures on Multigovernment.
The only major change in the theory of Multigovernment from the earlier writings is the concept that the echelon above the Geographical Democracy is a Judicial Republic and not a "confederation of world states," as first recorded. Much thought and study on the subject convinced me that beyond the basic local government, man does not have to be governed at all. Of course, he may join any choice government voluntarily.
The method of explaining Multigovernment, other than a verbal description, has been going over and over in my mind for the last eight years. I am finding it difficult, with my limited capacity, to be technically correct and at the same time to make it understandable and interesting to the average reader.
In the future, I will clear up misunderstandings, perfect the method and description, and answer the critics of Multigovernment.
Let it be clearly understood that this system must work and grow within the legal means of the already-established governments. The tools needed to bring about multigovernment are communications, not bloodshed; education, not violence; persuasion, not revolution. There is nothing in this thesis that advocates, suggests, or implies the overthrow of any existing government by force or violence.
Le Grand E. Day,
(Sunland, California May, 1977)
An approach to Multigovernment for those hearing it for the first time.
The Basis of the Theory of Multigovernment
A slight revision of the first printed works on Multigovernment in 1969. The original title was "Outline of the Theory of Multigovernment."
Need for a Change
Simply because an institution, a custom, or a social condition exists, its existence or its acceptance does not make it the right, the best, or the only choice.
That vague identity called the state (that indivisible chain that holds people together like ants or bees), in a modern world, exists for apparently two fundamental reasons: (1) to give continuity to its own existence, and (2) to maintain order and discipline.
The criteria to obtain leadership or for upward mobility in the state or any of its protected institutions suggest the possession of talents with questionable ethics. The political system itself is neither fair nor equitable.
Other than a long, slow process, there are only two ways to change the nature of the state: by invasion from another state or by revolution from within.
I suggest, without enlarging upon the inadequacies of the existing states, that if the members of society believe that they have the best alternative, they are naive and uninformed.
To change a system that will self-destruct in time anyway would be an act of mercy and compassion. But to disintegrate a system you already have, you must replace it with something better. Through evolution, not revolution, we introduce and suggest a change to a superior system: Multigovernment.
Philosophy of Multigovernment
The advocates of Multigovernment believe that the only legitimate purpose of a compulsory government is to provide adequate protection (fire and police) and fair and enforceable judgments.
They also believe that each individual should have the opportunity to have as much freedom as he desires, without the infringement of others. It is obvious, without argument, that each individual's wants and desires are different.
Multigovernment therefore suggests that society should cater to man's differences by allowing the creation of many or multigovernments, to not subdue him to a mythical norm, an average, or one government - and this one government expected to be all things to all people.
It is, therefore, proposed that a new political system be introduced, and we suggest that it replace the present power structure.
Multigovernment suggests there be one compulsory government for each land area. It should be divided by population density and the will of the people. City-states should be created in metropolitan areas. City-states will replace city, county, state and, eventually, federal government. Territorial governments will grow in the farming, rural and forest areas, also replacing the above overlapping governments.
The advocates of Multigovernment suggest it is only logical that, since all people living in the specified area must belong to this government, it be a democracy! Complying with the doctrine of Multigovernment, any services offered by this government other than those of geographical necessity should be voted on by 85 percent of all registered voters.
All policies instituted by local government should be voted on by the eligible voters. Only the operational decisions should be exempt from majority rule. Democracy must prevail by the nature of the government itself at this echelon of Multigovernment.
The compulsory echelon above the geographical democracy in the Multigovernment system is not a government; that is, it does not govern. It goes under the name of "Judicial Republic." It works as follows: There will be a pyramid of courts with judges at each level. On the bottom will be the local and regional courts and judges housed with, but not connected with, the local geographical governments. The chain then continues through the appellate court, supreme court (suggested for each continent), and finally to the upper supreme court.
The method of selecting judges should be a matter of policy as well as division of work. For instance, it might be practical to have one appellate court for individual rights, another for disputes among choice governments (yet to be explained), and one for criminal justice, etc. The number of judges at each level should also be a policy matter.
The judges themselves should adhere to the criteria of fairness and follow the doctrine of Multigovernment in matters of governmental dispute. Judges themselves should make policy concerning the structure and running of the judicial republic with a workable people's initiative for checking purposes.
The choice government concept is the backbone of Multigovernment systems. Our descriptions up to this point have been of compulsory organizations; that is, the citizens have to belong to the geographical democracy and be subject to the rulings of the judicial republic. It is a philosophy of Multigovernment that when governments are compulsory, only those government functions absolutely necessary should be performed.
Compensating for the vacuum of services not performed by traditional government, Multigovernment suggests that governments be created to meet the different needs of men, so any man can find the exact, or almost perfect, government for him. Man, if he so desires, may belong to no government at all except the above compulsory governments with the bare necessary functions. Those who belong to no government are called "free agents."
The free agents will be living as the conservative (right-winger, libertarian, etc.) would like to live today; that is, conforming to their idea of freedom: freedom from government intervention. The weakness of present-day conservatism is that they do not take into account those who cannot exist, or do not wish to exist, in the conservatives' version of freedom.
On the other side of the coin, the weakness of liberalism (left wing, collectivism, etc.) is that they all want government services but in different ways. In other words, what, where, who, and how much. Each faction has its own idea about which direction government should go. The crux of the Multigovernment idea is that governments and organizations coexist and fulfil each faction's idea of good government. Then each person can choose from among the competitive governments, the government he wants to belong to.
Multigovernment will present to every individual the right
to a broader choice of options in every aspect of his lifestyle.
It will introduce a new dimension of freedom not yet experienced
Multigovernment will eliminate wars. If government's ideology is built around the individual and not land-mass occupation, who are the conquerors going to conquer?
The Multigovernment system will cause all revolutions to cease. If you don't like the government you have, you can quit and join another.
Multigovernment makes the observation that no one system or
form of government is best for all people. One government cannot
be all things to all people. All individuals have a right to
belong to the government that suits them best. The only answer
is to allow organizational and social systems and governments
to exist simultaneously, within the same location.
Multigovernment asserts that not only is the above described governmental method workable, but it is necessary to save civilization as we know it.
True Freedom cannot exist unless the individual can choose the exact form and amount of government he wants. Government structure must be created for that end and not to justify its own existence.
True Liberty can exist only when:
- Only protective functions are compulsory.
- There is fair and equitable judgment.
- Government functions of human welfare are voluntary.
- Necessary government functions that must be performed and cannot be handled on a profit or volunteer basis are handled with utmost efficiency.
Therefore, summarizing the basic structural theory of Multigovernment:
- The only compulsion level of government is a Geographical Democracy.
- The justice level is a Judicial Republic.
- The volunteer level is the Choice Government.
Schools, Districts and Departments
Necessary government functions not covered by the above are in three categories and are handled as follows:
Multigovernment believes in a voucher system in order to guarantee all children an education and freedom of choice of schools. The students, with their guardians, should choose the schools they want by their needs and personal preference. They should not be placed by geographical assignment.
Districts would provide ongoing functions that cannot be performed by volunteers or for profit. Each service has a district of its own so its function can be closely scrutinized and its existence justified periodically. The district is created by, and under the direction of, the judicial republic or the geographical democracy, if appropriate.
Special Temporary Districts
Special temporary districts are set up on a temporary basis to handle temporary problems. When the problem or condition ceases to exist, so does the district. Special projects or problems brought about by economic conditions are among the functions of this category.
The Basis of the Theory of Multigovernment (^)
The theory of Multigovernment envisions the creation of coexisting governments within the confines of existing countries. Governments will exist for their function - serving people - not by virtue of the fact that they occupy land mass. These coexisting sovereigns motivated by competition, will represent the most efficient organizations devised by man.
Theory is defined as a direction of action based on principles verified by observation and thought. Each group of individuals has common concepts that hold them together. All states are guided by a political theory. The fact that a theory has never been developed, or accepted, is obviously no criterion that it will not work.
The theory of Multigovernment is based on six principles:
1. Each man's needs and desires for government are different.
2. The individual should decide for himself the government he wants to serve him.
3. Where man lives (geographical boundaries) should not be the determining factor of which government he belongs to.
4. Various governments can, and ought to, coexist in the same location.
5. Governments compete for membership with services, economies, or ideologies.
6. Man may belong to no government at all.
PRINCIPLE 1. EACH MAN'S NEEDS AND DESIRES FOR A GOVERNMENT ARE DIFFERENT
The fact that each man has different needs and desires for government is a foregone conclusion. Each man is different by background, religion, language, culture or heritage; different by chance or different by choice. The world is already a multi-diversified society, with numerous cultures and subcultures. It is undesirable - in fact, impossible - to mold the entire world into one culture, one religion, or even one country.
Behavioral scientists have made impressive advances, including the research and utilization of the principles of classification and stratification of peoples. These demographic concepts have been exploited by merchants all over the globe.
Government has also capitalized on this research. Government, however, has not considered how best it can serve, but how effectively it can persuade, manipulate, and control people.
As the worldwide trend moves to ever-increasing and advancing social legislation, discontent grows because of the diversified and individualized nature of man-kind.
Individuals who rebel against these social changes fall in two basic categories:
- Those who neither desire nor appreciate these changes and are capable of living in peace and happiness without them.
- Those who want extra government benefits that are of a different nature or quantity than those offered by the state.
Any government that wishes to exist in the future must take into consideration these characteristics of humanity and compensate for it. The purpose of the existence of government is to serve people. The government should adjust to the people, not the people to the government.
Multigovernment offers an effective solution to the individual difference problem.
PRINCIPLE 2. THE INDIVIDUAL SHOULD DECIDE FOR HIMSELF THE
GOVERNMENT HE WANTS TO SERVE HIM
Due to the superior quality and quantity of education, the world is enjoying the highest intellectual achievements in history. The masses are becoming enlightened and more aware of the social and political conditions. This superior knowledge enlarges the individual's ability to make rational political decisions. People are insisting on participating in the political decision-making process. Thus, knowledge becomes power.
Democracy exists in enlightened periods of world history because the backbone of democracy is the capability of people to understand the issues and to make intelligent judgments. Individuals are more qualified to decide what is best and good for themselves than are bureaucrats. The natural step in political evolution is from the majority deciding policy to the individual deciding his own policy.
Added to the freedoms, privileges, and rights man now enjoys, he is now responsible enough and willing enough to guide his own destiny.
Man has now intellectually advanced to the point that he should have the right to choose his own government
PRINCIPLE 3. WHERE MAN LIVES (GEOGRAPHICAL BOUNDARIES) SHOULD
NOT BE THE DETERMINING FACTOR OF WHICH GOVERNMENT HE BELONGS TO
Multigovernment suggests that land mass is not a legitimate claim or even a condition of national sovereignty. Political boundaries are unquestionably accepted by the population due to centuries of conditioning.
Some functions of government, by the nature of land-people relationship, must be performed by territorial government. However, most government functions can be performed better by people-oriented governments. It is ridiculous to assume that all phases of government administration must be administered by territorial government.
Every war that was ever fought, whatever the ideological excuse, was fought for land mass, and the national self-interest and power advantage the conquered territory offered the aggressor.
The fact that man must adhere to the policy of his government, whether he likes it or not, is the cause of all revolutions. Revolutions are bred by the assumption that every person born in a monarchy is a monarchist, in the boundaries of communism is a communist, and those in a socialist state adhere to the principles of socialism.
Civilization has now evolved to the point where political boundaries should be reevaluated. The legal claim to land mass is based on one or more of three conditions:
- A piece of paper (treaties, constitutions, etc.)
- Historical precedent
- Status quo
These conditions assert that on one side of an imaginary line is one country, and on the other side is another country.
In the course of events, if a sovereign gains enough elements of power to overthrow his neighbour, all such legal claims become void. Then new papers are signed, another historical precedent created, and the status quo is changed. The stage is set for the drama to reenact itself in the future.
If man must group together - and some must - Multigovernment would suggest that it be done on the individual's own terms, be it ideological, religious, language, or even for ethnic reasons. Each individual should be allowed to choose, regardless of political boundaries, the type of government he wants to serve him.
Multigovemment offers man his natural right to choose his government, regardless of where he lives.
PRINCIPLE 4. VARIOUS GOVERNMENTS CAN, AND OUGHT TO, EXIST
IN THE SAME LOCATION
Man must provide for himself the greatest individual potential growth by offering to his fellow human beings the largest possible variety of governments, so that he may exercise a broader option in his choice of government - one that fits his wants and needs.
The only feasible way this can be accomplished is to allow for many governments to exist in the same territory. These governments should be created with enough sovereignty to govern but without the power to compel.
Jewish kibbutzim, Catholic monasteries, and other organizations prove that tight organizations can exist on a volunteer basis within the established government. Many religious and fraternal societies, too numerous to mention, support the position that organizations can exist on a less militant basis.
There should be coexisting governments with various amounts of services offered, so that man may choose from among them the government he desires.
Multigovernment offers a logical basis where man can exercise his choice of government.
PRINCIPLE 5. GOVERNMENTS COMPETE FOR MEMBERSHIP WITH, SERVICES,
ECONOMIES OR IDEOLOGIES
Competition, man's greatest individual and collective growth factor, should be utilized to create better governments as it has been used to make better automobiles, moon shots, and soccer teams.
The motivation factor that would help to establish and maintain the best possible governments would be competition. The idea is to create fair government rivalry by allowing the several governments to compete for their constituents.
If man does not like the government he belongs to, he would have one of three choices:
- Resign and join another government that fits his needs.
- Resign and join no government at all.
- Resign and create a government that will fit his needs.
Multigovernment utilizes competition - man's greatest expansion factor.
PRINCIPLE 6. MAN MAY BELONG TO NO GOVERNMENT AT ALL
In every culture, in every society, throughout the pages of history, there have existed those nonconformist, free, independent souls, called by some, antisocial or rebellious individuals. These people provide mankind with most of the artists, writers, and thinkers. Impending social changes cramp their style, lessen their productivity, and make them miserable. These people, too, must live so that they are completely free except for basic protection of the law.
If a man so desires, he has a right to be free from all unnecessary governmental social enactments and restrictions.
Multigovernment offers more freedom than any existing government
for those who really want it.
Governments will exist by virtue of the services they offer their constituency and how well they govern. In the past, governments existed by what the designs and accidents of history and geography have left them in the forms of land mass. For the first time in human history, governments will be created and stay in existence for the purpose of serving man.
A new dimension of freedom (^)
The individual in America is now burdened with four and sometimes
more governments (i.e., town or city, county [or parish], state,
and federal). All of these have cohesive and enforcement powers.
This is a useless duplication of effort - a limitation of freedom.
Multigovernment suggests that only one territorial government be established for each area, hereinafter called "Territorial Governments." The boundaries of the Territorial Governments to be placed on the map in such a way as to allow for density of the population as well as the wishes of the inhabitants. This government will be responsible for police and fire protection.
To fill the vacuum of services now performed by the five governments,
it is presupposed that a variety of organizations be created
or existing governments be used for that purpose (service organizations,
churches, etc.). These organizations will hereinafter be called "Choice
It is further presupposed that these Choice Governments will fall into four basic categories:
1. Private Institutions - Designed under the free enterprise system to meet the needs of the people.
2. Special Districts - Set up for a special service for which the individual only is taxed.
3. Collective Governments - Designed to give complete services, protection, and security for its members.
4. Limited Governments - To meet particular needs of certain persons.
If, for instance, an individual should choose the Collective
Government (the third category), such as a kibbutz, a monastery or a socialist
commune, he would probably not need the services of another government.
If, on the other hand, he should belong to a Limited Government furnishing only his housing, he could use the private institutions for his medical, his insurance, and a special district for his children to be educated, or he could send them to a parochial school.
A third individual could be completely free from all governments except the essential basics provided by Territorial Governments and belong to a Special District expressly designed (e.g. for medical purposes).
It must be understood at this point that the so-called free
enterprise system would prevail overall and the Choice Government would
act as a unit in its dealings like a corporation. It is asserted that free
individuals can live in the same geographical location as choice governments.
This should satisfy the individualist as he can live free from government intervention. This should satisfy the socialist-oriented person as he can belong to a socialist choice government. There will be a government or a set of governments that will satisfy everyone's exact needs or wants from government, and he will still belong to less than the five mandatory governments we now belong to.
The conservative will have his notion of freedom: free from all but necessary government functions. The collectivist will have his freedom from want in his choice of collective societies. The moderate, the religious man, etc., will all have their choices of government. There will exist a new dimension of freedom.
A Multigovernment advocate believes the individual has the implied right to choose one's own government, whatever his geographical location.