John Zube

Towards a comprehensive encyclopedia on free banking (T - Z)





A - D

E - H

I - O

P - S

T - Z




TARIFFS: Estimates showed that within six months, by June 30, 1888, the total accumulated surplus in the Treasury would rise to $140,000,000”; and, according to Matthew Josephson’s popular history of the period, “at that time approximately one-third of the nation’s circulating capital would be locked up in the vaults of the Government, removed from trade, with money for crops scarce and interest rates high.” (4) Not illogically, Cleveland declared that, “Our present tariff laws, the vicious, inequitable, and illogical source of unnecessary taxation, ought to be at once revised and amended.” Those interested in tariff protection (particularly in Pennsylvania) consequently raised enough money to defeat Cleveland (although he failed to reform the tariff) and to elect Benjamin Harrison president in 1888.” - Charles Chiveley, in his introduction to Lysander Spooner, A Letter to Grover Cleveland, Works I, p. 5. – The case is interesting for monetary history and deflationary phenomena under exclusive currencies (Then mainly the redeemable paper notes plus the coin circulation.) In Germany the same thing happened shortly after the Big Inflation ended in November 1923. The circle around Dr. Ramin’s Festmark Bank, to which Ulrich von Beckerath and Heinrich Rittershausen belonged, found out that ca. ¼ to 1/3rd of the circulation of the new currency was temporarily hoarded, as tax money in government accounts and not yet spent. Since the total issued was already short of the real requirements for the German economy, further mass unemployment resulted. - All such cases should be much more explored and publicized. Sometimes even a small additional currency issue or widening of the clearing and check payment facilities did already much to ease of such crises. But only full monetary freedom could end them fully and immediately, while preventing over-issues, and prevent payment crises for the future. – J.Z., 31.7.08. - MONEY SHORTAGE, HOARDING BY GOVERNMENTS, TAXATION, PROTECTIONISM

TARIFFS: If, when a producer of cotton, tobacco, grain, beef, pork, butter, cheese, or any other commodity, in our own country, has carried it abroad, and exchanged it for iron or woolen goods, and has brought these latter home, the government seizes one half of them, because they were manufactured abroad, the robbery committed upon the owner is the same as if the government had seized one-half of his cotton, tobacco, or other commodity, before he exported it; because the iron or woolen goods, which he purchased abroad with the products of his own home labor, are as much his own property, as was the commodity with which he purchased them.” - Lysander Spooner, A Letter to Grover Cleveland, Works I, p. 45. – TAXATION, PROPERTY RIGHTS - There are many other entries under tariffs in the SLOGANS FOR LIBERTY collection but I do not wish to enter too much of the Free Trade vs. Protectionism debate here. - J.Z., 14.3.11.

TARIFFS: The saving in tariff money by the consumers of the imported cars would be spent to purchase other products. This would encourage new or expanded industries. The disemployed would have to learn new skills – a short-time adjustment and inconvenience. (*) Because they made an incorrect judgment in their choice of employment, it does not entitle them to be supported by those who made the correct choice, since no man has the mortgage on the life or property of another. To uphold such altruistic views would have, at the beginning of this century, necessitated the subsidization of Ye Olde Buggy Whip Industry to keep its members employed even though their usefulness as buggy whip makers had disappeared.” – Patrick Brookes, FREE ENTERPRISE, 11/74. - (*) Under full monetary freedom. But under monetary despotism their unemployment might be prolonged! – J.Z., 30.7.08.

TARIFFS: Those who arrange a war of tariffs are not the sufferers from it.” – Tolstoi on Civil Disobedience and Nonviolence, p. 78. – The world should be just one free market, on which every consumer can purchase as cheaply as possible and every producer sell as expensively and much of his products or services as he can. No bureaucrat or politician or any law or board should come between a willing seller and a willing buyer. – J.Z., 31.7.08.

TAX FOUNDATION MONEY: and if the national bills issued be bottomed (as is indispensable) on pledges of specific taxes for their redemption within certain and moderate epochs, and be of proper denomination for circulation, no interest on them would be necessary or just, because they would answer to every one of the purposes of the metallic money withdrawn and replaced by them. – Thomas Jefferson in a letter to Crawford, 1816. - Quoted by Eustache Mullins, This Difficult Individual, Ezra Pound. p.219, Angriff Press, Hollywood, 1961. – JZL. – If that acceptance foundation is sound, reckoning e.g. in a gold or silver weight unit, then these tax foundation notes need not be redeemable in such money nor does a metallic cover for them have to exist. The demand for such notes through taxes, due or soon due, would be able to keep them at par even in general circulation, without legal tender power. Only the government would have to accept them at par. – Seeing the importance of the subject and of the man who wrote this, this point should have been clarified long ago. - J.Z., 30.7.10.

TAX FOUNDATION MONEY: North Carolina, just after the Revolution, issued a large amount of paper, which was made receivable in dues to her. It was also made a legal tender; which, of course, was not obligatory after the adoption of the Federal Constitution. (*) A large amount – say between four and five hundred thousand dollars – remained in circulation after that period, and continued to circulate for more than twenty years, at par with gold and silver during the whole time, with no other advantage than being received in the revenue of the State, which was much less than one hundred thousand dollars per annum.” – John C. Calhoun, Speech on the Bill authorizing an Issue of Treasury-Notes, Sept. 19, 1837. – Quoted on p.73 of William B. Greene, in his “… Fragments”. - (*) How many of the acceptors and taxpayers were aware of that? – J.Z., 27.7.10.

TAX FOUNDATION MONEY: Tax foundation, was recognized by Adam Smith in one passage of his writings, On money, in An Inquiry …The Wealth of Nations. (Vol. I of the London, Grant Richards edition, page 366): A prince, who should enact that a certain proportion of his taxes should e paid in a paper money of a certain kind, might thereby give a certain value to this paper money, even though the terms of its final discharge and redemption should depend altogether upon the will of the prince. If the bank which issued this paper was careful to keep the quantity of it always somewhat below what could easily be employed in this manner, the demand for it might be such as to make it even bear a premium, or sell for somewhat more in the market than the quantity of gold or silver currency for which it was issued. - Here he summed up a large experience, which most of his fans still ignore. However, in its last part he still does, quite wrongly, assume that it must be issued upon a stock of gold or silver currency and, ultimately, redeemable in it. He, too, did not clearly realize that its acceptance like rare metal coins, in payments of taxes, whose size is measured in such value standards, can already give such paper money a par value with the chosen rare metal, without the promise of redemption and the costs of any readiness for it. - J.Z., 2.7.11.) A government's optional paper money issues can, indeed, be balanced by and limited in its amount to its due or soon due tax "revenues". Thus such paper monies have been called tax anticipation warrants. As such they are merely clearing certificates, not promises to pay rare metal coins for them. Such tax foundation money should have legal tender only towards its issuer and it should also use a sounder value standard than a managed and usually mismanaged paper standard. Taxes and tax foundation money could be expressed e.g. in gold weight units and the government should have to accept its own tax foundation certificates at their face value even when in general circulation they have got a discount corresponding to their over-issue. That would reduce the "spending" power of the government and reduce the tax burden for the tax victims. Moreover, without legal tender power and the issue monopoly, government paper could ultimately be altogether refused in general circulation, being replaced by sounder and sufficient issues, so that at last even government employees would no longer be prepared to accept it. The more and more worthless bucks should be passed back to the issuer. Pay to Caesar what is Caesar's! Do not offer him your own honest currencies in payment- and do not let your incomes, paid in these currencies, be confiscated by him! Rather go on a well organized tax strike, one that includes the total refusal to accept any government paper money. - J.Z., 2.4.97, 3.7.11. - DIS., ADAM SMITH, TAX STRIKE

TAX FOUNDATION MONEY: Taxes to be fixed in a better value standard than that of the present government money paper dollars, which is a manipulated, depreciated and nevertheless enforced one. That better value standard is also to be used in the government’s tax foundation money, the only one it should be still allowed to issue, as long as compulsory taxation is tolerated. For then it must also provide sufficient and suitable exchange media to pay them with. Moreover, the government should not longer be allowed to turn its debts into currency, by issuing a forced and exclusive currency with legal tender power (compulsory acceptance and a forced value), “covering” it with the debt certificates it issues. No one but the government should be forced to accept its tax foundation money at par with its genuine value standard. And its tax foundation money and its value standard should be exposed in general circulation to competition from other means of exchange and clearing certificates that are also using other value standards, according to the preferences of their issuers and their acceptors. Taxes should also be payable in other than the government’s tax foundation money, at their market rate of exchange against the government’s tax foundation money. – J.Z., 4.10.06, 7.10.08. - LEGAL TENDER, MONETARY FREEDOM, VALUE STANDARDS

TAX FOUNDATION MONEY: The case of Russia might also be mentioned. In 1827, she had a fixed paper circulation in the form of bank-notes, but which were inconvertible, of upward of a hundred and twenty million dollars, estimated in the metallic ruble, and which had for years remained without fluctuation; having nothing to sustain it, but that it was received in the dues of government, and that, too, with a revenue of only about ninety million dollars annually.” – John C. Calhoun, Speech on his Amendment to separate the Government from the Bank, Oct. 3, 1837. Quoted by William B. Greene, in his “… Fragments”, p.78. – A collection of such instances would demonstrate that many other States, including Prussia and Saxony, had successful experiences with soundly issued tax foundation money, experiences still largely ignored by the “gold bugs”. – Naturally, a sound value standard should be used by such paper money and it should not have legal tender power in general circulation but only for tax-payment purposes. - J.Z., 27.7.10. - TAXATION, REFERENDUM, PANARCHISM

TAX RETURNS: Tax returns should be just that, to the extent that this would still be possible, namely the return of all taxes paid by you and not yet spent or represented in remaining government capital assets, for which corresponding shares could be issued to the tax victims, in a process of privatizing all government assets. For some details see my essay in PEACE PLANS 19 C, of which an enlarged issue has been digitized and is offered on – J.Z., 24.10.95, 18.7.08.

TAX REVOLT: By filing IRS forms and “paying” taxes, which can legally be paid only in gold and silver coin, we have been breaking the law too. I think it’s time for the American taxpayer to turn over a new leaf. We should take an oath “to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth” to the IRS. With no lawful money in circulation, we should refuse to go along with the national fiction that checks, notes and slugs are money. Lacking an income, we should refuse to file.” - René Baxter, FREEDOM NOW, 9/75. - Alas, our government’s money is all too lawful: Full of legal tender power and of the monopoly position that governments have legally granted it. Thus, instead of interpreting it as being unlawful, by our reading of the Constitution, and refusing to pay taxes in it, we should replace it with sound and competitive monies of our own, even if these can be issued only illegally. Thereby our dependence upon territorial governments would be greatly reduced and a comprehensive tax strike against it, or wide-spread secessions from it would be facilitated. Its paper money might then become so abundant and worthless, that it would be easy for us to formally pay our remaining taxes to it with this paper as long as we still recognized that burden as our debt. Baxter, like most others, ignored that through the power of taxation, through the enormous demand that it creates for the government’s paper money, it does give that paper money a value in the general market, even if it were issued competitively with other forms of money, which it is not. (Already Adam Smith recognized that in a largely forgotten passage in “The Wealth of Nations”.) Any forced and exclusive currency, even one made only out of gold and silver coins, is part and parcel of the total tax and economic crisis system and should be abolished with it, even while value standard reckoning in gold and silver weight units would be continued via sound and competitive note issues, market rated and refusable. Precisely because of this they would remain mostly at par with their nominal value or very close to it, at least near their issue and acceptance centers. Their discount somewhere else would merely speed up their reflux to where they have to be accepted at par, namely by their issuers and the debtors to the issuers. – J.Z., 22.7.08. – DIS., MONETARY FREEDOM REVOLUTION

TAX REVOLT: They are the business owners from the city and farmers from the country. Rich and poor. Male and female. Political newcomers and political pros. They are the preachers of the gospel of tax revolt, united in a commitment to cut government spending, even if it means cutting government services. – The approval of Proposition 13 slashing property taxes by an average of 57 percent in California spawned similar drives in more than a dozen states. …” - Louise Cook, Associated Press writer, THE NEWS-VIRGINIAN, Waynesboro, Va., Aug. 14, 1978. – Without a monetary freedom program and a platform on how to tackle problems like mass unemployment and poverty - the free market and self-help way, most tax revolts will not get very far. Such resistance should also be supported e.g. by a new and ideal declaration of individual rights and liberties and an ideal militia force for the protection of these rights and by a general reprivatization program that would place the property now in the hands of politicians and bureaucrats, or dully under their control, back into the hands of citizens, directly, via corresponding capital certificates. (See PEACE PLANS 19 c. offered by me digitized.) Even and especially the war and peace problem solving should no longer be left in their hands. Obviously, politicians and bureaucrats, including military experts, were never very good at solving them, either but rather created them, prolonged them or made them worse. - J.Z., 22.7.08.

TAX STRIKE: Almost every protestant revolution or resistance seems to have been accompanied by wide-spread refusals to pay taxes to the territorially dominant monopoly church. Alas, historians usually fail to report these refusals sufficiently to clarify their influence upon the events. – J.Z., 12.11.93. – (Just as they are disinclined to try to understand and report the effects of monetary freedom experiments, private emergency money issues, that happened again and again under monetary despotism, our of sheer necessity.) It is also noteworthy that at least in Europe the Protestants had to arm, organize and train themselves to establish and maintain at least their religious liberty. Hopefully, we will soon become sufficiently enlightened to achieve all our secular liberties and rights and a mutual tolerance in the political, economic and social spheres that corresponds to religious tolerance, even for atheists, without prolonged resistance and fighting. It is unlikely that it can be achieved with total non-violence. Too many vested interests are involved. But the extensive tolerance that would be involved, for all self-responsible actions, in every sphere so far monopolized by territorial States, would greatly minimize resistance against it, once it is clearly seen as what it is and what rights, liberties, chances and opportunities it offers to all decent and peace and justice loving people, whatever their ideology, totalitarians and authoritarians excepted. Even the ranks of these people would be greatly and fast reduced by individual and group defections from them. The further enlightenment that is required for this great change would need something like a genuine cultural revolution, one that would greatly speed up and ensure the process of enlightenment. The technology for this does already exist. It has just to be optimally used in dozens of new and old ways. – J.Z., 19.7.08. – PROTESTANTISM, MONETARY FREEDOM, TOLERANCE, PANARCHISM, NONVIOLENCE, MILITIAS, WARS, REVOLUTIONS

TAX STRIKE: form an armed league against tyranny, and refuse to pay taxes.” – Huguenot pamphlet, La France Turquia, quoted by Harold J. Laski, p 29, in his introduction to “A Defence of Liberty”. – PROTESTANTISM, MILITIA, HUMAN RIGHTS DEFENCE

TAX STRIKE: Introduce true democracy and voluntary taxation by first letting each individual fully dispose of or vote his own tax funds for whatever public expenditures he prefers. – And if you want to finally stop the tax slavery of coercive taxes altogether, then go on collecting and distributing some taxes yourself, for a while, in the transition state, and be it only to take over the payment of salaries to the defence forces, the police, pensioners etc. Alternative institutions take some time to develop and to finance. One can only speed up this process as much as possible by doing it the voluntary, competitive and exterritorial autonomy way, via various panarchies. – J.Z., n.d. & 23.7.08.

TAX STRIKE: the next revolution … will be when those, who work, refuse to support those who don’t.” – Walter Hickel. - - If a tax strike were combined with or expressed by individual secessionism, then it would, most likely, be more successful. One should always take into consideration that soldiers and policemen are paid out of tax funds. So the secessionists ought to pay or organize their own armed forces and hire away or employ otherwise the soldiers and policemen of the State. They may have to do so anyhow, to achieve and maintain their tolerant form of secessionism and voluntary associationism, expressed in the formation of varies panarchies: competing governments and societies, all only with voluntary members and confining their activities to them. Many soldiers and policemen are dissatisfied with their jobs and would join those panarchies which they prefer for themselves. Under freedom for panarchies there would, soon, also be many other attractive and productive jobs open for them in those panarchies which introduced full economic freedom, including monetary and banking freedom. - J.Z., 23. 11. 06. - WORKING PEOPLE VS. PUBLIC SERVANTS & THEIR FAVORITES

TAX STRIKE: Who's Afraid of the I.R.S.?"- "IRS employees are outnumbered by us at a rate of approximately 1,000 to 1" - Paul Strassel, Former IRS Headquarters Agent "WALL ST. JOURNAL" 1/28/80 – But they are professionals, well organized, with the law and many popular prejudices on their side, also ultimately backed not only by the courts but also the police, the penal system and the government-controlled standing army and National Guard. An ideal militia as a counterforce does not yet exist and is not even seriously discussed. Nor is a sensibly organized tax strike, which would have to take over some of the present government spending e.g. for the armed forces – and would also have to include refusals to accept government money – to stop taxation via further inflation. A monetary freedom revolution would, probably, have to be part of it. Likewise: individual and group secessionism. – This situation is about the same in all other States. - J.Z., 5.1.08. – CHANCES FOR SUCCESS

TAXATION: A government has nothing to sell but tax receipts, that is, exemptions from the severe penalties for refusing to pay tax, which means, ultimately, death, e.g., if you defend your home against confiscation for a "tax debt". (Except its "investments" in tax slaves, documented by governmental "securities", which under inflation and the threat of government bankruptcies, often amount to being "insecurities". - J.Z., 30.7.11.) If you are lucky then there will only be a confiscation of your bank account or a lien on your wages or a prison sentence. Thus tax payment is pretty well assured. And it covers the reflux of the otherwise worthless paper money the government issues, its "requisitioning certificates". Potentially, a government could keep its tax take in balance with its paper money issues, i.e. give it a market value or reflux on the market for these requisitioning certificates or scrip for tax receipts, one which keeps it at par with its nominal value, if a sound value standard is used, and thus prevent its depreciation. Alas, few governments today are honest and knowledgeable enough to do so. They pretend that their depreciating paper dollars are "standards" - and enforce them as long as they can. Apart from its tax foundation for its paper money, a government could only rely on its legislated legal tender power (that of its "independent" central bank) to expropriate its creditors with its ever depreciating paper money and to allow all other debtors in the nation to do the same. It has usually excuses for exceeding the tax foundation, like "pump priming", "deficit spending", "cover" by government-insecurities (investments in tax slaves) and the Keynesian hypothesis for providing full employment. But ultimately there remains a limit for its forced currency, which is reached, after a progressive inflation, when even its public servants and soldiers refuse to accept its paper money any longer. Large over-issues can also lead to mass unemployment - or at least to stagflation. – J.Z. - & GOVERNMENT, PAPER MONEY & TAX FOUNDATION, CENTRAL BANKING, TAXATION, SOUND VALUE STANDARD RECKONING, LEGAL TENDER

TAXATION: A government ought not, any more than a private person, to be able (at least in peace-time) to take whatever it wants, but be limited strictly to the use of the means placed at its disposal by the representatives of the people, and to be unable to extend its resources beyond what the people have agreed to let it have. The modern expansion of government was largely assisted by the possibility of covering deficits by issuing money -usually on the pretence that it was thereby creating employment." – F. A. Hayek, Denationalization of Money, p.26.

TAXATION: A government which robs Peter to pay Paul can always depend on the support of Paul.” - George Bernard Shaw, Everybody's Political What's What - chapter 30, p.256 (1944). Shaw wrote this book "to track down some of the mistakes that have landed us in a gross misdistribution of domestic income and two world wars in twenty-five years" (p.1). – Another version: “A Government that robs Peter to pay Paul can always depend on the support of Paul." - G. B. Shaw, quoted in The Peter Plan by L. J. Peter. Under indirect taxation and the inflation tax Peter often does not even notice that he is being robbed. - J.Z., 27.11.02. - CONSENT, WELFARE STATE, TRANSFER PAYMENTS, DISTRIBUTIONISM, “SHARING”

TAXATION: a huge diversion of annual resources to the least efficient areas of the economy." - Maxwell Newton, AUSTRALIAN PENTHOUSE, July 80, p.46.

TAXATION: A reduction or even abolition of taxes and public 'services' could help almost every working person more than just another 'pay rise' paid in inflated money. – J.Z., 30.6.77, 28.4.09.

TAXATION: A seafood restaurant at Bar Beach, Newcastle, has a note to customers on the menu: “Thank you for helping to pay for the following – wine and spirit tax, road tax, import duty, excise duty, restaurant licensing fees, rates, industrial waste rates, purchases tax, sales tax, payroll tax, income tax, business registration fee, company registration fees, shop and factory registration fees, and stamp duty on the mortgage … From the remainder we will pay our suppliers and our staff, and somehow manage to make a living (we hope!).” – Column 8, THE SYDNEY MORNING HERALD, quoted in READER’S DIGEST, 4/82. – Tax burdens should be indicated, as far as possible, with all prices for goods and services. – J.Z., 16.4.09. - It has been many years since column 8 had such interesting information, interesting even for freedom lovers. For years now I see only trivia in it and thus, mostly, I simply ignore it, only checking occasionally. - Mass media do only rarely contribute to enlightenment. - J.Z., 30.7.11.

TAXATION: A sign in front of a service station in the Midwest reads: 'Taxes collected here - federal, state and local. We also sell gasoline." - TROTN, NEWS DIGEST INTERNATIONAL, Dec. 1976. - JOKES

TAXATION: A small untaxed income is often almost as good as a high and highly taxed one. – At least you have the consolation not to have contributed to the bastards. – J.Z., 5.7.82. – Alas, one cannot escape indirect taxes in this way. To make the avoidance of indirect taxes possible, their percentage in all goods and service prices should be clearly indicated, so that secessionists could easily avoid paying them and the remaining voluntary statists would become aware of how much their statist faith costs them. That might then induce many of them to secede as well. – J.Z., 24.10.08.

TAXATION: A statement of the grocery manufacturers of America is to the effect that the taxes we pay are costing us more than the food we eat. They estimate that in the current year the average family will spend about $ 900 for food, but will pay approximately $ 1,100 for taxes, both direct and indirect." – Admiral Ben Moreell, Log I, p.56. - Henry Meulen, who died in 1978, once pointed out in his THE INDIVIDUALIST that in England, since about 1900, all increases in the standard of living, made possible through science, technology and extended trade, had been taxed away. - J.Z., 30.7.11.

TAXATION: A statesman in England many years ago said this: 'If you put a direct tax on the people they will squeal to high heaven, but you can indirectly tax the last rag off their back and the last crust of their mouth and they will only moan about hard times." – Source? - Because then, like in inflation, the taxes are hidden in supposedly free prices. – J.Z.

TAXATION: a system that confiscated the products of a man's life and liberty in the name of life and liberty." - Con Sellers. "Mr. Tomorrow"

TAXATION: a tax is a forced expropriation of our property by the government in order to finance programs we are forced to accept (whether we voted for them or not). A price, on the other hand, is a voluntary payment for services the payer chooses to accept.” - Sam Wells Jr., OPTION, 4/.77. - PRICING

TAXATION: A tax is never a rightful and efficient solution to any problem. – J.Z., 4.12.90.

TAXATION: A tax is the compulsory transfer of property from the producer to the ruler, and with the transfer goes the privilege of disposition.” – Frank Chodorov, The Rise and Fall of Society, p. 104. - TAX SLAVERY, MODERN FEUDALISM, PEOPLE AS PROPERTY

TAXATION: A tax on work is slavery.” – Nast cartoon. – JOKES - Is it a joke or a tragedy? Its description as serfdom or part-ownership of working people would be closer to the mark. - J.Z., 15.3.11.

TAXATION: A tax reform that would permit the deduction from the imposed taxes, not just from the taxable income, of any voluntary contributions to any public interest project, one freely chosen by the taxpayer, not selected by politicians as legislators or bureaucratic administrators, would go a fair way towards voluntary taxation. - J.Z., 13.9.89, 6.8.08.

TAXATION: A tax strike ... is an act of self-defence, equivalent to the defence of freedom and property. Self-defence is entirely legal in Austria." - Heinrich Wille, SOUTHERN LIBERTARIAN MESSENGER, 7/78. – If that is true, then why hasn’t this kind of self-defence happened there, as yet? – J.Z., 18.10.08.

TAXATION: A tax strike is the only worthwhile strike. – J.Z., 79. – TAX STRIKE

TAXATION: a terrible thing to millions of innocent men and women: seizing their hard-earned assets for distribution to people the government happens to like better.” – Robert Brakeman, SOUTHERN LIBERTARIAN MESSENGER, 4/78.

TAXATION: a truthful tax declaration might bring 'irreparable damage to the man himself and his business.'" - L'OSSERVATORE della Domenica" - Ascribed to this source by PROGRESS, 11/75. I would start it out with: "Isn't it true that … ? " – J.Z.

TAXATION: Abolish 'punitive' taxation." - Kenneth N. Gregg, quoted in PROGRESS, April 75. - All taxes are punitive to the extent that they are not fair prices for services wanted, ordered and supplied. – J.Z.

TAXATION: Abolish Taxation. The government should earn its own money.” – From film: “The State of the Union”.

TAXATION: About the time a person is cured of swearing, it's income tax time again." - (B & P), – SOUTHERN LIBERTARIAN MESSENGER, 2/77. - JOKES

TAXATION: Absolute government power was introduced into the constitution by the income tax (16th) amendment.” – Albert Jay Nock, 1948. - On war and peace decision-making, secessions and other territorial powers, general legislation and, especially in its legislation on money and currency, it was already a totalitarian regime long before that tax. – One should not over-state a good case. - J.Z., 2.8.08.

TAXATION: Absolutely no taxation or tribute levying without individual consent. Users should have to pay for what they want. – J.Z., 16.9.85.

TAXATION: According to House of Representatives testimony government at all levels, including regulation, costs Americans 53 % of their income.” - C-SPAN, 4 April 1995. – How much by now? - J.Z., 13.4.09. - According to the Tax Foundation, taxes now consume more than 38% of the average family’s budget. That is more than is spent on food, clothing, housing, and transportation combined. Compare this to the plight of medieval serfs. They only had to give the lord of the manor one-third of their output - and they were considered slaves. So what does that make us?” – Daniel Mitchell, THE WASHINGTON TIMES, 3.9.99 - FEUDALISM, SERFDOM & SLAVERY, TAX BURDEN OF AMERICANS

TAXATION: Add up all your direct taxes for the last 5, 10, 20, 30 or more years of labor, business efforts or retirement years. Then add, roughly, all of the indirect taxes you paid, by simply doubling the former amount. Also account for the much greater purchasing power of your older tax payments, due to inflation or the inflation tax imposed by the government. Then ask yourself: Did I get my money’s worth in public services or not? – J.Z., 17.12.93.

TAXATION: Add up the amounts you have paid every year in direct taxes. Double it to make up for the various indirect taxes. Then add the interest that you could have received over the years, always added to this capital, provided the government would not tax it, confiscate it, reduce it by inflation, deflation and stagflation – and if you had been free to invest it, credit-insured, productively, at very high interest rates - and you could have ended up a rich man for your old age. At least in the somewhat developed countries you could have ended up a multi-millionaire, if the pension, you could thus have earned after 40 years of work, were capitalized. Once people become aware of that fact then their statism will tend to melt away. – As for all the current government spending: What fraction of it would you really approve of and willing to subscribe to, if you were given your individual choice in that matter? And if the government had private or cooperative competitors in every sphere, you might have rather favored them. - J.Z., 2.11.97, 16.7.08.

TAXATION: After all my taxes are paid, no more than the amount of my overtime pay is left. - I have been reduced to serfdom! – J.Z., 75.

TAXATION: All “fair” taxes are unfair, too. – J.Z., 16.8.98.

TAXATION: All collectivist spending, to be rightful, must be quite voluntary. - J.Z., 12.11.93. - GOVERNMENT SPENDING, VOLUNTARISM

TAXATION: All compulsory taxation is predatory and parasitical. Voluntary contributions for wanted and competitively supplied services are quite another matter. – J.Z., 6.11.98.

TAXATION: All compulsory taxation is robbery, and should be resisted with the most prudent and effective forces at command at any given time." - Edward H. Fulton, quoted in Reichert, Partisans of Freedom, p. 192.

TAXATION: All freely determined prices have my consent – even when I am not willing or able to pay them for the goods or services offered. But no tax has may consent.– I would even do away with the departure tax for all politicians and bureaucrats, but, only upon their signing a contract never to return, which would have to includes a very high fine for breach of contract for you cannot trust their promises. – J.Z., 2.7.85, 4.8.08. - JOKES

TAXATION: All I am living on is my overtime earnings. The rest is taxed away. – J.Z., 14.9.75. - Directly and indirectly. Whom do I have to thank for this 40-hours-a-week serfdom? – J.Z., 81, 6.8.11.

TAXATION: All incomes belong to those who honestly earned or otherwise acquired them rightfully, i.e. not like the tax department do, various pressure groups and monopolists and various favored hand-out recipients, regardless of how meritorious, poor and needy these recipients may be or pretend to be. – Since all people in a territory are unlikely to ever agree on related questions and problems as well as proposed solutions, let the different factions, groups and movements opt out - to do their own things only among themselves. - J.Z., 31.3.84, 4.8.08. – PANARCHISM, OPTING OUT, DOING THE OWN THINGS FOR OR TO ONESELF, WELFARE STATE, SELF-HELP, SELF-RESPONSIBILITY, PANARCHISM

TAXATION: All men were declared to be created equal … And then we re-introduced slavery by the 16th Amendment. Please recognize that one can be slave by being held in physical bondage, and, he can be a slave by having all the fruits of his labor seized by others, who then return a small portion to the worker so he can continue working and producing more goods and services which can be seized for the benefit of his ‘owners’. Such a condition is slavery, no matter how you slice it, and the 16th Amendment to our Constitution gives the Congress power to seize 100% of everything that any worker can produce. Obviously, then, Congress (and the federal government) “own” all the workers, and they proceed to seize as much of the fruits of the labor of all workers as they think they can seize without creating unrest enough to produce open revolution. That is why I support the Liberty Amendment, which will repeal the 16th Amendment and repeal the federal income tax.” – JAG, 15.1.77. – Alas, even such a simple proposal has not yet won over public opinion. – One should be free to secede from such an opinion, its laws and institutions. – J.Z., 4.8.08. – PANARCHISM, SLAVERY

TAXATION: All taxation is unjust and excessive. Only zero taxation does do no wrong and harm. – J.Z., 21.12.93, 19.7.08.

TAXATION: All taxation is unjust and unnecessary. – J.Z., 30.6.82, after reading: “Unnecessary taxation is unjust taxation.” – Abraham S. Hewitt, Democratic Platform, 1884.

TAXATION: All taxes and all services to be freely negotiable between free taxpayers and free and competitive public service suppliers. – J.Z., 17.12.93. – VOLUNTARY TAXATION, PANARCHISM

TAXATION: All taxes are a drag on economic growth. It's only a question of degree.” - Alan Greenspan, chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank. – He should also have declared of how much of a drag on economic growth is provided by any central bank. – Central banks produce deflations and inflations as well as stagflations rather than being able and willing to prevent them. How powerful and also powerless he was at the head of this monstrous institutions was revealed by the fact that he was largely reduced to fiddling around with the official interest rate. – J.Z., 4.1.08.

TAXATION: All taxes are bad and none are fair ..." - SOUTHERN LIBERTARIAN MESSENGER, Winter 75/6

TAXATION: All taxes are confiscation.” – Joseph Hume, in House of Commons, 1833.

TAXATION: All taxes are indiscriminate, intolerant, coercive, primitive, aggressive and criminal and have to be abolished. – J.Z. – 13.9.75. – For all but volunteers for them. – J.Z., 18.10.08.

TAXATION: All taxes are taxes upon the exercise of basic human rights and liberties. – J.Z., 8.6.96.

TAXATION: All taxes are, to a considerable extent, taxes upon other taxes, direct and indirect ones. - J.Z., 16.10.01. - DOUBLE TAXATION

TAXATION: All taxes interfere with the right to own, produce, earn and exchange and, to that extent, they are all wrong and destructive. – J.Z., 20.4.93, 19.7.08.

TAXATION: All taxes reduce wages, salaries and other earned incomes – but tend to rather increase the unearned and extorted incomes of politicians and bureaucrats. – J.Z., 21.8.92, 20.7.08.

TAXATION: All taxes tend to interfere with the interplay of economic forces in a free market." – Workers Party, Economic Policy, NSW State Elections 1976.

TAXATION: All taxes, levied upon a man's property for the support of government, without his consent, are mere robbery; a violation of his natural right of property." - Lysander Spooner, A Letter to Grover Cleveland, p.43, in Works I.

TAXATION: All taxes, monopolies and other restrictions form multiple strangleholds and chains upon all productive economic efforts. – J.Z., 24.2.88.

TAXATION: All the Congress, all the accountants and tax lawyers, all the judges, and a convention of wizards all cannot tell for sure what the income tax law says.” – Walter B. Wriston. - All dissatisfied with that mess and its numerous wrongs should become free to opt out from under it and to establish their own communities with their own contribution schemes, according to their own ideals, under personal laws and full exterritorial autonomy. The current tax system should already suffice as a sufficient incentive to explore and realize that alternative. But many other good reasons speak for it as well. - J.Z., 25. 11. 06. - HAS BECOME ALL TOO HEAVY, COMPLICATED, CONFUSED & CONFUSING, ABSURD, CONTRADICTORY, EVEN LARGELY UNKNOWABLE, SECESSIONISM, PANARCHISM, VOLUNTARY TAXATION

TAXATION: All the fiery rhetoric of the Founders was directed at a "tyrant" who taxed his subjects at a rate of about three percent. Today, we in "the land of the free" are taxed at about 50 percent when you add federal, state, and local taxes. What kind of government would do this? A dictatorship would.” – Doug Newman - TYRANNY, FOUNDING FATHERS, TAX RATES THEN & NOW, , TAX SLAVERY, DICTATORSHIP

TAXATION: All the revenues yielded by the US personal income tax of 1968, with its rates ranging from 14 to 70%, plus a 10 per cent surcharge, would have been yielded, with the same exemptions and deductions, by a flat income tax of 21.8 per cent." - Henry Hazlitt,"The Conquest of Poverty”, p.122. – FLAT RATE TAX

TAXATION: All the while our freedom and our wages are being stolen." - Robert de Louth, Bowral, 28.4.76.

TAXATION: All your taxes and regulations freeze old wealth, and make new fortunes impossible – except for those with political pull. The rich fend off the law, while those below get picked clean by your … IRS.” – L. Neil Smith, The Probability Broach, p.120. – I hadn’t encountered more libertarian SF novels by him in recent years. A few days ago an email reported to me that he is boycotted by conventional book publishers because of his libertarian tendency. He should go into publishing himself, selling emailed or disked novels upon prepaid orders. That he could afford to do. Indeed, some will then pass on his titles to friends. That will only help to make his writings more popular. Largely just like lending a title to a friend, only faster and less risky. – Free publicity! Just like many online books that are freely downloadable, promoting sales of the printed issues. Those, who really come to love a book titles will want to get it and keep it in print – if they can afford the price. For those, who wanted them in print he should either accept advance orders to finance such impressions or have a contract with one of the print-upon demand firms. – I would love to get all his writings complete, electronically or otherwise. - J.Z., 6.8.08.

TAXATION: Almost all able-bodied involuntary taxpayers should organize, train and arm themselves for successful resistance against governments, their tax collectors, wrongful laws and armed forces, best in some kind of self-managed militia of volunteers for the effective protection of all their individual rights and liberties. Otherwise territorial governments are unlikely to respect all their individual rights and liberties and, as territorial governments, they could not do so anyhow. The more of the victims of governments did this, the less actual fighting and resistance would be necessary. So far they are only well prepared and conditioned to remain victims. – J.Z., 17.12.93, 19.7.08, 15.3.11. - TAX STRIKE, ARMED & ORGANIZED, MILITIA

TAXATION: America is a land of taxation that was founded to avoid taxation.” – Dr. Laurence J. Peter, Peter’s Quotations, p. 14. - JOKES

TAXATION: America’s taxes and monetary despotism on their own are already enough to assure, in the long run, another American Revolution. Hopefully, it will be intelligently organized, as a non-violent one, profitable to the revolutionaries from the very first day. One way to organize it was set out in PEACE PLANS 19c: Let Freedom Pay Its Way, so far only available from me as a long digitized email attachment, until it appears online or on a CD. (It is now on - J.Z., 15.3.11.) But there are many other ways. Explore e.g. all voluntary taxation and tax strike proposals, also the establishment of an ideal militia of volunteers for the protection of all genuine individual rights and the compilation of an ideal declaration of this kind. – The panarchist, secessionist and exterritorial autonomy road for volunteers is another way. Altogether there are possibly many dozens if not hundreds of such roads to freedom and a few of them are probably quite sound ones. – Should we not try to find out which ones these are? - J.Z., 13.4.09, 6.8.11.

TAXATION: American workers spend more of their day working to pay taxes than they do to feed, clothe, and house their families.” - The Tax Foundation, 9.6.99. Do they really love politicians and bureaucrats as well as hand-out recipients more than they do their families? – J.Z., 7.1.08. - & WELFARE STATES, QUESTIONS

TAXATION: An army of eager bureaucrats is tracking down tax evaders and avoiders, while the energies of many capable citizens are wasted in evading or avoiding our cumbersome, irrational taxation “system”! – PROGRESS, 11/79. – It is not only cumbersome and irrational but quite unjustified and unjustifiable. – J.Z., 22.7.08.

TAXATION: an economic boycott of the state is perhaps the most powerful weapon that people can employ in their efforts to rid their lives of the legal looting and murdering that is now being undertaken in the name of government." - Jerome Tuccille, Radical Libertarianism, p.110.

TAXATION: anarchists ... claim that the very first act of governments, the compulsory payment of taxes, is not only a denial of the right of the individual to determine what he shall buy and how much he shall choose to offer, but is nothing more than adding insult to injury when the very money extorted from him should be used to his disadvantage." - Laurance Labadie, in LIBERTY, Summer 74. - TERRITORIALISM

TAXATION: And collect they do, every April 15th. Why do you think the call it collectivism?” - L. Neil Smith, Lever Action, A Mountain Media Book, 2001,, p.71. - & COLLECTIVISM, TERRITORIALISM

TAXATION: And he will take your fields and your vineyards and give them to his supporters. He will take a tenth of your produce and give it to his staff. He will take the tenth of your sheep: and you shall be his servants. And you shall cry out in that day because of your king which you shall have chosen. – Samuel, in The Bible.” – Quoted in Bachman’s Book of Freedom Quotations. – Mind you, then it was only 10 %! – J.Z., 5.8.08. - STATISM, GOVERNMENTALISM, WELFARE STATE, - VOTING, GOVERNMENT, BIBLE (Samuel), TERRITORIALISM

TAXATION: And it is time for people to understand that governments not only are not necessary, but are harmful and most highly immoral institutions, in which a self-respecting, honest man cannot and must not take part, and the advantages of which he cannot and should not enjoy. And as soon as people clearly understand that, they will naturally cease to take part in such deeds - that is, cease to give the government soldiers and money.(*) And as soon as a majority of the people ceases to do this the fraud which enslaves people will be abolished. Only in this way can people be freed from slavery. And in order not to do the evil which produces misery for himself and for his brothers, he should, first of all, neither willingly nor under compulsion take any part in governmental activity, and should, therefore, be neither a soldiers, nor a field-marshal, nor a minister of state, nor a tax-collector, nor a witness, nor an alderman, nor a juryman, nor a governor, nor a member of parliament, nor, in fact, hold any office connected with violence. That is one thing. Secondly, such a man should not voluntarily pay taxes to governments, either directly or indirectly; nor should he accept money collected by taxes, either as salary, or as pension, or as a reward; nor should he make use of governmental institutions, supported by taxes collected by violence from the people..." - Tolstoi, in Sprading, "Liberty and the Great Libertarians”, p.333. - The most important part might be to refuse to accept the government's forced and exclusive currency at all and to replace it by competitively issued currencies that optional and discountable against their sound value standard - for all but the issuers themselves. - J.Z., 15.3.11. - (*) Both are, all too often, not given but taken, via military or tax slavery. - J.Z., 6.8.11. - GOVERNMENT, SECESSIONISM, GENERAL STRIKE AGAINST TERRITORIAL GOVERMENTS

TAXATION: And politics, throughout time, has existed solely through the resources that it has been able to plunder from the creative and productive people whom it has, in the name of many causes and moralities, denied the exclusive employment of all their own powers for their own welfare." - Karl Hess, The Death of Politics, p.17. - TERRITORIALISM

TAXATION: Another symptom of decline is the crushing taxation that is imposed against all principles of justice. In a natural and just order every genuine producer would receive the value of all that he produced. Now he must surrender half his wages to the State." - Frank Dupuis, in "PROGRESS", Nov. 75.

TAXATION: Any man who takes a share of what I alone have earned is a thief, and the 'laws' that protect him are made by greater thieves." - Con Sellers, "Mr. Tomorrow", p.136.

TAXATION: Any man whose income is confiscated by taxation, the proceeds used to subsidize other men, is a slave!" - Leonard E. Read, The Coming Aristocracy, p.2, ascribing this view to Herbert Spencer.

TAXATION: Any political intervention in the free market – including taxes - MUST misdirect production and reduce human satisfaction." - Percy L. Greaves, Jr. in an advertisement for his book: Understanding the Dollar Crisis.

TAXATION: any program that uses force and violence to compel honest workers to pay someone else's bills is wrong, and for that reason." - Dr. R. S. Jaggard, in FREEDOM TODAY, 12/75.

TAXATION: Any sort of tax has unfortunate and distortive effects on the entire economic system." – Source?

TAXATION: Any tax, once imposed, tends to be extended and increased to its limits and, sometimes, even beyond its limits, e.g. when its collection costs more than the tax returns and when it prevents all too much economic activity. The basic reason for this is simple: Already the smallest tax indicates the subjugation of the taxed to the tax imposers, i.e., a degree of tax slavery. – J.Z., 5.4.88, 2.8.08.

TAXATION: Any taxation is an affront to human dignity. – J.Z., 30.9.92.

TAXATION: Any worker smart enough to earn a paycheck is smart enough to spend it. If you do not agree with that statement, I challenge you to name one worker to whose face you would say :'You are too stupid to spend your own money.’" – Dr. R. S. Jaggard, JAG, Aug. 22, 72.

TAXATION: Anybody has a right to evade taxes if he can get away with it. No citizen has a moral obligation to assist in maintaining the government. If Congress insists on making stupid mistakes and passing foolish tax laws, millionaires should not be condemned if they take advantage of them." - J. Pierpont Morgan, statement to reporters, quoted in "LABOR", June 15, 1957. – Especially seeing, that he has not individually chosen it for himself and is not free to secede from it. – J.Z., 2.8.08. – PANARCHISM, INDIVIDUAL SECESSIONISM, INDIVIDUAL SOVEREIGNTY, PROPERTY RIGHTS

TAXATION: Anyone who truly believes in the 'voluntary' nature of taxation is invited to refuse to pay taxes and to see what then happens to him." - Murray N. Rothbard, For a New Liberty, 1., DIS.

TAXATION: are not only a monkey wrench in the machinery of civilization - rent we’re forced to pay on our own lives – but the very fuel of war itself …” - L. Neil Smith, Lever Action, A Mountain Media Book, 2001,, p. 83. – So is inflation and the public debt. – J.Z., 15.4.09. - WAR

TAXATION: Are there any worse parasites, vampires and drones than the various tax-consumers? And any worse suckers than the tax payers? – J.Z., 75/81.

TAXATION: Are we still many years away from total tax slavery? – J.Z., 15.12.85.

TAXATION: Are you against taxes, or would you raise them until they absorbed the entire output of the country? Are you opposed to the principle of conscription?" - Frank Chodorov, The Income Tax, p.182. - Q.

TAXATION: Are you happy that your money is used for things you do not use?” - Ken Schoolland, The Adventure of Jonathan Gullible, Leap Publishing, Cape Town, with Commentaries by Ken Schoolland and Janette Eldridge, 1981 ff, 2004 ed., - p. 39. – Enough sharp questions will lead to enough sharp hitting answers and, finally, rightful and sensible actions. – J.Z., 11.10.07. - Q.

TAXATION: Arise ye prisoners of taxation, you have nothing to lose but the IRS." - Milton Friedman, NEWSWEEK, quoted in SOUTHERN LIBERTARIAN MESSENGER, 7/77, as a possible theme for a new "Internationale".

TAXATION: As a first step: freeze taxes and the note-printing press - not wages & prices. – J.Z.

TAXATION: As a producer or trader you don't owe anything to the government – except fees for competitively supplied services that you asked for. – J.Z., 75/81.

TAXATION: As John C. Calhoun trenchantly pointed out in the early nineteenth century, the very existence of taxation negates any possibility of such neutrality. For, given any level of taxation, the least that will happen will be the creation of two antagonistic social classes; the “ruling” classes who gain by, and live off, taxation; and the “ruled” classes who pay the taxes. In short, conflicting classes of net tax-payers, and net tax-consumers. At the very least, the government bureaucrats will necessarily be net tax consumers, other such will be those persons and groups subsidized by the inevitable expenditures of government.” - Murray N. Rothbard, The Ethics of Liberty, p. 177. – We have such unequal distribution of burdens and benefits in the best of the nuclear families and also in various communistic or collectivist communities of volunteers, without the voluntary participants thinking and acting like exploiters and exploited, victims and victimizers. In other words, Calhoun’s and Rothbard’s thinking here applies mainly to coercive territorial systems, not to communities and societies of volunteers only. - J.Z., 5.8.08. - TERRITORIALISM, COMPULSORY CLASS DIVISION & INEQUALITY

TAXATION: As long as I can remember, you impressed upon me the blessings of property rights; but now there are others who decide how much of what I earn is mine, and how much is theirs, even before I see it. Not that I don't want to share. They won't let me! They say they 'share' it for me - thus denying me the self-respect one feels in helping another on his own. My good is made mandatory. They tell me it is my obligation to let them give of me, to the 'deserving'." - Howard D. Aley, THE FREEMAN, 11/73: An open letter from a young American to Dear America.

TAXATION: As long as taxes still exist – and even when they are already reduced to voluntary ones, only the government should be obliged to accept its tax foundation paper money any time and this at its full face value. – This simple measure, combined with freedom of choice regarding standards of value and a free market for exchange media, including all clearing certificates and other clearing options, and free market quotations of all of them against sound and optional value standards, would soon do away with the coercive and monopolistic paper money inflations of the various territorial government. – This limited acceptance-obligation at par with its nominal value, for any of the money issuers themselves, should be the only “legal tender” (compulsory acceptance and acceptance at a fixed value, 100 % at par with it nominal value) obligation remaining. It is of the same kind as your obligation to accept your own IOU’s at their face value from anyone as a means of payment towards you. All other means of payment offered to you should be subject to your right to refuse them or to discount them. Under that condition the government could no more cause any inflation of the general price level, expressed in sound value standards, than you could, with e.g. the “money” of the game called “Monopoly”. If it attempted to pay with over-issued money, it could, at best, only issue it at a discount and would, have to accept it back, immediately, at par from anyone. It would thus and obviously lose rather than gain and thus its own self-interest and the self-interest of potential acceptors would prevent it from inflating its tax foundation currency. – J.Z., n.d. and 23.7.08. - INFLATION, LEGALTENDER, TAX FOUNDATION MONEY

TAXATION: As long as W.A. remains within the Federation, it will be tied to those twin agents of self-destruction, namely high taxation and rapid inflation. – Whereas, with strict limitations set on government spending and departmental expansion by constitutional embargoes, taxation would be immediately lowered and kept within bounds forever more. - - A reduction in government spending would also lessen inflation considerably. However one of W.A.’s biggest weapons in the fight against inflation would be its ability to have a multi-currency system.” (*) - Lang Hancock, 1975. – Even if central banking, with its other wrongs and harms were continued, the repeal of legal tender laws and the introduction of free choice of value standards and of free clearing, using any agreed-upon value standard, would already have stopped inflation. A multiple currency issue, although rightful and useful to achieve all possible and desired turnovers, would not be necessary for the prevention of inflation, although it would drive inferior means of payment fast out of circulation. Stable pricing in sound value standards could go on even under a central bank’s currency that is being inflated, as long as it is not turned into legal tender, i.e., has no forced value, but, as a monopoly currency, only forced acceptance. – J.Z., 4.8.08. - INFLATION, FREE BANKING, LIMITED GOVERNMENT.

TAXATION: As taxation is made compulsory on all, whether they vote or not, a large proportion of those who vote, no doubt do so to prevent their own money being used against themselves; when, in fact, they would have gladly abstained from voting, if they could thereby have saved themselves from taxation alone, to say nothing of being saved from all the other usurpations and tyrannies of the government. To take a man's property without his consent, and then to infer his consent because he attempts, by voting, to prevent that property from being used to his injury, is a very insufficient proof of his consent to support the Constitution. It is, in fact, no proof at all. And as we can have no legal knowledge as to who the particular individuals are, if there are any, who are willing to be taxed for the sake of voting, or who would prefer freedom from taxation to the privilege of voting, we can have no legal knowledge that any particular individual consents to be taxed for the sake of voting; or, consequently, consents to support the Constitution." - Lysander Spooner, "No Treason", VI/9 - Works I. – VOTING, DEMOCRACY

TAXATION: As the power of Hellas grew, and the acquisition of wealth became more an object, the revenues of the state increasing, tyrannies were by their means established almost everywhere, and Hellas began to fit out fleets and apply more closely to the sea." – Thucydides, The History of the Peloponnesian War, Chapter I. - Underlining by J.Z.

TAXATION: As the taking of private property is now far more by anonymous predators than by personal thieves, so must the defences be altered against predation. A shot gun and a dog, or a good police force, served to scare off horse thieves. But these physical defenses are useless against the new predation..." - Leonard E. Read, Deeper than you Think, p.44.

TAXATION: At first, the conquering tribe killed and looted the victims and rode on. But at some time the conquerors decided that it would be more profitable to settle down among the conquered peasantry and rule and loot them on a permanent and systematic basis. The periodic tribute exacted from the conquered subjects eventually came to be called 'taxation'". - Murray N. Rothbard, For a New Liberty, p.70.

TAXATION: Australian sales tax on trucks comes to 21%. How high is it on buses, cars, trains and planes? Obviously, the cost of transporting goods and persons is greatly increased thereby, and this happens in a country like Australia, where a small population is spread over a vast continent! Add to this the taxes on petrol, diesel oil and aviation fuel, registration and licensing charges and the various other taxes imposed upon the production and distribution of goods. Our governments are systematically impoverishing us. – J.Z., 2.6.95, 17.7.08. 6.8.11. - OF TRANSPORT

TAXATION: Ax Tax!"- Source? 1974.

TAXATION: Ban tax receipts. Buy them no more! – J.Z. - Admittedly, this is much easier said than done. A good reason for developing a good tax strike program and one for the introduction of general financial freedom. - J.Z., 6.8.11.

TAXATION: BARGAINING ON TAXES.” – Editorial headlines today. As if the taxpayers were permitted to participate, as if it were a real bargaining for government and other services. The kind of bargaining that does take place is not a free market bargaining between free people but, rather, one between Mafia chiefs for their share in the spoils, for their “turfs”. – J.Z., 14.6.85. – DIS. – Only the volunteers of panarchies could effectively bargain with their administrators – or simply secede from them if dissatisfied. – J.Z.16.4.09.

TAXATION: Bastiat, of course, knew what most taxpayers still had to learn – government cannot devise means for giving back more than it has taken: “Do what you will, gentlemen; you cannot give money to some without taking it away from others. If you absolutely insist on draining the taxpayer dry, well and good; but at least do not treat him like a fool. Do not tell him: ‘I am taking this money from you to repay you for what I have already taken from you.’ ” – G. C. Roche III, Bastiat, A Man Alone, p. 115.

TAXATION: Be all right if you weren't to pay any, wouldn't it?" – Roy Millikin, 7.6.74.

TAXATION: Because it builds up the belief that one man and his property may be used by another man against his own convictions and his own interests. It therefore divides us into those who are only tools and those who are the users of tools; and perpetuates a modern form - though more subtle and concealed than the old forms - of slave owning." - Auberon Herbert, The Principles of Voluntaryism, Mack ed., p.392/3.

TAXATION: Because it is essentially opposed to a state of true liberty. It is impossible to look upon a man as free, so long as others have unlimited command over his property. It is impossible to separate the rights of actions from the rights of acquiring and possessing. A man acts through and by means of the various substances of the world, and if he is not free to acquire and own these substances as an individual, neither is he free to act as an individual." - Auberon Herbert, The Principles of Voluntaryism, Mack ed., p.392.

TAXATION: Because it is essentially socialistic in principle, and offers the easiest and surest means of advance to state socialism. So long as we admit that the property of individuals lies at the mercy of the largest number of votes, we are intellectually and morally committed to state socialism, and it is only certain accidents, liable to disappear at any crisis, which stand between us and the practical realization of state socialism." – Auberon Herbert, The Principles of Voluntaryism, Mack ed., p. 405.

TAXATION: because, with money, they can hire soldiers, and with soldiers extort more money; and also compel general obedience to their will. It is with government, as Caesar said it was in war, that money and soldiers mutually supported each other; that with money he could hire soldiers, and with soldiers extort money. So these villains, who call themselves governments, well understood that their power rests primarily upon money. With money they can hire soldiers, and with soldiers extort money. And, when their authority is denied, the first use they always make of money, is to hire soldiers to kill or subdue all who refuse them more money. For this reason, whoever desires liberty, should understand these vital facts, viz.: 1. That every man who puts money into the hands of a 'government' (so called), puts into its hands a sword which will be used against himself, to extort more money from him, and also to keep him in subjection to its arbitrary will. 2. That those who will take his money, without his consent, in the first place, will use it for his further robbery and enslavement, if he presumes to resist their demands in the future." - Lysander Spooner, "No Treason", VI/16, Works I.

TAXATION: Before and during the Revolutionary War the battle cry was 'no taxation without representation'. Apparently, ours is worse with representation than theirs was without it. But we really don't have true representation as to taxation." - W. Vaughn Ellsworth, in SOUTHERN LIBERTARIAN MESSENGER, 8/76. - Only forms of quite voluntary taxation would and could truly represent the tax payers regarding their tax payments and the spending of such revenues. - J.Z., 15.3.11.

TAXATION: Being a taxpayer “is like buying lottery tickets for fifty years and never doing better than a $ 10 consolation prize.” – Phillip Adams. - JOKES

TAXATION: between direct and hidden taxes we each pay more than half our income to the government, which means we work more than half of each workday for the government, which means we are all government employees, in fact if not de jure." - Lowell Ponte, Libertarian Handbook, 1973, p.34.

TAXATION: Beware of politicians who claim they'll build you a pie in the sky - they're going to use your dough.” - Myron Scarbrough – JOKES

TAXATION: Beware of strong drink. It can make you shoot at tax collectors - and miss." - Robert Heinlein, from: Time Enough For Love - Notebooks of Lazarus Long. - JOKES

TAXATION: Beware; taxes are dangerous to your health, your property, your freedom and your life. – J.Z., 75.

TAXATION: Blessed are the young; for they shall inherit the national debt.” – Herbert Hoover. - JOKES

TAXATION: Bureaucracy feeds on taxes. Why feed bureaucracy? – J.Z., 13.9.75. – Q.

TAXATION: But as those services decline, why do our taxes keep going up?" - Daniel M. Karlan, 1976. - Rather: "Why do our taxes keep going up when our services keep going down?" – J.Z.

TAXATION: But if paying taxes is so good, then why doesn’t the tax collector just persuade you of the benefits and let you contribute voluntarily?” - Ken Schoolland, The Adventure of Jonathan Gullible, Leap Publishing, Cape Town, with Commentaries by Ken Schoolland and Janette Eldridge, 1981 ff, 2004 ed., p.XI. - - & VOLUNTARY TAXATION

TAXATION: But keep this in mind. The IRS is the tentacle that feeds all the others. It is the required arm, unique in its brazen unaccountability. As if functions today, it is critical in the pillage of liberty. - - From 1915 to 1988 the population of the country increased two and a half times. In the same span, individual income taxes went from $ 28 million paid to the government to a staggering $ 400 billion. That, good people, is a factor of over fourteen thousand.” - Bill Branon, Let Us Prey, Harper Collins Publishers, 1995, p. 213. – Are these figures adjusted for inflation? Naturally, inflation has also its characteristic as an inflation-tax. – J.Z., 11.10.07.

TAXATION: But most believe that Federal Aid is larger when received than paid." - H. P. B. Jenkins, in “Essays on Liberty”, VI, p. 265. - That would be merely ignorance. But when they believe or hope that others will be taxed more heavily than they are themselves, then that is dishonesty. – J.Z., 17.10.08.

TAXATION: But no good can come of ability-to-pay because it is inherently an immorality. What is it but the highwayman's rule of taking where the taking is best? Neither the highwayman nor the tax-collector give any thought to the source of the victim's wealth, only to its quantity..." - Frank Chodorov, The Income Tax, p.237.

TAXATION: But suppose each price-tag showed an estimate of the taxes influencing the price ..." Lowell Ponte, Libertarian Handbook, 1973, p.34.

TAXATION: But this year there’s some hope that an Age of Enlightenment is returning to Earth. … For in France anew political party has been born … and they’ve called it “The Taxpayers” (which, I suppose, is a bit more catchy in French). Since they’ve established Freedom of Religion over there too (right after they slaughtered the Huguenots), this new group holds the very reasonable tenet that ALL WORK IS SACRED … and therefore, the State cannot force you to pay taxes on your sacred earnings. (Good try, folks …)” – FREE MARKET REPORTER, Dec. 77.

TAXATION: But Uncle Sam (Big Brother) cannot constitutionally keep you as a tax slave without your voluntary compliance." - Tax Rebels of America, quoted in the Libertarian Yearbook, 1973. - So far, he has done so for over 2 centuries. - J.Z., 15.3.11.

TAXATION: But what do I get for all the money I spend on taxes? I don’t have any kids. I don’t use the school system. I don’t use the police, the prisons. I’ve never called the military. Basically, I use the post office and the white lines on the road. A third of my working life for postcards and driving straight.” – Jerry Seinfeld, SeinLanguage, Bantam Books, 1993, p.107. – And for his postcards he has to pay monopoly postage on top of his taxes! – J.Z., 9.9.08. – Not to speak of all the taxes involved in his car and petrol. - J.Z., 15.3.11. - JOKES

TAXATION: But what is most noteworthy is the astonishing blindness of the public to all this. When victorious soldiers reduced the vanquished to slavery, they were barbarous, but they were not absurd. Their object was, as ours is, to live at the expense of others but, unlike us, they attained it. What are we to think of a people who, apparently, do not suspect that reciprocal pillage is no less pillage because it is reciprocal; that it is no less criminal because it is carried out legally and in an orderly manner; that it adds nothing to the public welfare; that, on the contrary, it diminishes it by all that this spendthrift intermediary that we call the state costs?” – Bastiat, in - G. C. Roche III, Bastiat, A Man Alone, p.238. – Sir John Menzies, a former Australian Prime Minister, once said that he could understand that some people let themselves be bribed but he could not understand how they could let themselves be bribed with their own money. – J.Z., 12.7.92. - WELFARE STATE, PLUNDER-BUND, PEOPLE, PUBLIC OPINION, IGNORANCE, VOTING, ELECTION BRIBES

TAXATION: But, in fact, with the average American spending more to fund government than to buy food, clothing, and shelter combined, the greatest impact the government has on those of us for whom it cares so much is through the huge gap it creates between the value of our productive contribution to others in the workplace and what we actually take home." (09/02/02), Gary Galles, 'Less for our labor' day? Ludwig von Mises Institute.

TAXATION: By giving the government a first lien on the earnings of the people it undermined the sanctity of private property, which was the keystone of the liberty the immigrants cherished." – Frank Chodorov, Out of Step, p.154, on the Income Tax.

TAXATION: By how much and how soon would almost everybody’s wealth increase if there were not any form of taxation, especially not the inflation tax and the “taxes” imposed by monopolies? – J.Z., 21.12.93, 19.7.08.

TAXATION: By now our incomes and lives are run largely by bureaucrats rather than by ourselves. – J.Z., 78.

TAXATION: by our political folly we have put a large part, probably the greater part, of the nation in possession of rights to draw from the public purse. Whether these rights take the form of relief, dole, pension, official salary, subsidy or interest on public debt, they all constitute heavy claims on our total production. If happily we manage to escape national bankruptcy, we have set up a slaver for the minority, the producers, far more oppressive than any previous bondage.” – Sir Ernest J. P. Benn, in Account Rendered, in his foreword, quoted by S. Hutchinson Harris, The Doctrine of Personal Right, p. 395. - WELFARE STATE

TAXATION: By taxing and by the ways of spending the tax funds the governments provide more dissatisfaction than they provide satisfaction in form of unearned hand-outs. – J.Z., 14.9.88.

TAXATION: By taxing the productive to support the unproductive they diminish incentives at both ends of the economic scale." - Henry Hazlitt,"in THE FREEMAN, 3/76.

TAXATION: By virtue of the Sixteenth Amendment, which established the authority for the graduated income tax, the government of the United States has now, in effect, statutory power to confiscate all income producing property; it has a prior claim on all the wealth produced in this country." - Admiral Ben Moreell, Log II, p.108.

TAXATION: By what twisted reasoning has another a claim on my purse!" - Leonard E. Read, Talking to Myself, p.103.

TAXATION: Calling a robbery or tribute collection taxation, rates, custom duties, registration fees etc. does not make it right. – J.Z., 22.2.98. - Calling a robbery taxation, rates, custom duties, registration and licensing fees etc. does not make them right or anything else than wrongfully imposed tributes. – J.Z., 22.2.98, 16.7.08.

TAXATION: Can a rational man truly accept the position that the state should coerce and defraud citizens of value they have created so as to benefit others, less productive creatures?" - Ridgway K. Foley Jr., THE FREEMAN, 11/73.

TAXATION: Can it seriously be argued that the human mind, which has put men on the moon, is not equal to the problem of eliminating taxes?" – Paul Lepanto, "Return to Reason”, p.137.

TAXATION: Capital punishment is when the Government taxes you in order to get into business in competition with you and then taxes the profits on your business in order to pay its losses." - The FIJI TIMES, 9.9.1974, quoted in PROGRESS, 9/75. – CAPITAL PUNISHMENT, JOKES

TAXATION: Collecting more taxes than is absolutely necessary is legalized robbery.” – President Calvin Coolidge. – Quoted in N.Y. TIMES, 4.3.55. - Who ought to decide on this? Each taxpayer for himself! Your supposedly 'necessary’ expenditures still amount to robbery when paid for out of my pockets and against my will! – J.Z. - His wrong premise is that any taxation is really necessary, and it largely follows from his premise that a territorial government with involuntary subjects is really necessary. - J.Z., 23. 11. 06. - TAXATION IS ROBBERY

TAXATION: Company and personal taxation. - It is possible for 84% of profits to be paid out in these two taxes combined." - Ron Manners, NATIONAL MINER, 27.10.75. – Even under such tax rates Australia is still considered to be a “free country”, a “free enterprise” and a “capitalistic” one -  by those who have no sensible notions on either. – J.Z., 17.10.08.

TAXATION: Compulsory taxation "gives great and undue facility for engaging a whole nation in war. If it were necessary to raise the sum required from those who individually agreed in the necessity of war, we should have the strongest guarantee for the preservation of peace... Compulsory taxation means everywhere the persistent probability of a war made by the ambitions or passions of politicians." – Auberon Herbert, in Mack edition p.20 & 398.

TAXATION: Compulsory taxes and monopoly institutions and decision-making are bound to corrupt any politics, any politician, at least at the highest level and in the long run. – J.Z., 12.11.93, 19.7.08.

TAXATION: Congratulations America. In 1975 the total number of tax consumers finally exceeded the total number of tax payers. Does "rule of the majority” still seem such a good idea? Support the 'rule of no one’ - also known as freedom." – Source? – FREEDOM, INDIVIDUAL SOVEREIGNTY, RULERS, PRIME MINISTERS, PRESIDENTS, REPRESENTATIVES

TAXATION: Congress has been getting more money out of us lately than the criminals.” – Will Rogers. - CRIME

TAXATION: Congress must stop playing God with the fortunes and lives of the individual American citizen." - Steven D. Symms, US House of Representatives, 3.4.74. - "Should be shortened to: "Stop playing God with the fortunes and lives of individual citizens!" – J.Z.

TAXATION: consider it quite immoral to take what a man earns without giving service of an exact kind.” – Seaton McKettrig, A World by the Tail, ANALOG, Oct. 63, p. 78.

TAXATION: Consider taxation. This not merely deprives people of the right to choose what to do with what they have. Even more: 'Taxation of earnings from labor is on a par with forced labor ... (Taking the earnings of n hours labor is like taking n hours from the person; it is like forcing the person to work n hours for another's purpose.')" - David, Spitz, Justice For Sale, on Nozick.

TAXATION: Console yourself about taxes with the thought that by now you are working mainly for people - who don't like work." - R. J., free after Mr. Flannigan, 1977. - JOKES

TAXATION: Count that day won, when turning on its axis, this earth imposes no additional taxes. – Franklin P. Adams. – On that day we will have won back the Earth from the conmen, parasites and looters now in charge of us, when, nowhere on earth, they can any longer impose any of their taxes upon us. – J.Z., 25.3.84, 5.8.08. - Luckily, this colossus, the whole planet Earth, is not a powerful politician that can impose taxes upon us or collect rent from us for living on it. Let correct ideas, definitions and terms be among our main weapons. Select and perfect slogans from this collection into world-conquering sayings! Is that asking too much from you? – J.Z., 5.8.08. – If only the Earth charged taxes then tax strikes would be easy. – But it is governments, politicians, that promise heaven and deliver hell, till with all too many popular errors, myths and prejudices, also organizations and guns on their side. - J.Z., 16.4.09. - DIS.

TAXATION: Crime does pay - for the tax department. – J.Z., 81.

TAXATION: Dealing with government ... is more like this: You're dragged off the street and into a restaurant. A meal of inferior quality is set before you. Whether you like it or not, you are presented with an outrageous bill. And if you refuse to pay, you are locked in the back room to wash dishes until the owner decides to let you out." - Jim Stumm, LIBERTARIAN CONNECTION, 9.9.73. - JOKES

TAXATION: Dear public servant, you are supposed to be my servant, but I didn't hire you, do not get any services I want from you or any at a price I would be willing to pay. Thus, if I could, I would fire you, this instant. – J.Z., 19.9.81.

TAXATION: Death and taxes are evitable. - J.Z., 13.11.00. The sooner the better. Could there be a better investment than an investment in research towards both these aims? - J.Z., 2.2.02. - DEATH

TAXATION: death and taxes are inevitable, but that it is not inevitable that we be taxed to death.” –Jarvis Howard, REASON, 1/79, p. 12. – Freedom lovers should aim higher: Have we developed as yet real sciences against death and taxes? – J.Z., 23.7.08.

TAXATION: Debt, the only commodity on which a man does not have to pay taxes.” – H. L. Mencken. – That does not indicate that taxes, rents, commodity and service price debts are all paid with money that was already heavily taxed beforehand. And, in the hands of the creditor these debts, once paid, are considered as income and will be heavily taxed again. Moreover, some taxes, like car registration taxes and rates or land taxes, cannot be deducted from one’s taxable income and thus these tax amounts are again taxed, as income, although they were enforced expenditures. Tax is heaped even upon tax payments. Tax on tax, another taxation absurdity and wrongness. J.Z., 20.3. 87, 4.8.08.

TAXATION: destroy the compulsory character of taxation. – There lies the stronghold of all war and strife and oppression of each other. As long as compulsory taxation lasts – in other words giving power to some men to use other men against their beliefs and their interests – liberty will be but a mocking phrase. Between liberty and compulsory taxation there is no possible reconciliation. It is a struggle of life and death between the two …” – Auberon Herbert, The Plea for Voluntarism, Herbert Spencer Lecture at Oxford University, June 7, 1906.

TAXATION: Did you hear … “about the taxpayer’s wristwatch – it wrings its hands every hour.” -Tiny Kaplan – JOKES

TAXATION: Dime: A dollar with the tax taken out.” – Anon. – How often has inflation reduced the value of a dollar to that of a dime (ten cents) in former times, in the U.S.A.? It certainly happened in my time in Australia with the Australian dollar. Nevertheless, in spite of such evidence, the central banks are still widely considered as defenders and guardians of the currency, rather than its systematic depreciators or inflationists. People will not learn enough about the wrongness and evils of central banking until these banks, their exchange media and value standards are exposed to fully free competition. Likewise, the wrongs and evils of territorialism will only become revealed to most people once it has been abolished and replaced by exterritorial autonomy for volunteers. – J.Z., 4.8.08. - JOKES

TAXATION: Do not simply reform the tax system; replace it!" - Karl Hess, The Lawless State. - By Panarchies, with their prices, fees, subscription, insurance and credit arrangements, self-help, mutual aid and charity! – Very few taxpayers will volunteer to continue the present system among themselves. - J.Z., 17.10.08.

TAXATION: Don't settle for a political promise to lower taxes – lower them yourself!" - SOUTHERN LIBERTARIAN MESSENGER, Winter 75/6. – This is not yet a constitutional, legal, juridical, voting or secessionist option for the individual victim of taxation - although it should be. – J.Z., 18.10.08, 6.8.11.

TAXATION: Down to which level should taxes fall? Down, down, to zero! – There is no rightful level for taxation, no more so than for robbery, murder and rapes. - J.Z., 8.1.98, 16.7.08.

TAXATION: Each tax declaration summons you to admit, in writing, that you are the government’s tax slave. – J.Z., 16.10.99.

TAXATION: Each taxpayer to pay taxes only to the party of his choice and to obey only its laws and institutions – as long as he wants to remain with it. – J.Z., 17.12.93. – PANARCHISM

TAXATION: eliminate mandatory taxation entirely.” – SLL: Taxation is Legalized Theft, a leaflet. – Except for communities of volunteers. They would then only get what they deserve and had chosen for themselves – for as long as they are prepared to individually put up with it. Afterward they, too, should be free to secede from such communities. – J.Z., 4.8.08, 15.3.11. – PANARCHISM, VOLUNTARY TAXATION, TERRITORIALISM

TAXATION: enfranchise our people to make real choices in their own lives with their own earnings and savings.” - Samel, in Dr. Rhodes Boyson, editor, "1985", VII.

TAXATION: Even in case of a revolution, Germans would strive only for freedom from taxes, not for freedom of thought.” – Hebbel, Tagebuecher, May 1836. – (J.Z. tr. of: “Selbst im Falle einer Revolution wuerden die Deutschen sich nur Steuerfreiheit, nie Gedankenfreiheit zu erkaempfen suchen.”) – Freedom of thought they had already anyhow. Only freedom of expression, freedom of information and freedom of action was missing. They might be much better off now, and also free to enjoy these particular rights and liberties and all others as well, if only they had made a revolution to free them from all taxes. That would have rid them of all politicians and all bureaucrats in one stroke, except those, which communities of volunteers would hired for particular and limited purposes only. – J.Z., n.d. & 15.3.11.

TAXATION: Every public service to pay its way, competitively or to be supported by voluntary subscriptions or donations. – J.Z., 19.9.88.

TAXATION: Every tax and every tax rate to be made valid, should have to be sanctioned by a referendum - and the dissenters should remain free to opt out. - In short, every tax should become a voluntary tax of become repealed. - J.Z., 1981, 6.8.11.

TAXATION: Every tax causes more problems than it can solve. Actually, I believe that no tax ever really solved any problem for the taxpayers. – J.Z., 10.6.91. – Can you supply any example to the contrary? – J.Z., 5.8.08.

TAXATION: Every tax imposes a degree of slavery. – J.Z., 75.

TAXATION: Every tax is too taxing. – J.Z., 16.8.98.

TAXATION: Everyone should have to pay taxes, like prices, only for what he wants. – J.Z., 75, 16.4.09.

TAXATION: Everything worthwhile can be paid for out of prices or subscriptions or on credit. – J.Z., 9.9.81.

TAXATION: extortions, regardless of motive, are inconsistent with freedom." – Workers Party Platform, draft, 1975.

TAXATION: Fees for Services!" - Slogan of anti-tax march, Sydney, 1.9.75. - "Fees for services - rather than taxes for disservices!" - would be my version, - J.Z.,12/9/81.

TAXATION: FINE: A tax you have to pay for doing wrong. TAX: A fine you have to pay for doing okay.” – Lowell Nussbaum. - JOKES

TAXATION: Fossedal reports that Swiss income taxes are among the lowest in the industrialized world. They are also generally simpler and easier to calculate. And Swiss citizens get to vote – directly on their own taxes." (4/10/03) - Paul Jacob, USTL, 3- Taxation with real representation. VOLUNTARY TAXATION, REFERENDUM, VOTING ON TAXES, DIRECT DEMOCRACY IN SWITZERLAND

TAXATION: Get your money’s worth: Sack territorial governments at every level, all their politicians and bureaucrats – and hire, instead, only those competitively service agencies that you do want for yourself. – J.Z., 6.4.94, 20.7.08. – PANARCHISM, INDIVIDUAL SECESSIONISM, VOLUNTARY TAXATION

TAXATION: Giving a politician access to your wallet is like giving a dog access to your refrigerator.” – Tim Barber - JOKES

TAXATION: Government: If you refuse to pay unjust taxes, your property will be confiscated. If you attempt to defend your property, you will be arrested. If you resist arrest, you will be clubbed. If you defend yourself against clubbing, you will be shot dead. These procedures are known as the Rule of Law.” - Edward Abbey, 1927-1989, Vox Clamantis in Deserto (A Shout in the Wilderness or Crying in the Wilderness.) - RULE OF LAW

TAXATION: Government revenues should not necessarily be reduced to the receipts from charity appeal tables in shopping centers, but they should certainly be reduced to the voluntary subscriptions of voluntary subjects, of communities of volunteers, whether insurance companies, mutual aid societies or any kinds of ideologies or religions. Moreover, their powers should never be territorial ones, over peaceful dissenters but merely over their voluntary subscribers. - J.Z., 18.3.11.

TAXATION: Governmental services are not worth the taxes you are forced to pay and its disservices cost you even more. – J.Z., 25.12.98.

TAXATION: Governments always charge us much more than their services are worth to us. – On top of this, they even charge us highly for disservices and for causing both of these messes for us! – Only those, who pay them bribes for still more wrongful government actions, for privileges and monopolies, get their money’s worth – but, naturally, at the expense of the honest people. - J.Z., 11.7.85, 4.8.08.

TAXATION: Governments can 'juice' up anyone's project only by squeezing the juice out of other people. – J.Z., 17.8.78.

TAXATION: Governments derive their rights form the consent of the governed.” – Maybe you’ve consented to have them take your money, but you can’t consent to have them take mine – and I know, I haven’t.” – Simon Jester, ca. 1977. – CONSENT, VOTING, VOLUNTARISM

TAXATION: Governments don’t collect taxes in order to provide services; they provide (*) services as an excuse to collect taxes.” – Stormy Mon, “Imagine Freedom”, 1985, p. 17. (*) some – J.Z. Another version: “Governments don’t collect taxes in order to provide services. They provide services as an excuse to collect taxes. Taxes are revolting, why aren’t you?” – Stormy Mon, Imagine Freedom, No. 10.

TAXATION: Governments have nothing to offer – that could not be got cheaper and better without them – but they are ready and willing to take everything. – J.Z., 14.12.85, 24.7.08.

TAXATION: Has anyone ever supplied a sound argument for taxation? – J.Z., 9/72. – Q.

TAXATION: Have you ever heard anyone boast what bargain he has got for his greatest annual expenditure - his taxes? – J.Z., 12.9.81. – Q.

TAXATION: Have you ever wondered why you can’t take it with you? The tax people always get it before you do.” – Bruce E. Harper (Eric B. Lindsay) in No. 1 of his Newsletter. - JOKES

TAXATION: Have you got any real say on how bureaucrats are going to spend your money? - If not, then why go on defending voting and taxation as if they were providing answers, not problems? – J.Z.

TAXATION: Have you heard about the IRS cocktail? Two drinks and you don't withhold a thing!" - Lane Olinghouse, SOUTHERN LIBERTARIAN MESSENGER, 4/74. – JOKES

TAXATION: Herman Kahn's sardonic view that Americans are fortunate not to get all the government they pay for!"- Simon: A Time for Truth, p.217. - GOVERNMENT

TAXATION: Honesty in tax declarations? The government robs us through taxation and inflation and of liberties and rights through numerous laws. It also cheats us through a dishonest official consumer price index and yet it expects all of us victims to honestly declare all our incomes to the government so that they can be robbed still more. Already Rousseau, in his “Social Contract”, denies the obligation to tell a robber of any assets that one may have managed to hide from him. The government may legalize its own dishonesty and outlaw my own defensive dishonesty towards it but it cannot legally establish a moral obligation on my side to tell such truths to it. It is not morally entitled to hear or read such truths from me. – J.Z., 26.5.89, 6.8.08. 6.8.11. – HONESTY, ALWAYS, TOWARDS EVERYONE, EVEN ORDINARY ROBBERS & OFFICIAL ONES?

TAXATION: Honesty towards the taxation department amounts to being an accessory to dishonesty against yourself. – J.Z., 24.6.85. – JOKES

TAXATION: honor the tax dodger and pay your respects to the man honorable enough to defy the law." - Frank Chodorov, The Income Tax, p.111. - I would rather say: "that law". - J.Z.,n.d. - Or, rather, that avalanche of "positive" legislation. - J.Z., 15.3.11. - "honor the tax dodger.” – Frank Chodorov, Fugitive Essays, p. 390. – Paying as well as receiving tax money are both inherently shameful acts and should be avoided as much as possible. But I for one would not blame anyone who, having paid much in taxes during his work period and still paying much in indirect taxes, tries to recover something of his losses from the tax-gathering and tax-fund dispensing monstrous machine. The sooner it is made quite dysfunctional, except for its remaining volunteers, the better. – J.Z., 23.7.08.

TAXATION: How can everybody be better off when everybody has to pay more and more for more and more disservices? – J.Z., 19.9.81.

TAXATION: How can people so tamely submit to up to 3/4 of their income being taken away from them in order to supply them with numerous overpriced and unsatisfactory services and even with many disservices? – J.Z., - 79/81. There exists no consumer protection authority against that abuse. Parliament is a farce, at least in this respect. – J.Z., 18.10.08.

TAXATION: How can the non-owner preserve a sense of justice or self-respect, while he votes away the property of the owner?" – Auberon Herbert, in Mack edition p.395/6. - VOTING, THE RIGHT TO VOTE, GENERAL FRANCHISE, MAJORITY DESPOTISM, DEMOCRACY.

TAXATION: How can you spend your money as you please when the government takes so much of it in taxes?" - Harry Browne, How I Found Freedom in an Unfree World, p.13.

TAXATION: How could people who submit to taxes have clear ideas on liberty? - J.Z., 12.10.78

TAXATION: How many enterprises are rendered unprofitable and thus destroyed or diminished or even prevented from coming into existence by various forms of taxation, licensing, regulations and controls? – J.Z., 7.11.91. – How many jobs are lost thereby or do never come into existence. The effect of monetary despotism is even worse, I believe. – J.Z., 5.8.08.

TAXATION: How many of the present government services would be bought or subscribed to and by how many of the present government subjects, if all of these services were offered like consumer goods on supermarket, in free competition with all other goods and services supplied by other firms and if the depreciated governmental monopoly money were not the only exchange medium and value standard any longer but also subjected to free competition from better monies and value standards, especially all those redeemable, at their nominal face value, in the consumer goods and services which their issuers do have to offer? – J.Z., 20.7.08. - VOLUNTARY TAXATION, MONETARY FREEDOM

TAXATION: How many people have to band together to steal from you, before a wrong becomes a right?” – Marshall Fritz. – Q. – MAJORITIES, DEMOCRACY, TERRITORIALISM

TAXATION: How much do governments spend on preparing for the next war, compared with what they spend on peace research? And of anything that they spend on peace research, how much of this spending is used to examine e.g. territorialism, protectionism, taxation, conscription and central banking as major factors making for war? - J.Z., 22.3.11.

TAXATION: How much would you be willing to pay for government services if the subscriptions to them would all be optional and if they were competitively supplied by private companies as well? - J.Z., 6.6.00, 1.2.02. - & GOVERNMENT SERVICES AND SPENDING

TAXATION: How to reduce taxes? End all hand-outs, grant all social service only in form of repayable loans for which the next of kin or friends must stand as guarantors. No military expenditures at all without citizen consent by referendum. No subsidies to any enterprises. Let them stand and fall on their own merits. Those who can’t make it on the free market ought to go into bankruptcy and thus their remaining assets should get rapidly into the hands of those who can run them profitably. – With defence salaries amounting now to about 1200 million dollars p.a., every Australian pays now about $ 300 p.a. just in salaries. For this saving quite a few would gladly do 3 weeks of training per annum, full time and we would end up with a much stronger and better motivated armed force. - J.Z., n.d. but many years ago. Anyhow, as was publicly stated a few years ago, all the governmental defence forces combined could effectively defend only a few kilometers of the Australian coastline. So we might as well spare us this expenditure, too. – When I came to Australia, in 1959, I was amused to read that on weekends all early warning radar stations were shut down. To me this seems typical for the provision of “defence” by territorial governments. – Free trade, free investments, free migration, and full employment, even for millions of deserters and refugees, and quite just war or peace aims, including full exterritorial autonomy for voluntary communities, combined with an ideal militia for the defence of individual rights and liberties would provide us with a better defence or war prevention than any conventional or nuclear governmental defence efforts could. - J.Z., 22.7.08, 6.8.11.

TAXATION: How much do governments spend on preparing for the next war, compared with what they spend on peace research? And of anything that they spend on peace research, how much of this spending is used to examine e.g. territorialism, protectionism, taxation, conscription and central banking as major factors making for war? - J.Z., 22.3.11.

TAXATION: I don’t believe it is possible to cheat on taxes. All such moves are justified.” – Bruce E. Harper # 2, 1979. – CHEATING? FRAUD? LIES? HONESTY? FRANKNESS? TRUTH? TAX RESISTANCE

TAXATION: I don't care whether foxes, lions or tigers raid my life-stock. I would like to get rid of all these beasts of prey in more or less democratic camouflage. But I could put up with them continuing to prey - upon their own voluntary followers only. – J.Z., n.d. – PANARCHISM, VOLUNTARISM

TAXATION: I don't give a damn who pays, provided only that I am not forced to do so." - FRAHM, Leanne Frahm, in "GEGENSCHEIN", No. 33. - I would insert:"or how much" after "pays". – J.Z. Another flaw of this doctrine is that those advocating the 'soak the rich' notion, might subscribe to this doctrine also. - Rather: Others may tax themselves as much as they like or can stand - as long as I am not forced to contribute to their schemes." – J.Z.

TAXATION: I favor tax exemption for everyone. I would like to see millions more obtain it. Tax exemption is the natural state of man." - Robert LeFevre, in his LEFEVRE’S JOURNAL, Summer 74.

TAXATION: I got a solution for the crime problem, folks. Just legalize it and put a heavy tax on it, that’s all. Well, we tax some of our biggest businesses right out of existence. It might work with crime, you can’t tell.” – Will Rogers. – JOKES, CRIME

TAXATION: I have never signed a contract for any amount of government.” – Andrew J. Melechinsky, THE CONNECTION, 24.1.82. – GOVERNMENT, CONSENT

TAXATION: I move that all those in favor of taxation and government spending be confined to tax themselves only and spend their government budget only among themselves. – J.Z., 29.5.83, 4.8.08. – PANARCHISM, USER PAYS PRINCIPLE, VOLUNTARY TAXATION

TAXATION: I object to any of my money being spent by any government. – J.Z., 73/81.

TAXATION: I once heard the head of the Internal Revenue Service claim that taxes are the price we pay for civilization. In fact, it’s the other way around – civilization is the price we pay, what we are required to sacrifice, in order to have taxes …” - L. Neil Smith, Lever Action, A Mountain Media Book, 2001,, p.39. - & CIVILIZATION

TAXATION: I personally was never asked if I like to pay taxes or like to make a donation to the government. And if I had been asked, I certainly would not have agreed to it. And nobody is asked. That money is just taken from you, whether you like it or not. I don't know any other name for that but theft." - Bob Howard, in an A.I.R. talk.

TAXATION: I reserve the right to make counter-claims for all the disservices done to me. – J.Z.

TAXATION: I submit that even if our public finance were managed on lines of decent economy (which it is not), the present method of collecting income tax is sufficient to alienate every citizen who has to pay it. It is flagrantly unjust, and no system of taxation is likely to succeed of the citizen feels that he is being treated like a pickpocket by a pickpocket.” – E. S. P. Haynes, The Lawyer, p. 296.

TAXATION: I think no robbery is more flagrant or palpable – nor hardly any more unjustifiable – than taxing men for the support of government, without their personal consent. … Such taxation is not only robbery in itself, but it supplies the means for, and is the legitimate parent of, nearly all the other tyranny, which governments practice. You will see therefore that it is impossible for me to support any government that acts on that principle, or to act with any party that adopts it.” - Lysander Spooner, letter, March 12, 1856. – INDIVIDUAL SOVEREIGNTY, CONSENT, VOLUNTARISM, STATES, PARTIES

TAXATION: I think the terror most people are concerned with is the IRS.” – Malcolm Forbes, when asked if he was afraid of terrorism.” - & TERRORISM

TAXATION: I try to save like hell for something rightful, useful and wanted by my me, while I am being bombarded by tax bills for things I consider to be wrongful, useless, irrational and unwanted by me. Nevertheless, the State forces me, monopolistically and territorially, to finance such expenditures and disservices with part of my income. – J.Z., 5.11.93.

TAXATION: I want the whole package deal of taxes for public services stopped and a refund of my taxes not yet wasted and of my share in all public assets acquired with tax funds. – J.Z., 9.9.81. - See: PEACE PLANS 19 c, for the realization of such a plan for Australia.

TAXATION: I want to keep what I earned - or spend it myself! – J.Z., 7.6.74.

TAXATION: I would not buy most of the government's "services" if I were not forced to. – J.Z., 74.

TAXATION: I would rather be a big spender myself than let the government do it at my expense. – J.Z., 10.9.81

TAXATION: I’d rather pay for not being subjected to a territorial government than pay for it as my lord and master. Taxes would thus become open tribute extortions – as a first step towards their total abolition - for all but internal contributions to exterritorially autonomous communities of volunteers. – J.Z., 17.12.93. - That could be realized, as a publicity stunt, by a private registry, that would make known all such voice of protest, and their total - for a small registration fee. On its website it could and should also offer all the voluntary taxation alternatives so far proposed. The false pretence of taxation being "voluntary" or by "consent" could thus become exposed and potential supporters for a future effective tax strike could thus be gathered. - J.Z., 16.3.11.

TAXATION: I’m never ready for a new tax system but I’m always ready for a system of no taxes at all or one of voluntary taxation only. – J.Z., 10.4.00, 6.10.08.

TAXATION: If a man has to give one-third of his income, let’s face it, that’s a third of his working life. He has to work 15 years as a slave for the federal government.” – Elliot Graham, Republican candidate for Congress, USA, in the 24th district. – Mentioned in a 1974 SIL publication.

TAXATION: If a vampire doesn’t leave you enough blood to survive, it will be without a source of its own survival.” – Sy Leon, “None of the Above”. – Alas, you are not the only victim of this vampire empire and it can put up with a lot of deaths among its victims, even kills them or lets them be killed by the millions in wars or civil wars or other mass murderous actions. – J.Z., 4.8.08.

TAXATION: If all taxpayers refused to pay, the government couldn't do a thing about it. – J.Z. - However, a totalitarian regime could then appeal to all its tax-supported followers, to simply take what they need from the tax strikers. That could lead to plunder, fighting and murder on a large scale. Thus the tax strikers should be armed, trained and organized and also be prepared, for a transition period, to pay the armed servants of this State until they have provided freedom conditions, especially full monetary and financial freedom, under which these "public servants" can and will be better paid for productive jobs than their present unproductive and counter-productive ones. Only then could one expect mass fraternization to take place. - As for their pension claims: They, too, should get their share in the remaining capital assets of the territorial State. See PEACE PLANS 19 C. - J.Z., 16.3.11. - TAX STRIKE, COMPREHENSIVE.

TAXATION: If any individual committed deeds upon us similar to those of the tax department, we would get rid of him." - B. P., 6.9.81.

TAXATION: If I am compelled to labor and pay tribute to somebody, what does it matter to me (except as a choice of least evil) whether I do so at the bidding of a Napoleon or of a majority of elected representatives of my fellow-slaves?" - John Badcock, Jr., "Slaves to Duty."

TAXATION: If I deny the authority of the State when it presents my tax bill, it will soon take and waste all my property, and so harass me and my children without end. This is hard, this makes it impossible for a man to live honestly, and at the same time comfortably, in outward respects.” – Henry David Thoreau. - We should at least cease speaking of "taxes" and start speaking openly about the wrongfulness of enforcing tribute payments to politicians, bureaucrats and their favourites or voting cattle. - Competing voluntary contribution schemes are the only rightful alternative. - J.Z., 23. 11. 06. - & THE STATE

TAXATION: If I had not been taxed then I could be rich by now. – J.Z., 17.12.93. - WEALTH, PROSPERITY, RICHES.

TAXATION: if it is immoral for one man or group of men to rob another, shouldn’t it be the same conclusion for the biggest non-voluntary, revenue collecting Godfather of them all – the government?” – Lawrence Samuels, Taxation Is Legalized Theft, a SLL leaflet.

TAXATION: If it is right to use unlimited power to take the one-tenth of a man’s property, is it also right to take one-half or the whole? If it is not right to take the half, where is the magical undiscoverable point at which right is suddenly converted into wrong?” – Auberon Herbert, Mr. Spencer and the Great Machine, p.58. - Even a 1% take in form of compulsory taxation is not right – unless it is done only among those who volunteered for such a system. – J.Z., 22.7.08.

TAXATION: if it is wrong for example, to take money from people without their consent, a pretty good case can be made for the immorality of knowingly accepting such money from the thief who took it in the first place. Very well. Where does a politician’s salary come from?” - David B. Suits, OPTION MAGAZINE, 2/787. – Well, if we freed ourselves from having to pay them, in form of taxes, their salaries and their spending programs to buy votes and power for themselves, and made the mistake of still leaving them in territorial power, then they would simply become even more corrupt than they are today. Alternatively, they could abuse the monetary despotism, they legislated themselves into, to “finance” their salaries and all their budget items via inflation of their monopoly money and exclusive currency and thereby create a still greater economic chaos, poverty and unemployment. – J.Z., 2.8.08.

TAXATION: If it is wrong for one man to take your money, how can it be right for a group of men? Calling it “taxes” rather than “theft” doesn’t change the fact … it is YOUR money.” – William Marey (Boss) Tweed, THE VOLUNTARYIST, 10/92.

TAXATION: If it moves, tax it?" - AKA, LIBERTARIAN CONNECTION, 15.2.73. - They also tax land and houses, even the property of the dead or their heirs! – J.Z., n.d. - Short slogans or proverbs ofte indicate only a fraction of the truths involved. - J.Z., 6.8.11.

TAXATION: If most people were to refuse to accept the government's paper money and issued and accepted their own exchange media and value standards, instead, not only would inflation and unemployment and bureaucracy come to an end, but taxation, to a large extent, also - as a result of the subsequent general prosperity. – J.Z., 9/81. – The Welfare State’s expenses come often to about half of the total government expenditures. – J.Z., 18.10.08.

TAXATION: If my taxes were a tax-free income then I could comfortably live on them. – J.Z., 75.

TAXATION: If one fifth of the people were to resist taxation, it would cost more to collect their taxes, or try to collect them, than the other four fifths would consent to pay into the treasury." - B. R. Tucker, quoted in Reichert, Partisans of Freedom, p.163.- TAX STRIKE, VOLUNTARY TAXATION

TAXATION: If only users had to pay they would get more than a voter’s say. – J.Z., 28.1.89, 5.8.08.

TAXATION: If Patrick Henry thought that taxation without representation was bad, he should see how bad it is with representation.” – THE OLD FARMER’S ALMANAC – Also in UNITED MINE WORKER’S JOURNAL

TAXATION: If paying taxes could make people well off, all the nations of the earth would have been rich long ago.” – Clarence L. Swartz, What Is Mutualism? New York, 1927, p.35.

TAXATION: If slavery is illegal or wrong then so are taxes. – J.Z., 13.9.75.

TAXATION: If somebody gets something for nothing then someone gets nothing for something." - John Hospers, in a talk on rights.

TAXATION: If someone claims exclusive right to man’s wealth, he also claims a right to man’s time which is a direct claim to man’s life.” – Lawrence Samuels in leaflet: “What Is Libertarianism? – You Own Yourself.” – SELF-OWNERSHIP, PROPERTY, SLAVERY

TAXATION: If someone had suggested to our great-grandparents that they should pay half of their earnings in taxation, there would have been an instant revolution – but that’s what we pay now. Without a bloody whimper.” – John Singleton with Bob Howard, Rip Van Australia, p.132.

TAXATION: If taxation or taking from others is in itself a good, true method, why no employ it to its very furthest extent?" - Auberon Herbert, in Mack ed. p.403. - The government has come close to that "ideal"! – J.Z.

TAXATION: If taxation without consent is not robbery, then any band of robbers have only to declare themselves a government, and all their robberies are legalized." - Lysander Spooner, "A Letter to Grover Cleveland.” – TAXATION IS ROBBERY

TAXATION: If taxation without consent is robbery, the United States government has never had, has not now, and is never likely to have, a single honest dollar in its treasury." - Lysander Spooner, A Letter to Grover Cleveland, p.9. - I find this exaggerated, seeing there is a majority of statists and most of them find some taxation to be necessary and justified. The case for voluntary taxation (contributions, fees and subscriptions) rests on the assumption that the funds of conformists and non-conformists can be separately administered, like they are with different churches. – J.Z.

TAXATION: If the State needs money, then it better provide something that people are willing to pay money for.” – Jack Boulogne, FNN, Summer 92. (Freedom Network News?)

TAXATION: If the theists really had 'invisible means of support' then I, for one, would be interested - as a taxpayer. – J.Z., 19.11,78. - JOKES

TAXATION: If the user had only to pay for competitive services rendered to him, he would not be forced to pay for a bloated bureaucracy, for subsidies to his competitors and for disservices rendered to his – as happens now with taxes. – J.Z., 28.9.85.

TAXATION: If there are people and services deserving my support then I'd rather have my own choice among them than let other voters or even politicians and bureaucrats pick their favourites among them - at my expense. – J.Z., 9/81

TAXATION: If there is anything truthful to be said in favour of taxes then, in almost half a century, and in perusing the relevant literature of several centuries, I have not heard of it yet. – J.Z., 19.9.81. – Could any argument for compulsory taxation be upheld if exposed to the electronic “argument mapping” of Paul Monk et al, described online? – J.Z., 18.10.08.

TAXATION: If they aren't willing to pay for the service in the free market (the General Market apart from the government), who can say they're willing to pay for it through government?" - Harry Browne, How I Found Freedom in an Unfree World, p.89.

TAXATION: If they can’t manage THEIR budget, why should they be allowed to manage OURS?” – MAD, 12/79. - JOKES

TAXATION: If we analyze taxation, we find that, among all the persons and institutions in society, only the government acquires its revenues through coercive violence." - Murray N. Rothbard, For a New Liberty, p.11. - One could, naturally, say that the unions have been granted so many privileges that they have become extensions of the State. – J.Z.

TAXATION: If we can prevent the government from wasting the labors of the people, under the pretence of taking care of them, they must become happy.” - President Thomas Jefferson, letter to Thomas Cooper, November 29, 1802. - The Writings of Thomas Jefferson, ed. Paul L. Ford, vol. 8, p. 178 (1897). – Another version: “If we can prevent the government from wasting the labors of the people, under the pretense of caring for them, then they will be happy." – Jefferson, quoted by Rod Manis in "Manifesto", p.113. - If we can prevent the government of people who do not want to be governed, or achieve that they are only governed in the ways they prefer, then we open up the way to happiness for most people. - J.Z., 24.11.02. - GOVERNMENT SPENDING, GOVERNMENT PROGRAMS, WELFARE STATE, WASTE, PROTECTIONISM, EXPLOITATION, VOLUNTARISM, PANARCHISM

TAXATION: If you did statistics, you might like to know that from 1914 to 1975, while U.S. Population went up 120%, Income tax collections went up 551%. Number of income tax returns filed went up 23,800%. Amount of tax, adjusted for inflation, up 5,390%. Number of IRS employees increased 1,950%. Total IRS collections increased 11,990%. - Does this tell you something?" - INTERCOLLEGIATE REVIEW, quoted in SOUTHERN LIBERTARIAN MESSENGER, 7/78.

TAXATION: If you don’t use a service offered in the market, you don’t have to pay for it. But if you don’t use a tax-supported service, you are forced to pay for it anyway.” – Jarret B. Wollstein in ISIL leaflet: “In Pursuit of Liberty”. - FREE MARKET VS. GOVERNMENT SERVICES

TAXATION: If you tax people who work and pay people who don’t work, you get unemployment.” – Ron Manners, Who Are Our Leaders? Who Are Our Heroes? – NATIONAL BUSINESS BULLETIN, July 99, p. 19. – True, but it is not the only or even the main cause of unemployment. – Monetary despotism is much more “taxing” for any economy. Add e.g. compulsory licensing and schooling to the many governmental wrongful intervention that produce degrees of unemployment in a correspondingly all too unfree market or mixed economy. - J.Z., 25.1.00. 20.7.08. - UNEMPLOYMENT, COMPULSORY SCHOOLING & LICENSING

TAXATION: If you want it - you pay for it." - Slogan of “Libertarian Enterprises” on match-packets.

TAXATION: If you were aware of how much in taxes you are paying, altogether, you would tend to become a revolutionary, one opposed to all coercion and fraud, especially governmental ones. – J.Z., 75/81, 6.8.11.

TAXATION: In a grand peroration, Mr. Schiff accuses our Federal government of compelling citizens to participate in a chain letter (social security); of illegally shifting wealth through inflation; of hiding the true extent of the National Debt; of saddling a lower standard of living on people by the destructive burdens it imposes; and of using the Federal Reserve to force what amounts to counterfeit money on the banks." - John Chamberlain, in the introduction to Irwin A. Schiff: The Biggest Con.

TAXATION: In a practical sense, this is what man's rights means: you are morally free to sleep with whom you please, run your business your own way, dress as you please, speak your mind, take LSD or rat poison if you like, and keep 100% of your income." - YUILLE, Duncan Yuille, in a Workers Party leaflet on Human Rights.

TAXATION: In all my life of 45 years I never lost directly to thieves even $ 60 worth of goods. And here I am, looted by the government, my supposed protector, to the of (2x $ 6,000 in direct and indirect taxes) 200 times as much every year or 9,000 times as much for a 45 year period of working! – J.Z., 21.11.78. - Since then thieves have cost me once a wallet, once $50 and once $ 100 in letters sent. - J.Z., 30.7.11.

TAXATION: In direct and indirect taxes almost everyone, even poor persons, pays so much that he would be prosperous at the end of his life if he had been allowed to keep those fruits of his labor which he was forced to deliver to the community.” – Max Nordau, 1859-1923, The konventionellen Luegen der Kulturmenschheit, p.151. - Provided, he had been allowed to keep these amounts and had been free and wise enough to invest them productively, at the highest possible interest rate obtainable on a free market, free from confiscations, tributes, inflations, deflations, stagflation or to enter a corresponding old age insurance contract. – J.Z., 16.7.08.

TAXATION: In paying tribute they yielded to absolute necessity, but the tax-gatherers were looked upon as unclean creatures; no respectable man would eat with them or pray with them; their evidence was not accepted in the courts of justice." - Winwood Reade, The Martyrdom of Man, p.164,

TAXATION: In the face of such an immense, costly, wasteful, corrupt and obstructive bureaucracy, legislation and jurisdiction, tax evasion is not only a right but a duty. – J.Z., 26.6.89. - TAX EVASION

TAXATION: in this imperfect world, no class of men, rich or poor, is to be found with sufficient honesty or impartiality to be entrusted with the compulsory taking and spending of the money of others." - Auberon Herbert, The Principle of Voluntaryism, Mack edition, p.395.

TAXATION: Individual tax victims and their tax protest groups cannot effectively fight tax legislation when it simply snows us under with ca. 50 000 new tax laws and regulations in a mere 5 years, as happened, supposedly, according to some reports, in Australia, in recent years. – J.Z., 15.1.94. – Who would have the time and energy to read as many new tax slavery texts, ponder them, and also for resistance against them? – J.Z., 19.7.08.

TAXATION: Is there a precedent for citizens refusing to pay oppressive taxes to a central power? Yes, it’s called America!” – From a Stormy Mon publication, p.68. – Well, that was a long time ago. – These freedom lovers were so antagonistic to taxation that they even let their freedom fighters starve and freeze at Valley Forge! Instead, they practised a severe inflation, which made matters even worse than the prior taxation. – J.Z., 6.8.08.

TAXATION: Is there some point at which the level of taxation establishes serfdom?" - Clarence B. Carson, THE FREEMAN 5/76, p.303. – Yes, with the first cent forcefully taken for services not asked for. – J.Z., 16.10.08. Q., SERFDOM

TAXATION: Isn't it a terrible sign for our times when prominent among the few chances to gain much money by using one's initiative are activities like gambling, entertainment and crimes? – J.Z., 77/8.

TAXATION: It has been calculated that two-thirds of the workforce pay more in taxes than they receive back in social benefits, however generously that term is defined. Given the choice, it is evident that a large majority of tax-payers would prefer to scrap the present system of social services and receive back in tax rebates the percentage of their income that is presently mulcted to enable them to enjoy the benefits of a national health service and a comprehensive school system that are coming apart at the seams.” - K. W. Watkins, ed. In Defence of Freedom, p. 65. – EXPLOITATION, WELFARE STATE

TAXATION: it is … immoral and fraudulent when ... free choice to spend … (one's) money has been taken away by government action." - Melvin D. Barger, in THE FREEMAN, 4/76.

TAXATION: it is a folly to assert that the economy can be improved by requiring taxpayers to fund activities that no prudent investor would back.” – THE LIBERTARIAN DIGEST, 3/82, p.3. - SUBSIDIES, INVESTMENTS

TAXATION: It is a violation of those rights which we posited above to compel someone to support another's desires or even needs, yet our tax system is a hopeless maze of involuntary subsidizations of some by others." - George C. Leef, THE FREEMAN, 9/78.

TAXATION: It is also true that, while the king retained executive authority, the new constitution limited royal powers … In practice, however, the life of the typical Frenchman was little changed – a constant round of exertions to keep ahead of the tax collector. Whether the taxes were collected in the name of “the people” or “the king” made little practical difference.” - G. C. Roche, Frederic Bastiat, A Man Alone, p.26. – The only practical difference between taxes levied by a king and taxes levied in the name of “the people” is that kings demanded much less. – J.Z., n.d.

TAXATION: It is clearly wrong in principle to allow the government forcibly to seize money from people who work and to give it unconditionally to other able-bodied people whether they accept work or not. It is wrong in principle to give money to people solely because they say they haven't any - and especially to support such people on a permanent and not merely on a temporary emergency basis." - Henry Hazlitt, The Conquest of Poverty, p.116.

TAXATION: It is compulsory taxation which generates and sustains the corrupt game of politics..." – Eric Mack - It is not only corrupt, thieving, robbing and murderous on a vast scale but also counter-productive through numerous wrongful laws and institutions. J.Z., 30.7.11.

TAXATION: It is curious to note that when, for reasons of conscience, people refuse to kill, they are often exempted from active military duty. But there are no exemptions for people who, for reasons of conscience, refuse to financially support the bureaucracy that actually does the killing. Apparently, the state takes money more seriously than life." – Karl Hess, in PLAYBOY interview, 7/76.

TAXATION: It is each honest worker's right to spend his own money as he sees fit." – Dr. R. S. Jaggard, JAG, Aug. 22, 1972.

TAXATION: It is easier to seize wealth than to produce it; and as long as the State makes the seizure of wealth a matter of legalized privilege, so long will the squabble for that privilege go on." - Albert Jay Nock

TAXATION: It is evil to force a man to fund a service for his protection if he does not wish to be protected." - Tibor R.. Machan, A Note on Neff's Anarchism, in "reason". – Has Machan applied this principle, anywhere, e.g. to the supposed ideal of limited but still territorial government? If so, then he would be well on the way to becoming a panarchist. – J.Z., 17.10.08.

TAXATION: It is impossible to morally or rationally praise either the victims, the perpetrators or the beneficiaries of taxation, as such. – J.Z., 12.9.81.

TAXATION: It is increasingly evident that countless millions in all walks of life thoughtlessly 'live' off others; they loot and they don't know it." - NOTES FROM FEE, 3/78.

TAXATION: It is probably too much to hope that government will price itself out of business." - J. H. McGavran, in SOUTHERN LIBERTARIAN MESSENGER, 7/78. - If its services were properly priced and if it were in business, i.e. in competition with others offering the same or similar services, then this could happen. – J.Z.

TAXATION: It is the daily rape of all their subjects by their supposed representatives and protectors. – J.Z., 1984, 6.8.11.

TAXATION: It is time the average person understood that it is the average person who is paying for this government's ambitions." - Malcolm Fraser, THE AUSTRALIAN, 5.10.74. - Wrongful and irrational ambitions, actions and institutions at that! - J.Z., 30.7.11.

TAXATION: It is typical for our system that only the unproductive and insignificant producers are exempted from direct income taxes. – J.Z., 12.9.81.

TAXATION: it is wrong for government to steal. A fifty-percent-plus-one majority vote doesn’t make it right.” – Sam Wells Jr., OPTION, 4/.77. – Even a 99.9 % majority vote could not make it right for the 0.1 percent. – Let all people pay their own way, their own bills. – J.Z., 4.8.08.

TAXATION: It makes not the smallest difference to the motives of the thrifty and industrious part of mankind whether their fiscal oppressor be an Eastern despot, or a feudal baron, or a democratic legislature, and whether they are taxed for the benefit of a corporation called Society of for the advantage of an individual styled King or Lord.” - Henry Sumner Maine, Popular Government, Indianapolis, Liberty Classics, 1976 reprint of 1885 London ed., p.69.

TAXATION: It makes you stop and think to realize that feudal serfs in the Middle Ages kept a higher percentage of their income than we Americans do today. And yet the Republicans and Democrats in Congress debate not on how to reduce federal spending each year, but on how much the budget should be increased!" - Libertarian Party, election leaflet 1976.

TAXATION: It takes taxes to mismanage a country. – J.Z., 8.9.85. - And since much money is raised in form of taxes we do get much mismanagement. – J.Z., 5.8.08.

TAXATION: It think it is altogether possible to create a tax-less country. Think about it." – Suggestion to the students in a leadership school established by him.” - Konosuke MATSUSHITA, philosopher and tycoon, in TIME, 14.4.80. - See PEACE PLANS 20, on his phenomenally effective suggestions box scheme, which, I believe, stimulated not only foremen and staff but ordinary workers into creative actions. – J.Z. – SONY may have further improved it, in its sphere. But did he or any of these workers put some good ideas in writing about voluntary taxation or contribution schemes? – J.Z., 17.10.08.

TAXATION: It took centuries to obliterate the idea that these exactions served but to keep a privileged class in comfort and to finance their internecine wars; in fact, that purpose was never denied or obscured until constitutionalism diffused political power." - Frank Chodorov, The Income Tax, p.218.'

TAXATION: It was ... John C. Calhoun who saw with crystal clarity that, no matter how small the power of government, no matter how low the tax burden or how equal its distribution, the very nature of government creates two unequal and inherently conflicting classes in society: those who, on net, PAY taxes (the 'tax-payers') , and those who, on net, LIVE OFF taxes (the 'tax-consumers')." - Murray N. Rothbard, For a New Liberty, p.56/57.

TAXATION: It was a principle of the Common Law, as it is of the law of nature, and of common sense, that no man can be taxed without his personal consent. The Common Law knew nothing of that system, which now prevails in England, of assuming a man's own consent to be taxed, because some pretended representative, whom he never authorized to act for him, has taken it upon himself to consent that he may be taxed. That is one of the many frauds on the Common Law, and the English constitution, which have been introduced since Magna Carta. Having finally established itself in England, it has been stupidly and servilely copied and submitted to in the United States." - Lysander Spooner, Works II, "Taxation".

TAXATION: It was once said in this country, that taxation without consent was robbery. And a seven years' war was fought to maintain that principle. But if that principle were a true one in behalf of three millions of men, it is an equally true one in behalf of three men, or of one man." - Lysander Spooner, Letter to Grover Cleveland, p.9. – INDIVIDUAL SOVEREIGNTY

TAXATION: It will be seen that indirect taxation is a permission-to-live price. You cannot find in the marketplace a single satisfaction to which a number of taxes are not attached, added to the price, and you are under compulsion either to pay them or go without; since going without amounts to depriving yourself of the meaning of life, or even of life itself, you pay. The inevitability of this charge on existence is expressed in the popular dichotomy, “death and taxes”. - Frank Chodorov, Fugitive Essays, p. 269. – Another and longer version: It will seem that indirect taxation is a permission-to-live price. You cannot find in the marketplace a single satisfaction to which a number of these taxes are not attached, hidden in the price, and you are under compulsion either to pay them or go without; since going without amounts to depriving yourself of the meaning of life, or even of life itself, you pay. The inevitability of this charge on existence is expressed in the popular association of death and taxes. And it is this very characteristic that commends indirect taxation to the state, so that when you examine the prices of things you live by, you are astounded by the disproportion between the cost of production and the charge for permission to buy." - Frank Chodorov, The Income Tax, p.219.

TAXATION: It would be a hard government that should tax its people one-tenth part of their income.” – Benjamin Franklin's observation in POOR RICHARD'S ALMANAC in 1758. - Since then we experienced the typical “progress” of “representative” government. – J.Z., 13.4.09. - PROGRESSIVE TAXATION

TAXATION: It would be unjust to compel the minority to contribute, by taxation, to the support of any laws which they did not approve." - Lysander Spooner, Trial by Jury, Works II/220.

TAXATION: It’s getting harder and harder to support the government in the style to which it has been accustomed.” – FARMER’S ALMANAC – Quoted in Bachman’s Book of Freedom Quotations. Also in: Robert Poole, Cut Local Taxes, p.34. - And we do not even get sex and pleasant company in return, as we get from a wife or mistress. – J.Z., 5.8.08, 24.4.09, 30.7.11. - If at least it were a wife or a mistress one had individually chosen and is satisfied with … - J.Z., 29.4.09. - JOKES, VOLUNTARY STATE MEMBERSHIP, INDIVIDUAL SECESSIONISM, VOLUNTARY TAXATION, PANARCHISM

TAXATION: It’s not “taxation”. It’s confiscation.” – Claire Wolfe, Don’t Shoot the Bastards (YET), 101 More Ways To Salvage Freedom, o.7. Or levying of tributes. – J.Z., 18.9.07.

TAXATION: It’s really hard for a government to cut expenses – it’s easier to trim taxpayers.” – COUNTRY PARSON, quoted in THE SOUTHERN LIBERTARIAN MESSENGER, 3/78. - They do much more than giving us merely a trimming job. - J.Z., 31.7.11. - JOKES

TAXATION: It’s tax time again– say the government’s revenuers. It’s time to un-tax ourselves say the freedom lovers. – J.Z., 2.7.99. – Actually, taxation, at least indirect taxation, goes on all the time and mostly all too little noticed. That is precisely the reason why the government introduced it, namely to minimize opposition to taxation. – J.Z., 19.7.08.

TAXATION: It’s wrong for someone to confiscate your money, give it to someone else, and call that ‘compassion’." – Harry Browne - HANDOUTS, CHARITY, COMPASSION & SHARING THE WEALTH, WELFARE STATE, SOCIAL SECURITY, GOVERNMENT SPENDING, BUDGET, ALTRUISM, BENEVOLENCE, CHARITY

TAXATION: J .A. Cronin, one of the world-renowned writers with the highest income, recently revealed his intention to leave England and to acquire a property in Switzerland. - Asked for his reason for this voluntary exile he declared: 'For many years I have longed for a country in which the mountains are higher than its taxes!’" - KURIER, ?4.6.55. - JOKES

TAXATION: Jackman gets ten percent and I get 1 percent. That leaves you with one hundred and sixty thousand dollars." - "It's unbelievable. It's almost indecent." - "Never mind, darling," said Brad. "After taxes the only thing that will seem indecent is the government." - Grace Metalious, Return to Peyton Place, p.123.

TAXATION: Jim Stone of Olds, Alberta, constructed his house to conserve fuel by solar use and extra insulation. He was then visited by the tax assessor, who increased his tax assessment so that his taxes will be three times as much as the energy saving.” – HALIFAX MAIL STAR / Halt. – quoted in SOUTHERN LIBERTARIAN MESSENGER, 4/81.– Not that I would favor the opposite, namely subsidies out of tax funds for those installing e.g. wind-power or solar power systems. But I would favor the full deduction of all self-help expenses from any imposed tax bills. The result would quickly show that people have better uses for their own money than has the government. – J.Z., 23.7.08. – BUREAUCRACY, SELF-HELP, VOLUNTARY TAXATION, SUBSIDIES, JOKES

TAXATION: Join the IRS. Are you a thief out of work? Between jobs? Consider the benefits of joining the IRS: Steady pay. We pool and divide the booty. Low risk - The law is on your side. Job security - as sure as death and taxes." - Simon Jester, 1976. - JOKES

TAXATION: Judge to accused: ‘I’m giving you the maximum punishment – you’re going free to worry about taxes, war, unemployment and the cost of living, like the rest of us.’ ” - POCKET MAN, 81. – JOKES

TAXATION: Judging by our tax load, we are still engaged in a war by a totalitarian government against ourselves. Only this time that enemy regime is our own and it is winning. It imposed upon us a higher tribute payment than it did previously in other wars and this in times that are supposed to be peace times. – J.Z., 23.8.82, 22.7.08.

TAXATION: Just as man must pay his own way, so also must man not be compelled to pay someone else's way." - Ridgway K., Foley Jr., THE FREEMAN, 5/74.

TAXATION: Just what part does the State play in production to warrant its rake-off? The State does not give; it merely takes." - Frank Chodorov, Out of Step, p.239. - Or coercively transfers. – J.Z.

TAXATION: Keep a government poor and you’ll keep it off your back. Without the necessary funds, it can’t afford to harass you. Give it lots of money and it will find ways to spend it, invariably to your own detriment. Let it control the money supply and all the stops are out: it will soon control you!” – F. Paul Wilson, An Enemy of the State, p.184. – CENTRAL BANKING, MONETARY DESPOTISM, GOVERNMENT, BUDGET, GOVERNMENT SPENDING, POVERTY

TAXATION: Keep money out of irresponsible hands: Avoid Tax! – Quote supplied by Bob Cowin.

TAXATION: Krueger’s Law: A taxpayer is someone who doesn’t have to take a civil service examination to work for the government.” – John Peers, 1001 Logical Laws For All Walks of Life, compiled by John Peers, SOUTHERN LIBERTARIAN MESSENGER, 10/89. – Alas, I have never seen that book. – J.Z., 18.7.08. – JOKES

TAXATION: Lament on Taxes: Hurrah for the Common man. Tax him, tax him all you can. // Tax his house and tax his bed. Tax the bald spot on his head. // Tax his bread, tax his meat. Tax the shoes clean off his feet. // Tax his 'Lizzie', tax his gas, tax the road that he must pass. // Tax the farmer, tax his fowl, tax the dog, tax his howl. // Tax his pig, and tax his squeal. Tax his boot, run down at the heel, // Tax his cow and tax his calf, tax him if he dares to laugh. // Tax his barns and tax his lands. Tax his blisters on his hands. // Tax the water, tax the air. Tax the sunshine, if you dare. // Tax the living, tax their bread, and while you're at it, tax the dead." - Arthur Jensen, in US FARM NEWS, Feb. 1969.

TAXATION: Late one night a mugger wearing a ski mask jumped into a path of a well-dressed man and stuck a gun in his ribs "give me your money," he demanded. - Indignant, the affluent man replied, "you can't do this I am a United States congressman!" "In that case," replied the mugger, "give me MY money." - Email from Katcha Sanderson, 18.3.11,

TAXATION: Leave to the people the wealth that they earn..." - An Ode to the Men in the

Clouds, by Bard of the Baw Baws, PROGRESS, May 76.

TAXATION: Less taxes instead of increased benefits." – Perry E. Gresham, THE FREEMAN, 10/78, p.609. - No taxes would be the greatest increased benefit." – J Z., 81, 15.10.08.

TAXATION: Let me opt out of this racket! – J.Z., 19.9.81.

TAXATION: Let politicians and their followers tax themselves into oblivion – but not anybody else. – J.Z., 13.10.93.

TAXATION: Let us all train to become successful tax dodgers!" – J.Z.

TAXATION: Let us consider this question: Just how much liberty does a person really have when more than half of his earnings are taken from him without his consent and are spent for purposes distasteful to him?" - Admiral Ben Moreell, Log I/29"

TAXATION: Let us order our politicians to give philanthropy back to the people. Only they know how to use it. Only they can even exercise it." - Charles R. LaDow, THE FREEMAN, 9/74. – Are we as yet in any position to give orders to our politicians – or is it rather the other way around? – J.Z., 17.10.08.

TAXATION: Let's do away with taxes! – J.Z., 10.4.73 - That will appeal only to those who can see most of the alternatives clearly. 81.

TAXATION: Let's soak the tax collectors and all other tax recipients. – J.Z., 75, 6.8.11.

TAXATION: Let's turn Australia into a tax haven! – J.Z., 73.

TAXATION: Liquidate all government assets in form of transferable shares and distribute these securities among all citizens or taxpayers fairly. From then on everyone should have to pay for or maintain only whatever services he wants. – J.Z.,75/81. (Compare PEACE PLANS 19 C.)

TAXATION: Look how many civilizations in the past were ruined by excessive taxation." – Ned Hanlon, quoted by Colin Clark in QUADRANT, 6/75.

TAXATION: Look it up in a dictionary and you will find two basic meanings for the word tax. The concise Thorndike Barnhart pocket dictionary defines it as: ‘1. money paid by people for the support of the government. 2. a burden, duty, or demand that oppresses.’ – The first definition needs the qualifier that the money is forcibly extracted from the people. Then the second definition naturally follows from the first.” - Fred E. Foldvary, in REASON, Nov.78.

TAXATION: LR: THE NEW REPUBLIC has described the tax revolt as libertarian. They say “a blending of libertarian rhetoric with cash prizes for the middle class is the central appeal of the new backlash.” - [Paul] Gann: “This is not a specifically libertarian movement. It’s not a right-wing or left-wing movement. This is the people. The people are tired of being milked like a Holstein cow with an electric milking machine.” – LIBERTARIAN REVIEW, 9/78.

TAXATION: Make taxes voluntary and you will soon find out how much taxation and government spending is considered necessary by most of the involuntary victims of compulsory taxes. – J.Z., 9.9.98. – VOLUNTARY TAXATION, JOKES

TAXATION: Meanwhile, all of us are cast into economic slavery by confiscatory taxation." - Dr. R. S. Jaggard, JAG, 15.2.75.

TAXATION: Meanwhile, governments continue to tax their earners greedily and foolishly." – Henry Meulen, THE INDIVIDUALIST, 4/75.

TAXATION: Men live by production, but the State lives by appropriation." – Frank Chodorov in The Income Tax..., p.51.

TAXATION: Modern forms of taxation which violate human rights are stupid and unnecessary. To tax one man's income because he has been industrious and exempt that of another because he is lazy and will not work is more than stupid, it is wicked." – Graham Hart, "The Choice: Georgist Progress or Socialist Poverty", reviewed in PROGRESS, June 75.

TAXATION: Money in the hands of territorial governments represents oppression and exploitation and finances more oppression and exploitation. – J.Z., 28.12.93. – It does so even on the level of mere local governments or municipalities. – J.Z., 19.7.08.

TAXATION: Money must be loosed into the private sector instead of sucked into the tax machine." - Sir Charles Court, Premier of W.A., THE SYDNEY MORNING HERALD, 22.3.75, - Rather: Money must be left in the private sector instead of being forcefully collected by the bureaucracy for its own benefits and that of its hangers-on (favourites). – J.Z.

TAXATION: Money not taxed away from the rich and the well-off people tends to be invested productively, which usually means jobs, well paid jobs, for the unemployed. When it is taxed away then it tends to finance only fat cat politicians and bureaucrats and their counter-productive activities and people, getting paid for not working or working only to obstruct or exploit the productive work of others, rather than additional and productive jobs, which would cheapen consumer goods and services. In other words, the general welfare and living standard become reduced. – J.Z., 7.9.05, 27.10.07. - OF THE RICH, CAPITAL & THE POOR, WELFARE STATE, HAND-OUTS, POLITICIANS, BUREAUCRATS, PRODUCTIVITY

TAXATION: Most compulsory taxation would automatically disappear with the national territorial monopoly. – J.Z., 18.7.91. – Perhaps even already as the result of the first individual that would be quite freed to secede and would do so. - J.Z., 18.8.95, 18.7.08.

TAXATION: Most people do not get cross enough about being made to bear their cross of taxes. – J.Z., 17.5.78

TAXATION: Most people have only the choice between moderate wealth due to their own efforts and a relative and generalized poverty due largely to punitive taxation. There is no good reason why they should choose the latter. – J.Z., 12.9.81. Once they are free to do so. - VOLUNTARY TAXATION OR FREEDOM FROM COMPULSORY TAXATION.

TAXATION: Most people still pay taxes. They don’t pay taxes because they like paying taxes, they pay because they’re afraid not to. The IRS would have you believe that its compliance is “voluntary”. Nothing could be further from the truth.” – René Baxter, FREEDOM TODAY, 9/75.

TAXATION: Mug Yourself Today – Pay Taxes.” - Dangerous Buttons No. 146. - Mug yourself today – pay taxes.” – Society for Libertarian Life, button No. 445. - Under territorialism you get mugged or even killed by the largest organized crime syndicate of them all, if you don't. - J.Z., 18.3.11.

TAXATION: My taxes are now, nominally, six times as high as my salary was in 1960, nominally. When people object that this would merely be an indication of inflation, they forget, that inflation is also a form of taxation, government caused, largely to the benefit of government, but also to the benefit of debtors at the expense of creditors – and we all tend to be both, creditors and debtors. Actually, percentage-wise, I pay out my whole normal salary as tax and live only on the remainder, considered as untaxed overtime pay. – J.Z., 13.12.78. In other words, for the normal work-week of 40 hours, I worked then just for my feudal lord, unpaid and I earned and was allowed to keep my earnings only money for my extra working hours per week. – J.Z., 5.8.08. - That did not make me a happy subject of the "Welfare State". - J.Z., 18.3.11. - FEUDALISM, MODERN TYPE.

TAXATION: my taxes pay for nothing of use to me, and I resent paying for services that are not delivered, especially when the payment is made under threat of violence if I refuse to pay." - Eric B. Lindsay, "GEGENSCHEIN", 10.7.1976. - I would replace the word "delivered" by "wanted". – J.Z..

TAXATION: My view is that taxation is wrong, period, because it is a moral abomination.” – David M. Brooks, NEW LIBERTARIAN 2, 4/78.

TAXATION: Name one project so worthy of support that you would be willing to go to the workers coming out of a factory gate on payday and use open force to compel them to give you part of their paychecks to support your program ... Have you got guts enough for that action? No? Well, then why do you sneak around through the back door and go to government and have the tax collectors do your dirty work for you? Is it because you realize that your program is not truly worthy???" – Dr. R. S. Jaggard, JAG, Aug. 22, 1972.

TAXATION: natural rights, so-called, are as much a subject of taxation as rights of lesser importance." - Justice Benjamin C. Cardoza, 1937, Supreme Court, quoted in: Frank Chodorov, The Income Tax, p.44. – What percentage of all Supreme Court decisions expresses that kind of mentality? – J.Z., 16.10.08. - As if our main right were to be subject to taxation! - Instead of being sacked, instantly, for such an attitude, he might have passed more such "judgments" and continued in his office until the retired at a high pension. That, at least to me, amounts to an extreme injustice. - J.Z., 6.8.11. - SUPREME COURTS, GOVERNMENTAL JUDGES

TAXATION: Neither beauty nor creativity should be taxed - nor transport, education, communication, production, property or any exchange! – J.Z., 3.8.78, 18.3.11.

TAXATION: Neither Death nor Taxes! – J.Z. 10.6.79. – Admittedly, to end death will require a much larger effort than to abolish taxes. Only the premature deaths occurring in consequences of the abuses of taxes e.g. for wars, will be ended with them and with the inflation tax that is used to “finance” wars. – J.Z., 24.10.08.

TAXATION: Neither our freedom nor our standard of living can survive tax increases forever.” – South Carolina Libertarian Party, in SOUTHERN LIBERTARIAN MESSENGER, 4/78.

TAXATION: Never before have so few kept such much from so many! – J.Z., 24.11.94, after reading: E. Haldeman Julius, Q. & A., Series 1, p. 103: “Gag going the rounds of the Office of War Information: ‘Never has so much been kept from so many by so few.’ ” – JOKES, CENSORSHIP, GOVERNMENT PROPAGANDA

TAXATION: Never did so many accomplish so little with so much." - Edward Coleson, THE FREEMAN, 10/73. – WELFARE STATE, BUREAUCRACY

TAXATION: New tax rates? New crime rates! - D.Z., 74.

TAXATION: No bureaucrat or politician knows better than I do how to spend my money. – J.Z., 13.7.96. – Nor has any one of them the moral right to do so. Only their own “constitutions”, “laws” and “judges” are on their side. – J.Z., 18.7.08.

TAXATION: No collectively determined tax level is just to the individual who is not a voluntary member of that collective. Individuals should be free to pick and choose among the competitively offered public services those they wish and can afford to pay for. Not only individual services but whole package deals of them should be up to their free individual choice. These would be offered by exterritorially autonomous communities of volunteers, also called e.g. panarchies of polyarchies. Somewhat like big insurance, service or protection companies that offer the kind of variety of services which individual customers, members or investors want from them. – J.Z., 27.9.89, 6.8.08. – PANARCHISM, VOLUNTARY TAXATION, VOLUNTARY MEMBERSHIP, CONSUMER SOVEREIGNTY

TAXATION: No compulsory “charity” contributions to any government! Instead: fees, subscriptions, credit, insurance and private protection arrangements which ever adult individual has freely chosen from for himself from any of many agencies, all of them only exterritorially autonomous. All of their services would tend to be competitively supplied and priced. – J.Z., 17.12.93, 19.7.08, 6.8.11. – PANARCHISM, VOLUNTARY TAXATION

TAXATION: No compulsory taxes at all – is the only solution to the numerous problems caused by taxation. Let politicians and bureaucrats earn fees for services competitively offered by them and individually chosen or subscribed to. People are usually willing to pay for what they do want and can afford, especially if monetary despotism were ended as well. – J.Z., 25.1.00.

TAXATION: No direct or indirect tax or government loan (postponed tax) has my consent. – J.Z., 5.8.91, 19.3.11. – Should they have your consent? If so, then only you should be correspondingly taxed. – and only you should get whatever “service” is offered, in return for your voluntary taxation and servitude. – J.Z., 5.8.08, 6.8.11.

TAXATION: No economy can attain or maintain a high standard in the face of frequent visits from brigands, in which class, economically speaking, the tax collector must be put.” - Frank Chodorov, One Is A Crowd, p.127/28. - You are even expected to send your tribute payment to them, as if it were a genuine debt - without being visited and threatened by them. All-over, it is the most-successful and largest "protection-racket" and most of its victims are still "sold" on it, because they cannot envision the rightful and rational alternatives. Nor have these alternatives ever been sufficiently described and published together, although such an anthology has certainly the potential to become a bestseller. -J.Z., 18.3.11. - VOLUNTARY TAXATION ANTHOLOGY

TAXATION: No economy can long work that pays its non-workers more and more, and taxes its workers more and more.” – J. Kesner Kahn – WELFARE STATE, SUBSIDIES, PARASITES

TAXATION: no freeman should be subject to any tax to which he has not given his consent." John Adams, 1765. – Already J. A. must have thought about individual sovereignty, voluntary State membership and individual secessionism. - Are any other clear remarks on this preserved in his published writings? – J.Z., 15.10.08. - PANARCHISM'

TAXATION: No government can exist without taxation. … This money must necessarily be levied on the people (*); and the grand art consists of levying so as not to oppress.” - Frederick II (The Great., of Prussia, 1712-1784, An Essay on Forms of government (1777). - So, let's do away with compulsory taxation and with this abolish imposed territorial governments. Then only governments and communities and society by subscription could continue or be established and prevail upon their own merits. - J.Z., 11.10.02. - (*) He was an absolute monarch. His statement is true only for territorial governments with involuntary subjects. Safe-cracking and pocket theft are also "arts". - J.Z., 18.3.11. - GOVERNMENT, VOLUNTARY TAXATION, COMPETING GOVERNMENTS, PANARCHISM, VOLUNTARISM, DIS.

TAXATION: No government is worth what it charges us. – J.Z., 8.1.00.

TAXATION: No government should have any taxing powers - except those among voluntary subjects only. – J.Z., 12.9.81, 18.3.11.

TAXATION: No handouts. No taxes. Only prices for services rendered and private subscriptions, to whatever services or package deals of them you do desire. – J.Z., 1978, 18.3.11.

TAXATION: No imposition of any debt. Any debt to arise only out of individual contracts – or out of the individual responsibilities arising for indemnities that are, e.g. due to negligence or wrongful acts. Without publicly imposed debts there will not be any corresponding present and future taxation. – J.Z., 12.11.93, 6.8.11. - DEBTS, PUBLIC DEBTS

TAXATION: No liberty or right is secure as long as any territorially imposed government may tax it. – J.Z., 19.2.88, 2.8.08, 6.8.11. - VOLUNTARY TAXATION, PANARCHISM, EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY, INDIVIDUAL SECESSIONISM & INDIVIDUAL SOVEREIGNTY.

TAXATION: no man may obtain any values from others by resorting to physical force." - Ayn Rand, Atlas Shrugged, p. 992.

TAXATION: No middle ground is possible on this subject. Either 'taxation without consent is robbery', or it is not. If it is not, then any number of men, who choose, may at any time associate; call themselves a government; assume absolute authority over all weaker than themselves; plunder them at will; and kill them if they resist. If, on the other hand, 'taxation without consent is robbery', it necessarily follows that every man who has not consented to be taxed, has the same natural right to defend his property against a tax-gatherer, that he has to defend it against a highwayman." - Lysander Spooner, No Treason, II/13 - Works I.

TAXATION: No more taxes, tariffs and rates. Instead, fees and subscriptions, only for services individually wanted and competitively supplied. – No more “making available charges”, either, bureaucratically and monopolistically set, e.g. for phone services, electricity and phone connections, water supply and sewage services. – Politicians and bureaucrats never learnt sufficiently about pricing and competition in free markets and without fully free competition against their “services” and tax-funded monopoly systems they are unlikely to ever learn enough about them. - J.Z., 5.8.92, 6.8.08, 30.7.11. – PANARCHISM.

TAXATION: No new or old taxes DO or CAN improve our condition. – J.Z., 29.11.92, 25.7.08.

TAXATION: No one ... is as oppressed by his government as the man who pays taxes ..." - Boston Tax Protest, SIL NEWS, May 71. - One might add: This applies only to the so-called free societies, the somewhat democratic States. There are much worse monsters among the territorial governments, so that at any time since WW II we have had millions of refugees from them, against whom the territorial borders of the somewhat free countries are, usually or largely closed. When they do manage to pass them without permission and are captured, they are usually kept unproductively interned in concentration camps, often with their children, because governments are too ignorant and prejudiced to the establish conditions in which millions of their present subjects and also millions of additional refugees, asylum seekers, deserters and "economic migrants" could freely and productively support themselves. Nor are they willing or able to learn anything in this respect. They rather uphold all the wrongful legislation and institutions, legalized monopolies and privileges, which cause and prolong mass unemployment and thus make immigrants unpopular as supposedly unjustified competitors for jobs, wrongly presumed to be naturally limited in number, instead of being limited mainly merely by monetary and financial despotism and other wrongful and irrational anti-economic laws and institutions. - Under full experimental freedom for volunteers the methods and institutions to end all involuntary unemployment could freely be practised and spread - very fast. - J.Z., 18.3.11. - IMMIGRATION RESTRICTIONS, UNEMPLOYMENT, REFUGEES, DIS.

TAXATION: No one ever got rich paying someone else's bills." - quoted in "reason", 7/74. - Unless he is an investor in a very profitable enterprise. - J.Z., 30.7.11.

TAXATION: No one has a better right to decide how to spend money than the man who earns it." BOSTON TAX PROTEST, SIL NEWS, May 71.

TAXATION: No one has a better right to your money than you have. – J.Z., 12.9.81.

TAXATION: No one to tax you, no one to question you, no one to tell you what to do. - J.Z.

TAXATION: No prosecution for victimless crimes ( including tax evasion )..." - Erwin Strauss, THE LIBERTARIAN CONNECTION, 23.5.76 - The trouble is that some of the "needy" now claim to have a "right" to your money and that you would commit a crime by withholding it from them. Compare the propaganda of welfare statists against anti-tax referendums and other tax cuts. Their unearned inco

TAXATION: No tariffs! No duties! No taxes, above all, no taxes!” – George Morrone

TAXATION: No tax - is my concern! – J.Z., 1/73.

TAXATION: No tax at all – is the only just and beneficial “tax”. – J.Z., 16.8.98.

TAXATION: No tax at all is even better than the “single tax”. – J.Z., 18.6.91.

TAXATION: No tax dollar ever returned intact from a round-trip to Washington.” – Fort Worth Press. – The inflation-tax dollars come straight from the government’s note printing presses (that of its supposedly "independent" central bank) and their monopoly status and legal tender power (compulsory acceptance and enforced value), combined with the ever increasing financial needs of territorial States, do ensure their over-issue and thus their almost perpetual depreciation. – J.Z., 6.8.08. – INFLATION, MONETARY DESPOTISM, DIS.

TAXATION: No tax for one year - would make abolition of taxes possible! - For one year the government's spending should be continued only out of the sales proceeds of nationalized assets. After a year they should all be sold and every public service should from then on be run on a business basis - i.e. without subsidies, i.e. without requiring tax funds any longer. All disservices would then be defunct and would no longer require tax support, either. No one would want their revival by means of new tax impositions. Only some will voluntarily subscribe to services (exclusively to themselves), which are, actually, against their own rational self-interest. – J.Z., 75/81. - I do prefer the privatization proposal in PEACE PLANS 19c. However, all of them should be closely examined and compared. The people in different countries, by referendum, might also adopt different ones for themselves. - The initiative and action should come from the peoples themselves, not from their present territorial governments, or from secessionist, that would realize their indemnification claims against the former exclusive territorial government's remaining capital assets. - J.Z., 18.3.11.

TAXATION: No tax has my consent. – J.Z.

TAXATION: No tax is a good tax. There are only bad taxes. – J.Z., 1.11.92. – All taxes are unjust and irrational. – Allow all people to opt out from under them! – Let statism die a natural death, instead of putting it indefinitely on very expensive life support as an unjustified burden upon all involuntary subjects of a territorial State. - J.Z., 25.7.08.

TAXATION: No tax is just and harmless. – J.Z., 17.8.92. – With the exception of voluntary taxation or contribution schemes. – J.Z., 20.7.08. These can harm only their voluntary subscribers and thus should be tolerated. - J.Z., 18.3.11.

TAXATION: No tax on overtime!" - Steve Couling, ca. 1967, in Sydney, as a union delegate: - No tax, at least none on overtime, for a start! – J.Z., n.d.

TAXATION: No taxation can be just or harmless. The abolition of all taxation will help to uphold many individual rights and liberties and would provide many economic opportunities for wealth, progress and security. – J.Z., 7.7.87, 6.8.08, 18.3.11.

TAXATION: No taxation without misrepresentation.” – Samuel Hoffenstein, 1890-1947, Bernard Berenson, 1865-1959, Lore and Maurice Cowan, compilers, The Wit of the Jews, Leslie Frewin, London, 1970, p.44. – Every territorial taxation involves misrepresentation. - J.Z., 18.3.11. - REPRESENTATION, JOKES

TAXATION: No taxation without representation "meant securing the voluntary consent of every man who must support the government ..." - Carl Watner, on Spooner, reason 3/73.

TAXATION: no taxes, ever. That's the first article of the charter.” - Joe Haldeman, The Mazeltov Revolution, ANALOG, 9/74, p.89.

TAXATION: No withholding tax! Let the taxpayer himself pay and give him the right and interest to haggle the price for services rendered by the government. The government would then have to justify its actions much more so than now, - before every individual taxpayer! – J.Z., 11.2.76.

TAXATION: Noah must have taken into the ark two taxes, one male and one female. And did they multiply beautifully! Next to the guinea pigs, taxes must have been the most prolific animals." - Will Rogers, The Autobiography of Will Rogers, 1949, p.17. - READER'S DIGEST, 9/75. - JOKES

TAXATION: nobody has any 'responsibility' to pay taxes, only a forced, legal accountability to do so, (since taxation is forcible seizure)." - Dr. R. S. Jaggard, in "JAG", 1.12.73.

TAXATION: Nobody has the right to spend your money for you - unless you, individually, authorize him to do so. On the contrary, everybody is under a moral obligation to let you spend your money for whatever you like. – J.Z., 75/81.

TAXATION: Nobody likes to think he's being used." - VONNEGUT, Kurt Vonnegut, The Sirens of Titan, p.199.

TAXATION: Nobody to tax others unless he has got their individual consent and even then only as long as he does have it. – J.Z., 25.11.93, 19.7.08. – VOLUNTARY TAXATION, CONSENT, VOLUNTARY STATE OR NATION MEMBERSHIP, PANARCHISM

TAXATION: Normal pay plus overtime pay less taxes, direct and indirect ones, equals only the nominal overtime pay - at least in my case. To what extent are you enslaved? – J.Z., 13.9.75.

TAXATION: Norway has the highest ever rate of tax with 2000 citizens paying more than 100 % of their taxable income in taxes. One shipping magnate, Hilmar Reksten, was assessed at nearly 500 % tax.” – Wings of Gold, Malaysian Airlines, 1986. – Anti-Capitalism or State Socialism is still in full swing, only in some countries even more so than in others. What successes, if any, can one point out, if any, that do not consist out of mere delusions? – Which bureaucrats or politicians did ever invest capital funds more productively than capitalists do, in the average? - J.Z., 2.8.08. – Hopefully, most of these money-earners did have the good sense to emigrate to less taxed countries. – J.Z., 16.4.09. - WELFARE STATE

TAXATION: Not one of them so much as pays lip-service to the highly respectable doctrine that it is anti-democratic to take from someone what the people in the first instance decide to give him." - W. F. Buckley, God and Man at Yale, p.57.

TAXATION: Not satisfied with taking this high percentage of a person's income, we Americans have also voted to confiscate 38% of the earnings of our most successful industries even before the owners of the income get it. And our representatives in Congress are now considering the possibility of raising the take to 41 per cent. (The Corporate Tax rare is now (1957) 52%!)” …"Even in conquered Germany and Japan, we would not dare to take 38% of the industrial earnings, because we know that the results would be disastrous. Andy yet, in the face of this knowledge, …" - Admiral Ben Moreell, Log I, p.29. – Why did he still consider them to be “representatives”? – J.Z., 17.10.08. - DIS.

TAXATION: Not tax avoidance or evasion is scandalous but taxation itself! – J.Z., 29.8.82.

TAXATION: Not with my money’ - you won't! - In the future, if I can help it! – J.Z., 74/81, 18.3.11.

TAXATION: Nothing is as harmful as the looting and other destructive acts undertaken by governments. (Even abortion is now undertaken largely with its assistance and with the aid of tax funds!) – J.Z., n.d. - ABORTION

TAXATION: Nothing supported by coercive taxation will simply “wither away” (while coercive territorial monopolies are being continued) - in number of office bearers, size and functions, powers and costs. Only productivity will fade away under it. – J.Z., 7.11.93. – It seems that in ancient Rome the tax burden and other restrictions upon liberty had finally become so large and extensive that foreign invaders were to some extent welcomed as liberators or, anyhow, not seriously resisted by all. – J.Z., 19.7.08. – Initially, until they experienced Nazi totalitarianism sufficiently, even the invasion of Soviet Russia by Nazi regime was not seriously resisted by the victims, civilians and conscripts, of the Soviet Regime. – J.Z., 19.7.08. - At least some Russians and the many other victims of the Soviet regime were treated worse by the Nazis than they had been treated by Stalin's despotism. Thus he could, finally, mobilize their nationalism against the Nazis. On both sides the wrongful principle and practice of collective responsibility was applied. Ideally the armed as well as the civilian victims of both regimes should have disobeyed their rulers and united their forces against them. Unfortunately, they were not mentally and otherwise prepared for such actions. - J.Z., 18.3.11.

TAXATION: Nothing through compulsory taxes. Everything through prices, fees, subscriptions and voluntary contributions to competitively offered services and package deals of services. – J.Z., 13.10.88.

TAXATION: Now (according to the Statistical Abstract of the US for 1974 and the Survey of Current Business for February 1975 ), government is spending 48% (forty-eight percent) of everything earned by the American people as a whole..." - Dr. R. S. Jaggard, JAG, 31.5.75. - I do not know what the current percentage is. The result of most tax "reforms" is an upward trend of the total take. - J.Z., 18.3.11.

TAXATION: Now taxing us out of existence to 'reduce the cost of living’ has its limits. You can't fool all of us all the time." - Terry Arthur,"95% Is Crap", 40/1.

TAXATION: Now the average worker in Australia works 2 days out of 3 for the government." - John Singleton, 20.10.76. - "Once he is made aware of the facts, e.g. by indication of the tax percentage in involved in all prices. ... – J.Z., n.d.

TAXATION: Now what liberty can there be where property is taken without consent?” - Samuel Adams, Founding Father and leader of the Boston Tea Party. – Slogan offered on T-shirts.

TAXATION: Now, the 'poor' pay most of the taxes. This is necessarily so, because the national payroll contains most of the wealth of the country and is therefore the most fruitful source of taxation." – Frank Chodorov, Out of Step, p.213.

TAXATION: Nowhere has the essence of the State as a criminal organization been put as forcefully or as brilliantly as in this passage from Lysander Spooner. (*) “It is true that the theory of our Constitution is, that all taxes are paid voluntarily, that our government is a mutual insurance company, voluntarily entered into by the people with each other … - But this theory of our government is wholly different from the practical fact. The fact is that the government, like a highwayman, says to a man: ‘Your money, or your life.’ And many, if not most, taxes are paid under the compulsion of that threat. - - The government does not, indeed, waylay a man in a lonely place, spring upon him from the roadside, and, holding a pistol to his head, proceed to rifle his pockets. But the robbery is none the less a robbery on that account; and it is far more dastardly and shameful.” - (*) No Treason, p. 19. - Murray N. Rothbard, The Ethics of Liberty, p.166.

TAXATION: Observing the effects of ‘tax cuts’ over the years has led me do coin a hypothesis I refer to as the Tax-Cut Illusion Theory. While hardly rating in complexity with Einstein’s Theory of Relativity, it is just as dependable. Very simply, it states: All tax cuts are illusions! There is no such thing as a tax cut; there is only a change in the manner in which the money is extracted from taxpayers.” - R. J. Ringer, Restoring the American Dream, p.247. - TAX-CUTS, DIS. - However taxes are extorted, their total amount tends to rise. - J.Z., 18.3.11.

TAXATION: Of all debts men are least willing to pay the taxes. What a satire is this on government! Everywhere they think they get their money's worth, except for these.” - Ralph Waldo Emerson, "Politics," Essays: Second Series, in The Complete Writings of Ralph Waldo Emerson, vol. 1, p. 302 (1929). & CONSENT

TAXATION: Of course, the government’s activities are so extensive that virtually everyone receives some subsidies from the government. And these freebies may make him feel he’s benefiting from the arrangement. - But the great majority of people, even those receiving subsidies, pay far more in taxes than they receive in subsidies. The difference pays for the huge, expensive machinery of government.” – Harry Browne, You Can Profit from a Monetary Crisis, p.33.

TAXATION: Old taxes never die; they just turn up under a different name." - B.V., quoted in READERS DIGEST.

TAXATION: Old timer: A man who remembers when it paid to make a lot of money.” – CHANGING TIMES. – JOKES. – PROGRESSIVE TAXATION

TAXATION: On Bus: My salary is okay - it's the take-home pay I can't live on." – Herm Albright, READER’S DIGEST, 1/72. - JOKES

TAXATION: On March 9, President Carter referred to the tax privileges some people enjoy. When the President uses the term: “tax privileges”, he is saying that it is a privilege that government allows the people to retain a portion of their earnings for personal use. This was not a slip of tongue, but a phrase put forth to point out that the retained earnings are at the consent (*) of the government.” – Kenneth H. Dieter, SOUTHERN LIBERTARIAN MESSENGER, 9/78. – (*) discretion? – J.Z.

TAXATION: On taking office, the libertarian government should immediately repeal all criminal laws relating to tax evasion, in effect replacing taxation with a levy for government services. Non-payment of the levy will result in a cut-off of all government services. As the government switches to a “user pays” system …” - George Dance, OPTION, 6/77, p.26.

TAXATION: On the one hand we encourage creative, industrious activity – on the other hand we penalise the worker on overtime and everyone else who succeeds." – George Hardy, The Doom of the Welfare Society, p.12.

TAXATION: On the other hand, a man whose labor and self-denial may be diverted from his maintenance to that of some other man is not a free man, and approaches more or less toward the position of a slave." - William Graham Sumner, What Social Classes Owe Each Other.

TAXATION: Once all taxpayers are made aware of how much they are taxed - not only directly but indirectly and in total and for what unnecessary, ridiculous and abominable purposes their confiscated earnings are frequently used by the bureaucrats and as soon as both aspects would be revealed a) by price tickets and b) by budget publicity, reaching the individual taxpayer with all the details, the tax strike movement could speed up fast. Another important requirement would be an awareness of how much better a society could function without taxes. – J.Z. – An anthology seems still to be amiss of all the voluntary taxation proposals so far made, together with their thorough discussion. – J.Z., 18.10.08.

TAXATION: Once Confucius was walking on the mountains and he came across a woman weeping by a grave. He asked the woman what here sorrow was, and she replied, "We are a family of hunters. My father was eaten by a tiger. My husband was bitten by a tiger and died. And now my only son!" "Why don't you move down and live in the valley? Why do you continue to live up here?" asked Confucius. And the woman replied, "But sir, there are no tax collectors here!" Confucius added to his disciples, "You see, a bad government is more to be feared than tigers." - Lin Yutang, ISIL LIBERTY QUOTE LIBRARY 03. – Actually, by now only a few wild animal tigers are left – but still all too many wild “human” tigers – in form of territorial governments. – J.Z., 10.1.08, 13.4.09, 6.8.11. - & GOVERNMENT, MORE DANGEROUS THAN TIGERS

TAXATION: Once, many years ago, I was interviewed on television and asked, "Suppose you earned a billion dollars. What would you do with it?" - I know the type of answers they expected. Selfish people would buy huge palaces and live like emperors. Idealists would endow universities and support environmental causes. I, however, had a different idea. - I said, "I would walk into the IRS offices and say, 'I have just earned a billion dollars. Here it is, every penny. It's for Uncle Sam. Now please don't ever let me hear from you again for the rest of my life.'" - The government would undoubtedly make a profit on that deal, for a lifetime of taxes from me comes to far less than a billion dollars; far, far less. However, the dream of not having to keep records, of not having to do any calculations, of not having to deal with accountants and lawyers, would be worth far, far more than money.” - Isaac Asimov, in his (final) autobiography, 1994. - See: Voluntary Taxation. - Historically, many serfs bought their freedom. With golden handshakes we might buy our freedom from the bureaucrats. Pension them off, so that they would not longer wrong and harm us by their rule. - J.Z., 29.10.02.

TAXATION: One can’t buy liberty by paying tributes to politicians, bureaucrats and generals. – J.Z., 14.12.85.

TAXATION: One does not even get fair priced services in return - and why should anyone have to pay for disservices? – J.Z., 9.9.81.

TAXATION: One has a perfect right to falsify one's income tax returns as one is merely defending that which is rightfully his, and ultimately to resist with force any attempt at theft through taxation." - WHEELER, Charles Jackson Wheeler, Justice & Anarchy, in: THE PERSONALIST.

TAXATION: One should imagine that taxpayers would have s strong enough incentive, all the time, to consider alternatives, to taxation. – J.Z., 19.12.93. – APATHY, LACK OF INTEREST IN THE OWN AFFAIRS, SELFISHNESS, INCENTIVES, EGOISM, ALTRUISM, SELF-INTEREST, STATISM

TAXATION: One tax official to another, seeing a man with a wheelbarrow approaching, containing 3 bags: “Another smart Alec paying in coppers!” – PUNCH, 3.9.75, p. 351. – TAX RESISTANCE – JOKES

TAXATION: Only aggressive wars need taxes and peace can be made almost unbearable with them. – J.Z., 12.9.81.

TAXATION: Only deluded people can imagine themselves to be better off, in the average, as a result of mere transfer payments. – J.Z., 19.9.81.

TAXATION: Only tax collectors, politicians, bureaucrats and other parasites love taxes. So why do we put up with them? – J.Z., 4.1.00.

TAXATION: Only the State obtains its revenue by coercion, by threatening dire penalties should the income not be forthcoming. That coercion is known as “taxation”, although in less regularized epochs it was often known as “tribute”. Taxation is theft, purely and simply, even though it is theft on a grand and colossal scale which no acknowledged criminals could hope to match. It is compulsory seizure of the property of the State’s inhabitants, or subjects.” - - Murray N. Rothbard, The Ethics of Liberty, p.162/63.

TAXATION: Only thing a revenuer is good for: target practice.” – “D. J. and the Bear”, 7.5.80. - JOKES

TAXATION: Only those who, down deep, believe that the government actually does have first claim on everything legitimately, can find inspiration in a system that merely uses taxes to "pay off" this or that class or faction." - Karl Hess, The Lawless State, p.12.

TAXATION: Only voluntary taxation is right and can come close to achieving its purpose – like free prices and voluntary subscriptions by customers, who are, on the whole, satisfy with what they thus buy. – J.Z., 9.9.90, 6.8.08, 6.8.11. - Provided, all the services that they do want for themselves are also competitively supplied and that they are quite free to ignore all the services offered which they do not wish for themselves. - J.Z., 18.3.11.

TAXATION: Only voluntary taxes and other fees, prices and subscriptions are justifiable. – J.Z., 13.8.91.

TAXATION: Only what you have already eaten cannot be taxed any longer (unless you think of the consequent taxes on doctors, medicines, hospitals and private insurance companies - when your food consumption has been harmful to you.). – J.Z., 25.8.81.

TAXATION: Opt out from the tax establishment! – J.Z., 74.

TAXATION: Optimist: A person who can plan what to do with the money he’ll have left after taxes.” – Paul and Helen Martin Denis - JOKES - The moment he spends anything of his remaining earnings, he is again forced to pay numerous indirect taxes, contained in the prices he pays. - J.Z., 18.3.11.

TAXATION: other people are living off my taxes without working." - Saying quoted in ANALOG editorial, 8/77.

TAXATION: Our ancestors ... were well aware that taxes might become engines of confiscation when they insisted that no tax should be imposed except by the consent of the class of taxpayers who paid it." - Lord High Cecil, Conservatism, p.155. - Why confine this restriction only to a 'class' of individuals? – J.Z., 81. - DIS.

TAXATION: Our government has found that the most effective way to control a person is not by the ballot or the bullet, but rather by the 'bucket'. Today, in a country that fought a revolution to rid itself of a repressive government and excessive taxes, government takes 40 percent of everything we earn in the form of taxes." - Byron C. Radaker, Chairman and C.E.O., Congoleum Corp.

TAXATION: Our income is our life blood. Taxation deprives us of this. Excessive taxation, therefore, can tax us to death." - Byron Prouton, 6.9.81. - To me that is only correct when e.g. our tax-burden prevents us from buying life-saving medicines of if this "revenue" is used to finance another wrongful war. - J.Z., 18.3.11.

TAXATION: Our instinct is against it. We object to the taking of our property by organized society just as we do when a single unit of society commits the act. In the latter case we unhesitatingly call the act robbery, a malum in se...." - Frank Chodorov, The Income Tax, p.217.

TAXATION: our irrational, indeed immoral system of taxation, which is essentially socialistic, is heading our nation towards ruin." – Graham Hart, "The Choice: Georgist Progress or Socialist Poverty", reviewed in PROGRESS, June 75.

TAXATION: our largest extractive industry, the tax industry.” – J. D. McRoberts, in COURIER MAIL, Queensland. – It all too effectively mines even the deepest pockets. – J.Z., 5.8.08. - JOKES

TAXATION: Our preliminary study shows that taxes are most unpopular among those who pay them.” - Committee on Tax Reform, in a joke published in THE JUSTICE TIMES, 10/78. - JOKES, EXPERT OPINIONS.

TAXATION: Our professor of communism could, and should, emphasize this point by an analysis of taxation, particularly the direct kind. Income taxes unequivocally deny the principle of private property. Inherent in these levies is the postulate that the State has a prior lien on all the production of its subjects; what it does not take it merely a concession, not a right; and it reserves for itself the prerogative of altering the rates and the exemptions according to its requirements. It is a matter of fiat, not contract. If that is not a communist principle, what is?” – Frank Chodorov, One Is A Crowd, p. 80. - Is there any formally anti-communist State without that communist practice? Or without the central banking system proposed by Marx and Engels in their “Communist Manifesto”? Those, who ponder for how long people put up with slavery and serfdom, will not be surprised by their all too great patience with tax slavery, and monetary despotism, either. – J.Z., 20.7.08.  - PROPERTY RIGHTS, CENTRAL BANKING, COMMUNISM, MARXISM

TAXATION: Our submission is that if the wage earner were to realize, when he takes his £ 3 or £ 4 in wages, that another £ 7 or £ 8 is taken out of the product of industry in order that he may be governed, he would evince a deeper and different interest in government as a subject in itself.” – Sir Ernest Benn, Modern Government, p.19.

TAXATION: Our tax rate is twice the rate that maximizes growth. So we have imposed a growth tax.” – Prof. Gerald W. Scully. in a talk. – Is there a tax rate that maximizes growth of the economy or only a tax rate that maximizes revenue for the tribute collector? No tax maximizes growth – although this has been asserted e.g. for the “single tax” and for a tax growing with the number of employees, intended to induce rationalizations. – J.Z., 5.8.92. – DIS., GROWTH

TAXATION: Our tax system has become an institution of plunder, prodigality, and the gratification of envy." - George C. Leef, THE FREEMAN, 9/78, p.561.

TAXATION: our tax system is immoral because it compels some individuals to purchase government services which they do not desire." - George C. Leef, THE FREEMAN, 9/78, p.563.

TAXATION: Our tax system works approximately in this way: I take what you have earned and you take what I have earned.” – GOOD GOVERNMENT, Oct. 82, under Viewpoint.

TAXATION: Our taxation system fines employers for employing people and we call it payroll tax; it fines shop keepers who sell goods and we call it sales tax; it fines people for working hard and we call it income tax." - "PROGRESS":" 9/76.

TAXATION: Our tribunes are neither representative nor do we owe them any tribute. – J.Z., 9/81.

TAXATION: Over the course of his lifetime, the typical slave field hand received about 90 percent of the income he produced.” – Robert William Fogel and Stanley L. Engerman, Time on the Cross, Boston, Little, Brown, and Company, 1974, pp.5-6. – Quoted in Schiff, The Biggest Con, p.141. – Do we receive as much from our work efforts or are we taxed much more highly? – Admittedly, our productivity is very much increased and thus, even after high direct taxation and indirect taxation we live much better than they did. But our living standard is also lowered very much by all kinds of taxation and by what is done to us with the aid of this “revenue”. - J.Z., 24.10.08 – TAX SLAVERY

TAXATION: Over the incoming door at the Los Angeles tax bureau is a sign: 'Watch your step.’ - Over the outgoing door is another: "Watch your language.'" – READER’S DIGEST, June 59. - JOKES

TAXATION: P.A.Y.E. (Plunder As You Earn.)” – Lauchlan Chipman, To Each His Own, CIS 1977 Conference paper, p.39.

TAXATION: Part of freedom is the absence of compulsory taxes, whether direct or indirect ones.” - Uwe Timm, Gesammelte Schriften, 130. - & FREEDOM

TAXATION: Parties come and go but your tax burden remains and increases. – J.Z., 75. VOTING, ELECTIONS, CHANGES OF GOVERNMENTS

TAXATION: Pay as you earn taxation is the most efficient way of soaking the taxpaying mugs because their money is gone before they see it, and they don't actually realize how much has been deducted until they see their Group Certificates at 30th June each year. PAYE taxation is the ultimate way of increasing taxation due to its apparent characteristic of making it appear easier to the payer, in exactly the same way hire purchase gives the impression of ‘easy payments'." - J. Shergold, in GOOD GOVERNMENT, June 76. - In my department there was even a consensus to have the fortnightly deductions increased so that not as much would have to be paid at the end of the year! No one, apparently, wanted to be better off by putting the equivalent amounts into a bank etc. until the tax was due! Do they still teach adding sums in school? – J.Z.

TAXATION: Paying for one’s own wrongs and mistakes is one thing. Paying for those of someone else is another. Being forced to pay for the wrongs and mistakes of other is intolerably wrong, at least from my point of view. – J.Z., 20.2.80. – Especially when these actions do wrong and harm me, too. – J.Z., 22.7.08, 6.8.11.

TAXATION: Paying one’s fair share in taxes? Fair shares in tribute payments and extorted money to be paid to politicians and bureaucrats? – J.Z., 20.11.97. – What for? Which of their xyz budget items do you actually favor? If there really are some, then you should associate with like-minded people in your kind of statist society or community, with your own budget, taxes and personal laws – but allow all others to do their own things for or to themselves. – J.Z., 16.7.08. – PANARCHISM, VOLUNTARY TAXATION, PANARCHISM

TAXATION: Payments for services we do not use, or use only to a small degree, ..." - George C. Leef, THE FREEMAN, 9/78, p.564.

TAXATION: People are beginning to realize that the apparatus of government is costly. But what they do not know is that the burden falls inevitably on them." - Bastiat, quoted by G. C. Roche III, Frederic Bastiat, A Man Alone, p.237.

TAXATION: People are prepared to subscribe more in a contribution for their own personal or family security than they would ever be willing to pay in taxation devoted to a wide variety of different purposes." - LABOUR GOVERNMENT, White Paper. - National Superannuation and Social Insurance, 1969. In other words, for the government “social insurance” is just another racket to increase their total tax take. – J.Z., 17.10.08.

TAXATION: People don’t mind spending their money if they know it’s not going for taxes.” - Will Rogers. – Alas, even if they do spend only black market earnings, much of their spending still ends up as taxes in government hands. – J.Z., 5.8.08.

TAXATION: People may still be attracted by the outward trappings of rich-uncle government, but it is slowly dawning upon us that we are laboring most of the week to pay for the bureaucracy.” – READER’S DIGEST, July 77: “Which Way Ahead For Australia?”

TAXATION: People no longer have enough left after taxes to purchase the product of their own toil." – Liberty Amendment Committee, Report On Freedom, 3/75. - This means that they work, largely, for the benefit of other people who are unproductive or correspondingly less productive. – J.Z.

TAXATION: People pay taxes for anti-people weapons (under the wrong assumption that only the "enemy" would be "soaked" with them). – J.Z., 81.

TAXATION: People pay taxes for the "control" of people by bureaucrats and politicians – and even for anti-people “weapons”. – J.Z., 78.

TAXATION: People pay taxes for their gradual enslavement and even for anti-people weapons. – J.Z., 81

TAXATION: People pay taxes, presumably for their own protection – while governments build anti-people or mass murder devices with these means. – J.Z., note in a note in an old PEACE PLANS issue.

TAXATION: people prefer to work for themselves and their loved ones rather than the unknown recipients under a centrally monitored redistribution, the principles of which can never be acceptable to those who have produced wealth by acquired skill, hard work, sacrifice, ingenuity, or any other effortful or risky means.” – Laughlan. Chipman, QUADRANT, 4/76. – I am not the only one who considers e.g. gift and inheritance taxes, taxes on capital growth, on interest and dividends to be quite wrongful, too. – J.Z., 2.8.08.

TAXATION: People to King: 'What are you going to do about inflation?’ - King: 'Print more money.' - Councilor: 'We can't do that sire!' - King: 'Why not?' - Councilor: 'There is no more gold to back it up!’ - King: 'Whew! For a moment there I thought we were out of paper.’ - John Hart & Field, The Wizard of Id. – It takes a note issue monopoly and legal tender power to cause an inflation. Under free choice of exchange media and value standards government paper money would either be refused or discounted, while stable value reckoning would go on. – J.Z., 16.4.09. - JOKES, LEGAL TENDER, FORCED CURRENCY, FIAT MONEY

TAXATION: People who accept taxation as “normal” and justified are mentally prepared to accept almost any other oppression and exploitation. – J.Z., 27.3.87, 5.8.08.

TAXATION: People who approve of taxes have taxed their power of observation and reasoning too much, also. – J.Z., 19.8.81.

TAXATION: People who let themselves be taxed are already half-way to despotism. – J.Z., 9.6.92. – Most citizens of the Weimar Republic did not imagine that their taxes and insurance funds would one day finance the Nazi Regime and WW II. – J.Z., 5.8.08.

TAXATION: People who let themselves be taxed without protest and resistance are likely to let almost anything be done to them, too. – J.Z., 20.3.93. – E.g., life under the “protection” of the “nuclear umbrella”! – J.Z., 19.7.08.

TAXATION: People who let themselves be taxed without their individual consent, are well prepared for totalitarianism in others spheres. – J.Z., 1.3.85. – The same could be said for people who e.g. accept territorialism, monetary despotism, monopoly decision making on war and peace, armament and disarmament and majority despotism, conscription and parliaments of “representatives” with practically unlimited powers. – As many rapid conversions from democracies to despotisms have demonstrated, we are already half-way there. - J.Z., 5.8.08. – DEMOCRACY, DESPOTISM, TOTALITARIANISM, DICTATORSHIPS, TERRITORIALISM, MONETARY DESPOTISM, DECISION-MAKING ON WAR & PEACE, MAJORITIES, CONSCRIPTION, PARLIAMENTS, REPRESENTATION

TAXATION: Perhaps a well organized tax strike should, initially, mainly consist out of paying the same amounts – or less or even more – but no longer to the tax departments, i.e., the territorial State, but to whichever alternative institutions, systems, societies, movements, communities or freely competing statist personal law associations one does prefer for oneself. – That could be most easily done if all taxes were combined into a single head tax or flat rate tax first of all. - J.Z., 27.5.84, 4.8.08. - PANARCHISM

TAXATION: Perhaps all or most of these and even better sayings on this subject, should all be published also in printed book form, by someone who can afford to do this, under a title perhaps like: “What about taxation? What about its abolition and replacement by something rightful and rational?” - The prior publication on a CD only or online, for free downloading, could be done at very little cost and risk, thus exploring the popularity of the title. Advance orders could also be invited on the disc and on the website, at a specially discounted price, say, half the usual price, which would help to get the material into print. – The potential market for such a book is huge. – I would include at least references to, if not abstracts, reviews and whole text of all the writings on voluntary taxation that have so far appeared. - J.Z., 5.8.08, 6.8.11.

TAXATION: persuade men that by superior work they will obtain no superior reward; cut off all the hopes that stimulate among ordinary men ambition, enterprise, invention and self-sacrifice, and the whole level of production will rapidly and inevitably sink." - Herbert Spencer, quoted in Bliss' Encyclopaedia of Social Reform.

TAXATION: Peter’s Business Principle: If you do something wrong, you’re fined; if you do something right you’re taxed.” - Dr. Laurence J. Peter, Why Things Go Wrong or The Peter Principle Revisited, George Allen & Unwin, 1991, p.90. - & BUSINESS

TAXATION: Petrol taxes and thousands of other taxes: Highway robbery has become nationalized. – J.Z., 16.7.95.

TAXATION: Philosophy of government: From each according to his ability; to each according to his irresponsibility.” - Claire Wolfe, 101 Things to Do ‘til the Revolution, Breakout Productions, Port Townsend, Washington, 1999, rev. ed., ISBN 1-89.3626-13-X, p. 4. - & GOVERNMENT, POLITICIANS

TAXATION: Pillage and looting do not diminish in ethical opprobrium when performed by cliques or associations." - Ridgway K. Foley Jr., THE FREEMAN, 4/73.

TAXATION: PLAYBOY: Why do you describe the Australian tax system as confiscatory, savage, unfair, and a menace to our survival as a healthy and buoyant society? – Peter Clyne interview, AUSTRALIAN PLAYBOY, June 1979. – PLAYBOY provided some detail in his much longer reply. – J.Z.

TAXATION: Please, do not give your government so much money." - Sen. William Jerner, IN, 8.21.58. - You only spoil it and it despoils us! – J.Z.

TAXATION: Pocket thieves are those members of the human society who do merely manually practise the wide-spread art of extracting money out of the pockets of others.” – Hans Kasper – (“Taschendiebe nennt man diejenigen Mitglieder der menschlichen Gesellschaft, die die weitverbreitete Kunst, dem anderen Geld aus der Tasche zu ziehen, nur manuell ausueben.”) – They are the small imitators of the great thieves and robbers. – Now guess, who is punished and who is not! - J.Z., 24.10.08, 6.8.11. - JOKES

TAXATION: Politically enforced and administered subsidies and hand-outs from looted funds are no rightful and rational substitutes for voluntary contributions, insurance arrangements and investments. – J.Z., 17.7.08. - GOVERNMENT BUDGETS & SPENDING

TAXATION: Politician to Journalists: “I was worried everyone might leave the country. - So we put a tax on that, too.” – Tandberg, in THE AGE, reproduced in THE RADICAL, ALP, vol.9, No. 4, Aug. 78. – JOKES

TAXATION: Politicians and bureaucrats should have to pay their way with other than stolen funds. – J.Z., 20.7.08.

TAXATION: politicians dipping their greedy fingers in the pocketbooks of honest citizens." – Jerome Tuccille, "Here Comes Immortality”, p.179.

TAXATION: Politicians love to talk about “tax abuses” and the fact that they must be stopped. Again I agree: all taxes are an abuse and all taxes should be stopped.” – R. J. Ringer, Restoring the American Dream, p.248. – But it is also true that some taxes are even more abusive, wrongful and harmful as well as irrational, than are others, for instance: progressive taxes, taxes that cost more to collect than they bring, the inflation tax, the taxes that were used to uphold monetary despotism – to name just a few. – J.Z., 11.11.82, 5.8.08, 6.8.11.

TAXATION: Politicians overlook that “People basically don’t work to pay taxes.” - ON LIBERTY, Nov. 79, “Laffer’s Logic”.

TAXATION: Politicians prefer sales tax because it is collected gradually and people don't notice what government is doing to them - they blame the merchants." - SOUTHERN LIBERTARIAN MESSENGER, Winter 75/6.

TAXATION: Taxes exploit labor, destroy productive capacity and lower the general standard of living. – J.Z., 78.

TAXATION: Taxes finance disservices while free prices finance services. – J.Z., 9.9.81.

TAXATION: Taxes have almost nothing to do with value for value received. They are, rather, raised on the principle: However little service we give to you, however much damage we do to you, you have to pay us as much as we want, so that we can pay a multitude of other people – after first taking off our large brokerage fee. – J.Z., 29.6.82.

TAXATION: Taxes have been devised by man, and they could therefore be undone by man." - Paul Lepanto, "Return to Reason”, p.135.

TAXATION: Taxes have set a very bad example to criminally inclined people regarding the collection of their “revenues”, in accordance with the principle: “Get it, whenever and wherever you can, openly or underhand.” – J.Z., 21.6.85. - Just like the famed bank-robber Willy Sutton, in a reply to the judge’s question, why he had robbed banks, said: “Don’t you know, your Honour? That’s where the money is!” – J.Z., 4.8.08. – JOKES

TAXATION: Taxes impose slavery, dollar by dollar. – J.Z., 16.6.91.

TAXATION: Taxes impoverish all but the politicians and bureaucrats who handle them – and their special favorites, used by them as voting cattle. – J.Z., 11.5.91, 5.8.08.

TAXATION: Taxes impoverish, directly and indirectly, as disincentives to production and exchange. – J.Z., 12.5.92.

TAXATION: Taxes inevitably destroy more than they create." - One might doubt that this applies e.g. to taxes on alcoholic drinks and tobacco - but do these taxes really reduce such consumption to a significant extent? - J.Z. – Does any “spending” of stolen funds really amount to spending? And is anything built or established with them really “creative”? – J.Z., 15.10.08. - DIS., Q., GOVERNMENT SPENDING, BUDGET, WELFARE STATE

TAXATION: Taxes is a broad term of abuse which covers taxes and rates, levies and duties, charges and fees, royalties and export duties, licences and permits. They go chiefly to the three big P.’s – parliaments, politicians and public servants.” - Viv Forbes, in a 1977 talk: “Mine Your Own Business”, p.4. – PARLIAMENTS, POLITICIANS, PUBLIC SERVANTS

TAXATION: Taxes make a bunch of people conscious of the nation's dignity and sovereignty, in the same way a man knows he is alive when he has a toothache." - David Cort, "Social Astonishments", p.4. - JOKES

TAXATION: Taxes Make Slaves.” – Dangerous Buttons No. 234.

TAXATION: Taxes must become a 'dirty' word (for all but the members of autonomous and exterritorial volunteer groups). Most people still love taxes - at least those imposed on others. – J.Z., 8.12,78.

TAXATION: Taxes of all kinds discourage production. Man works to satisfy his desires, not to support the State." - Frank Chodorov, Out of Step, p.225.

TAXATION: taxes of all kinds reduce human satisfaction, because they distort values and restrict freedom of choice by forcing taxpayers to pay for goods or services which they may not want. Taxes also pay for the inefficient non-competitive so-called service of an army of non-productive bureaucrats.” – Duncan Yuille, in WORKERS PARTY NSW BULLETIN, Oct. 76.

TAXATION: Taxes on bank accounts are legalized and regular bank robberies. Their total does, probably, by far exceed the total taken by all private bank robbers. – J.Z., 10.9.99.

TAXATION: Taxes on personal incomes and corporations are squeezing out all conventional sources of capital funding for the business community."- David A. Fyfe, THE FREEMAN, 6/74.

TAXATION: Taxes only build up a government demand for more taxes. – J.Z., 21.9.91. - Well, at least they build up something - apart from new governmental palaces, pyramids, Olympic playgrounds, IBMs, still more nuclear weapons. – As an old French proverb has it: “The appetite comes during the eating.” (“L’appetite vient a la manger!” – If I remember my little school-French well enough.) I also wonder, what is the tax equivalent of the “appetizers” commonly used by gourmets? For the ancient Romans these were, sometimes, the tongues of various animals. At least our lords and masters have spared us this abuse, so far. But they certainly don’t like the use we make sometimes of our tongues – or our keyboards. – So, beware and take care! – They have certainly already tried to control the Internet. - J.Z., 5.8.08.

TAXATION: Taxes pay for disservices. Only prices pay for services. – J.Z., 81

TAXATION: Taxes pay for lies, bribes, waste and mismanagement. When we put a lot of money into the hands of politicians and bureaucrats – out come empty words and some of these funds are then redistributed to the other government subjects, more than anything else, to buy their votes, as becomes clearly revealed in every election campaign with its spending promises. – J.Z., 22.11.99, 20.7.08.

TAXATION: Taxes prevent the full reward for your work. – J.Z., 75.

TAXATION: Taxes produce and prolong poverty. – J.Z., 19.7.08.

TAXATION: Taxes run the country - into the ground! – J.Z., 9.9.81.

TAXATION: Taxes should not be merely reformed but abolished. – J.Z., 23.8.98. – Or confined to voluntary victims: so far uncured statists. – J.Z., 27.7.08.

TAXATION: Taxes suck the productive private or cooperative parts of the economy almost dry of cash and capital and swamp its non-productive, counter-productive, uneconomic and largely parasitic or obstructive “public” sector. – J.Z., 4.7.91, 5.8.08, 7.8.11.

TAXATION: Taxes take and destroy most of our potential savings and investments. – J.Z., 81.

TAXATION: Taxes tax good sense and responsibility away, too and leave us with political and bureaucratic decisions, actions and “progress”. – J.Z., 25.8.98. – Was there ever a government policy, program or action that was quite successful by moral, rational and economic criteria and by the standards of individual rights and liberties? – J.Z., 17.7.08.

TAXATION: Taxes tax or penalize rightful, necessary and productive activities to finance wrongful, unnecessary and counter-productive ones. – J.Z., 31.3.04, 31.10.07.

TAXATION: Taxes tax you for more than money: They tax part of your life and liberty away. – J.Z., n.d.

TAXATION: taxes tend to become ‘cannibalistic’ – to consume … tax payers.” – Whiting Williams, America’s Mainspring, p. 167.

TAXATION: Taxes transform mostly sensible, individual and group spending, all voluntary, of the own money, to wrongful, insensible, or senseless, collectivist, bureaucratic and despotic spending of the confiscated part of the income of the tax victims. – J.Z., 21.9.91. – And when they spend the rest of it then much of their spending is swallowed up again by the various taxes built into the prices of the goods or services they buy or even have to buy, to survive. – J.Z., 21.9.91. – To some extent we are all captured animals or tax slaves in nation-wide zoos or slave labor camps. And all too many of us remain all too complacent about this situation and do not even demand the right to secede from the territorial State individually or as a group of volunteers. The State has largely succeeded in applying Pavlovian conditioning to us, at least in this respect, if not also in many others. – J.Z., 5.9.08.

TAXATION: taxes transformed the American worker from free man to serf." – Schiff, The Biggest Con, p.140.

TAXATION: Taxes turn us into serfs of a feudalistic and territorial State. – J.Z., 21.10.92, 25.7.08.

TAXATION: Taxes turn us, lastly, into fodder for the totalitarian territorial State. – 15.6.91. - Even the democratic territorial States are not good enough alternatives to the totalitarian ones. – J.Z., 5.8.08.

TAXATION: Taxes upon taxes upon taxes – until all rhyme and reason is lost. You buy something with what is left after direct income tax deduction. Then you are taxed again for your purchase. Those who produced it are likewise hit by x taxes. And in return for all your involuntary payments you get to be misruled by politicians and bureaucrats, presented with wars, inflations, deflations and stagflations and their mass unemployment and mass poverty, housing shortages, a supposed welfare State, and all too often a warfare State, involuntarily financed by you, one that further increases rather than decreases and abolishes taxes, in the worst kind of “purchases” you ever made. You should only ever have to pay for those services you yourself wanted and ordered or have subscribed to and all of them should be subject to your own free choice among many competitive suppliers, all paid for at market prices rather than through coercively and monopolistically determined general tribute levies, including charges for services you never wanted, even charges for public disservices done to you. And for all this you are expected to be grateful and loyal to your territorial State and lay down your life for it, as a voluntary sacrifice, upon demand or command. - J.Z., 7.6.99, 19.7.08.

TAXATION: Taxes waste money but at times only that makes them barely tolerable: "Imagine we would get all the government we are paying for!". – Source? David Friedman?

TAXATION: Taxes waste your life by about 20-50 hours every week! – J.Z., 75.

TAXATION: Taxes will also lead to capital going into hiding (gold stocks, jewelry, art works etc.) instead of being productively invested. Thus productivity will be reduced and prices for the remaining smaller output will be increased. – J.Z., 22.7.08.

TAXATION: Taxes, after all, are the dues that we pay for the privilege of membership in an organized society.” – Franklin D. Roosevelt, speech, Worcester, Mass., Oct. 21, 1935. – What privilege? The “privilege” of being misruled by power addicts, ignorant and prejudiced people like him or even worse rulers, by his party, or by others? – J.Z., 25.7.08, 30.7.11, 7.8.11. - Territorially organized States are hardly rightful and rationally organized free societies of volunteers. They resemble slave States or feudalistic States with serfdom much more than free societies. That some economic aspects are already somewhat free is by far not enough, neither for the subjects of a totalitarian States like Red China nor for any of the democracies. In all of the latter "the people" and their "representatives" are still quite wrongly - because territorially - "defined". - Only societies of volunteers deserve the term societies. - J.Z., 22.3.11, 7.8.11.

TAXATION: taxes, each of which is based upon special privilege and all are gross violations of the principle of equal liberty." - Sprading, Liberty and the Great Libertarians, p.24.

TAXATION: Taxes, laws, politicians and bureaucrats make possible wars, oppression, monopolies, exploitation, waste and corruption and managed to turn public services into all too many and all too large disservices. – J.Z., 10.8.99, 22.3.11. - CENTRAL BANKING, PROTECTIONISM, INSURANCE BY GOVERNMENTS

TAXATION: Taxes, like all other tribute payments and compulsory contributions, will mostly be wasted or spent contrary to the wishes of their victims. – J.Z., 30.7.98.

TAXATION: Taxes, like reefs and shoals, storms and icebergs, are the cause of numerous "shipwrecks" and bankruptcies among enterprises, leading to poverty and unemployment. But contrary to these natural hazards, they are artificial and wrongful risks, imposed upon all by governments under one or the other false pretence. – J.Z., 28.9.00.

TAXATION: Taxes, no matter how they are designed levied, do wrong and harm everybody, although some people more so than others. – J.Z., 3.4.00, 20.7.08.

TAXATION: Taxes, of all kinds, discourage production. It is a silly sophism, and thoroughly indecent, to maintain that the state spends what it collects and that therefore there is no lowering of purchasing power; thieves also spend their loot, with more abandon than the rightful owners would have spent it, and one could therefore make out a case for the social value of thievery. Neither thieves nor officials produce a marketable good to offset what they take; they contribute nothing to the purchasing power because they contribute nothing to the general fund of wealth. …” - Frank Chodorov, Fugitive Essays, p.273. – But the tax-supported territorial systems do manage e.g. to outlaw the potential private and cooperative competitive and sound currency issues, e.g. those with shop-foundation by large department stores, super-markets and associations of all or most of the shops of a district. Free issues of this kind, using a sound value standard, could out-compete all the inferior governmental currencies, if only legally allowed to do so. They are not outlawed because they are worse than the governmental money but because they are already - or would soon be - much better by a process of natural selection, free acceptances, free rating and free refusals to accept inferior, unknown or suspicious issues. The test for each of them would be quite simple and could be made in the nearest shop. If it would accept such a note unquestioningly at par - then it is good enough. – Underlining by me. - J.Z., 5.8.08. 22.3.11. - The State's forced and exclusive currency does not even apply the centuries old system of tax foundation money correctly. - J.Z., 22.3.11.

TAXATION: Taxes, stripped of all pretences, are an immoral, unwarranted and arbitrary act of confiscation against rightful owners." J.Z., 12.9.81, after reading a similar remark by Robert Turner on the tax bill of 1696 in Rothbard's contribution in LIBERTARIAN ANALYSIS, Winter 70, p.27.

TAXATION: Taxes, ultimately, mean: Pay or Die! – J.Z., 8.8.96. - Either in prison or by official murder - if one tries to defend one's property against this robbery. – Nevertheless, their nature as robberies or imposed tributes is still all too little seen by public opinion. - J.Z., 18.7.08, 22.3.11.

TAXATION: Taxes: A penalty upon the economic use of labor, capital and natural resources, as well as upon consumption – in order to promote e.g. uneconomic or anti-economic monopolies, bureaucracies and welfarism. – J.Z., 22.8.91, 22.3.11.

TAXATION: Taxes: Money wrongly raised and wrongly spent. – J.Z., 7.7.91.

TAXATION: Taxes: The arsenic in our system." - Schiff, The Biggest Con, p.148.

TAXATION: Taxidermist: one who skins and stuffs animals. Tax collector: one who skins only." – Source? - Actually, they take more than merely the skin of our earnings, properties and working lives, even if they do not work us systematically to death, within a few years, as slaves often were and also the forced labourers of totalitarian regimes. - J.Z., 7.8.11. -  JOKES

TAXATION: Taximeter government" - a 'pay your way’ term to indicate a voluntary taxation alternative.” - Richard C. Cornuelle, Demanaging America, chapter 13.

TAXATION: taxpayer, n. A beast of burden, specifically, an ass." - L. A. Rollins, "Lucifer's Lexicon”, reason, 7/77

TAXATION: Taxpayer, n. One who renders unto a seizer what is not the seizer’s. One who feeds the mouth that puts the bite on him. An April fool.” - L. A. Rollins, Lucifer’s Lexicon.

TAXATION: Taxpayers acting in concert could become an irresistible force. – J.Z., 9.9.81.

TAXATION: Taxpayers and other government subjects, rather than tax collectors and other bureaucrats, policemen and soldiers, should be armed, organized and trained for effective resistance against all wrongful acts, especially those by officials. – J.Z., 17.12.93, 19.7.08. - MILITIA, RESISTANCE, PROTECTION OF INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS & LIBERTIES

TAXATION: Taxpayers are people who let themselves be plundered." - J.Z./B.P., 80/l. (Byron Prouton?)

TAXATION: Taxpayers are the worst suckers. – J.Z., 75.

TAXATION: Taxpayers cheer (*) not from the heart, but from the pocketbook.” – Will Rogers. – (*) Cheer? Bleed? Weep? A printing error? – Tax fund recipient might cheer but taxpayers? I still have to encounter that kind of phenomenon. - J.Z., 5.8.08.

TAXATION: Taxpayers' costs are out of proportion to the benefits they receive." - Stanley C. Abraham, REASON, 4/5/71.

TAXATION: Taxpayers don’t have to take a civil service exam to work for the government.” – Anonymous. - JOKES

TAXATION: Taxpayers get much less back in wanted services than they were forced to pay. However, they do receive an abundance of unasked for disservices. – J.Z., 19.12.93.

TAXATION: Taxpayers must keep records, decipher the tax code, employ accountants, and find legal ways to reduce their tax burden. That comes to seven billion hours each year simply complying with the code., If the hours spent complying with the tax code were put to productive work, they’d represent the entire annual outputs of the U.S. auto, truck, and aircraft industries.” - Walter E. Williams, Do the Right Thing, Hoover Institution Press, 1995, p.64.

TAXATION: Taxpayers not only get nothing for something but also great disservices that costs them, directly or indirectly very much. – J.Z., 22.7.85.

TAXATION: Taxpayers rather than tax takers should be armed and organized. – J.Z., 18.8.88. – GUN CONTROL, VICTIM DISARMAMENT, MILITIAS, HUMAN RIGHTS

TAXATION: Taxpayers should arm and organize themselves for their defence. – J.Z., 12.9.81. – Another version: Taxpayers should be armed and organized. – J.Z., 23.11.87. – Much better than the official robbers who now have the fate of tax victims in their hands. – J.Z., 5.8.08. – MILITIA, INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS & LIBERTIES, GUN CONTROLS, VICTIM DISARMAMENT

TAXATION: Taxpayers should become free to decide for themselves, directly and individually upon tax cuts, and the abolition of certain taxes and government expenditures, even whether they are to remain subject of any particular territorial State and its territorial legislation. – J.Z., 12.2.94. - Then politicians would have to offer more than mere promises to retain enough subjects. I hold that territorial politicians do have no real solutions to offer and that, under panarchism, successful panarchies would deprive these confidence tricksters of their subjects and victims, one by one, by these subjects simply seceding from governments they are disappointed with and joining successful panarchies. – J.Z., 19.7.08, 22.3.11. – TAX CUTS & ABOLITION OF TAXES FOR THOSE INDIVIDUALS OPTING OUT, INDIVIDUAL SOVEREIGNTY & SECESSIONISM, REFERENDUM, VOLUNTARY TAXATION

TAXATION: Taxpayers spend 4.3 billion hours in a year of income tax compliance. That is the equivalent of a work force of over 2,083,000 people, more than work in the auto industry, the computer manufacturing industry, the airline manufacturing industry, and the steel industry combined.” - Cost of Complying with Federal Income Tax, The Tax Foundation - & COSTS OF TAX COMPLIANCE

TAXATION: Taxpayers still skinned themselves month after month - and brooded over it every All Fool's Day.” - Eric Frank Russell, Call Him Dead, ASTOUNDING SF, Br. ed., 1/56, p.6.

TAXATION: Taxpayers subscribe willy-nilly to the worst crackpot religion of all, one that sees the territorial State with all too many involuntary subjects and victims - as a public benefactor. - J.Z., 12.9.81, 7.8.11. – STATISM, GOVERNMENTALISM, INTERVENTIONISM

TAXATION: Taxpayers support all sorts of services whether they like it or not. It is like the hotel guest who discovered that his bill included the cost of a call-girl he didn't use. When he protested, he was told: 'She was there if you had wanted her'.'' - PROGRESS PARTY, Queensland, on "free services". - JOKES

TAXATION: Taxpayers who want tax exemptions of others removed, in the hope that, subsequently, their own tax burden would be eased, remind me of whipped slaves who complain that some of them were whipped less than they were and so demanded that each be allotted a fair share of whippings so that, hopefully, their own quota would be reduced. – J.Z. & D.Z. 1980. - DIS., EGALITARIANISM

TAXATION: Taxpayers will be reassured to learn that while the Department of Health, Education and Welfare spends $2,100,000 annually to warn us about the perils of smoking, the Department of Agriculture doles out §1,800,000 a year in price-support subsidies to tobacco farmers. – PLAYBOY, 6/69. - What is the annual take of taxes upon this self-destructive vice? I believe it to as high that any territorial government would be disinclined to try to abolish smoking altogether, even if it could achieve this. - J.Z., 22.3.11. - SMOKING, HEALTH, TOBACCO SUBSIDIES. CONTRADICTORY PAYMENTS FROM TAX REVENUES.

TAXATION: Taxpayers, enlighten, arm and organize yourself. You have nothing to lose but your taxes." – J.Z., 78. – MILITIA, ENLIGHTENMENT

TAXATION: Taxpayers, like alcoholics, tobacco and other drug addicts, are often unaware of what they are doing to themselves. Moreover, they get even less pleasure out of their mistakes. – J.Z., 12.9.81, 22.3.11.

TAXATION: Taxpayers, you have been had (conned). – J.Z.,74

TAXATION: Taxpayers: The Oppressed Majority.” – Andrew Melechinski

TAXATION: Taxpaying is a form of symbolic self-mutilation. It also tends to direct civilian resentments and aggression against their own governments, thus taking some pressure off international relations.” – Poul Anderson, Conquests, p.38. – However, even when territorial subjects are over-taxed and all too much regulated by their own governments, led into one inflation, deflation and stagflation after the other, all accompanied by mass unemployment, they tend to blame capitalism and foreign immigrants rather than their own governments for their suffering, largely because they have also been "educated" by their governments. - J.Z., 22.3.11. - All three, taxation, territorial legislations and monopoly institutions do make a mockery of "representation", consent and voting. - J.Z., 30.7.11. - PEACE, WAR, ENEMIES, ANIMOSITIES, GOVERNMENTS, NATIONALISM.

TAXATION: Territorial governments expect us to pay the bills for all their oppressive, exploitative, wrongful, irrational and wasteful actions. Sooner or later, I do hope, enough of us will get sick of that. – J.Z., 8.11.96, 18.7.08.

TAXATION: Territorial governments supply all too extensively dissatisfactions in return for taxes. – J.Z., 14.9.88. – Only once all its dissenters are free to secede and had seceded would the remainder get what they still believe to be their money’s worth. – Well, each has the right to make his own mistakes - at the own expense and risk. - J.Z., 6.8.08, 22.3.11. – PANARCHISM, INDIVIDUAL SECESSIONISM

TAXATION: Territorial politics and its “finance” is for all populations the greatest protection racket of them all, even a legalized one. – J.Z., 5.11.92, 25.7.08.

TAXATION: Territorial statism is very taxing, impoverishing, limiting and endangering and often destroying or reversing justice, reason, peace, wealth, progress, civilization and culture. I know of no greater enemy for man. – J.Z., 10.9.99, 20.7.08. – Compare: “The power to tax is the power to destroy.”

TAXATION: Thank God we don't get all the government we pay for." - Rabbi M. Hershman in JOLIET HERALD NEWS, quoted in LIBERTARIAN CONNECTION, 15.2.73. A similar remark was ascribed to Herman Kahn, in Simon, A Time for Truth, p.217.

TAXATION: That as wrongful, harmful and dangerous institutions as territorial States are, all too many even despotic and warfare States, are still coercively supported by “taxes” is one of the greatest wrongs, irrationalities and absurdities of our times. – J.Z., 5.8.08.

TAXATION: that grand fundamental maxim of the Constitution, that no subject of England shall be taxed but by his own consent. To maintain this principle is the common cause of the Whigs on the other side of the Atlantic, and on this.” - Lord Action, Lectures on the French Revolution, ed. by Figgis & Laurence, MacMillan, 1932, p.26, quoting a passage of one of Chatham’s speeches in 1775. – Bold print inserted by me. – J.Z. - VOLUNTARY TAXATION, CONSENT AS A CONSENT OF INDIVIDUALS

TAXATION: That it is inseparably essential to the freedom of a people and to the undoubted rights of Englishmen that no taxes be imposed on them but with their own consent, given personally, or by their representatives.” – Resolution of delegates from nine American Colonies, New York, 1765. – In another version: It is inseparably essential to the freedom of a people that no taxes be imposed on them but with their own consent, given personally or by their representatives. – Attributed to John Dickinson, Resolutions of the Stamp Act Congress, Oct. 19, 1765. - Cut out: “or by their representatives”! - How could the four important words “own consent, given personally” become so thoroughly forgotten (for over 2 centuries in this connection) and only the version “or by their representatives” remembered and applied? – J.Z., 20.7.08. – But then even whatever limited free banking existed in the USA for a while did also become thoroughly forgotten, for all too long, and most of the discussion centered only on which form of monetary despotism should be adopted. – J.Z., 20.7.08. – Haven't our "representatives" by now represented the case against territorial "representation", of a wrongly defined "collective", namely "the people", for long enough, even for over 2 centuries, in some cases? - J.Z., 22.3.11. - PANARCHISM, VOLUNTARISM, CONSENT, REPRESENTATION, DEMOCRACY, GENUINE SELF-GOVERMMENT, CONSTITUTIONALISM, DEFINITIONS OF BASIC TERMS

TAXATION: That same year the Frisii, a nation beyond the Rhine, cast off peace, more because of our rapacity than from their impatience of subjection. Drusus had imposed on them a moderate tribute, suitable to their limited resources, the furnishing of ox hides for military purposes. No one ever severely scrutinized the size or thickness till Olennius, a first-rank centurion, appointed to govern the Frisii, selected hides of wild bulls as the standard according to which they were to be supplied. This would have been hard for any nation, and it was the less tolerable to the Germans, whose forest abound in huge beasts, while their home cattle are undersized. First it was their herds, next their lands, last, the persons of their wives and children, which they gave up to bondage. Then came angry remonstrances, and when they received no relief, they sought a remedy in war. The soldiers appointed to collect the tribute were seized and gibbeted. Olennius anticipated their fury by flight, and found refuge in a fortress…” - Tacitus, A.D 72? - Complete Works, edited by Moses Hadas, 186/187. - Tolstoy is supposed to have made a similar report, somewhere, on how some African witchdoctors, over a long period, imposed slavery, via demanding periodically a small gift, in form of a rare flower, which became rarer and rarer, while this gift turned into an obligatory tribute, that led the natives to finally sell their families and ultimately also themselves into slavery. I have never come across that passage yet. Tacitus, in the above paragraph, confirms the possibility of such a development among other barbarians. Will anyone send me a copy of Tolstoy's report? From the monetary viewpoint of history such developments are not very scarce, although they do not always lead to slavery or feudalism. The imposed authority of creditors, insufficiently questioned by debtors and creditors alike, to demand rare metal coins or scarce monopoly paper money in payment, rather than settlement of debts by clearing certificates or in alternative means of payment, is one of the main causes of monetary crises and their consequences. Ulrich von Beckerath frequently pointed that out in his writings. - J.Z., 25.1.02. – The means of payment in which taxes are to be paid are almost as important as the kind and percentage of taxation. I do not know of any modern economist who is as clear about this point as Ulrich von Beckerath (1882-1969) was in his monetary writings. – J.Z., 13.4.09. - LEADING TO SLAVERY AND WAR, IMPORTANCE OF MEANS OF PAYMENT, RIGHT OF CREDITORS TO DEMAND "CASH" (PARTICULAR MEANS OF PAYMENT), TAX REBELLION.

TAXATION: That taxpayers are not in revolt is revolting. – J.Z., 21.9.93.

TAXATION: That the power of tax involves the power to destroy (is) not to be denied.” - Justice John Marshall, 1819. - This applies, naturally, also to the tax imposed by inflation, as well as the indirect tax imposed by the scarcity of exchange media due to the monopoly, usually in government hands or under government control, for the issue of exchange media. It increases interest rates unnecessarily and leads to emergency sales prices, often at a loss to the seller, as well as to mass unemployment. During the depression, in my home town, Berlin, many people could then no longer afford to pay the rent for their flats and had to move out and lived in tents, in parks and forests. Never forgive the culprits, for they do not know what they are doing and do it nevertheless, never minding the consequences and never showing any interest in learning the truth about their actions and their favorite institutions, like central banks and powerful governments. - Other government granted monopolies do also impose destructive tributes. - J.Z., 25.1.02. - - That the power of taxing it [the bank] by the States may be exercised so as to destroy it, is too obvious to be denied. … That the power to tax involves the power to destroy [is] not to be denied. – Chief Justice John Marshall, Decision, McCulloch v. Maryland, 1819. (Wheat., iv, 427, 431.) Usually quoted, “The power to tax is the power to destroy.” – Marshall was echoing Daniel Webster, who, during his argument in the case (p.327), stated, “An unlimited power to tax involves, necessarily, the power to destroy.”

TAXATION: that way we ALL lose the connection between paying and getting!" – Terry Arthur,"95% Is Crap", p.86.

TAXATION: That’s one conclusion of a study conducted by two economists from Yale: that the US Government is stealing almost three times more of your income than the plantation masters of the Old South took from their slaves. … according to Frank Tenney, author of An Economic History of Ancient Rome, 80 per cent of the Roman worker’s budget, whether slave or free, went to pay for the bare necessities of life. Therefore, no more than 20 per cent of the Roman slave’s income could have been expropriated. Actually, the Roman slave had less than 20 per cent of his earnings taken.” – Mike Ketcher, FREEDOM TODAY, Dec. 77. - SLAVERY

TAXATION: The "achievement of the eight hour day" means by now, all too often, that for 40 hours every week you work for the government (to pay your direct and indirect tax burden) and only during your overtime do you work for yourself. – J.Z., 13.9.75.

TAXATION: the ‘soak the rich’ tax has become a ‘soak the poor’ tax.” – Frank Chodorov, The Rise and Fall of Society, p.121. – All too long out of print, still, I believe and probably not yet digitized. Some of the best books are still largely unobtainable. But, at least many second-hand book offers are now made online, for those who can afford their prices and the postage involved. I would rather buy all such titles on microfilm or disks, much cheaper per title and at much smaller postage rates. Or in a single purchase of an external HD containing all freedom writings! – J.Z., 5.8.08.

TAXATION: The “tax and spend” governmental system will rapidly unravel – once individual tax payers are freed to opt out from all territorial States and all “societies” with compulsory membership and imposed laws. – J.Z., 25.1.00, 20.7.08. – PANARCHISM, INDIVIDUAL SECESSIONISM, MINORITY AUTONOMY, EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY

TAXATION: The “tax-eating” vs. the “tax-paying” class was a contrast which Bright especially was fond of using.” – Ralph Raico, JLS, Sum. 77, p.181, on John Bright.

TAXATION: the … taxpayer would seem to be a long-suffering and patient victim of exploitation.” – E. P. Middleton, GOOD GOVERNMENT, 2/80. – Alas, tax reformers like him, following the teachings of Henry George, still want to introduce a “single tax” which they assume to be justified. – J.Z., 24.10.08.

TAXATION: The advent of a regime of absolutism. This, it cannot too often be repeated, was an inevitable consequence of income taxation. The citizen is sovereign only when he can retain and enjoy the fruits of his labor. If the government has first claim on his property, he must learn to genuflect before it." - Frank Chodorov, The Income Tax, p.119.

TAXATION: The advocates of a 'mixed economy' need to be reminded of Lincoln's aphorism: 'I believe this government cannot endure permanently half slave and half free.’ Although this was applied to physical servitude, it is certainly equally applicable to economics where our civil rights as persons are usurped by government, placing over a third of our productive efforts in bondage to the State (a form of part-time slavery )." - Charles A. LaDow, THE FREEMAN, 11/74.

TAXATION: the agent of 'the government' - that is, the agent of a secret band of robbers and murderers, who have taken to themselves the title of ‘the government', and have determined to kill everybody who refuses to give them whatever money they demand. To save his life, he gives up his money to this agent. But as this agent does not make his principals individually known to the tax payer, the latter, after he has given up his money, knows no more who are 'the government' - that is, who were the robbers - than he did before. To say, therefore, that by giving up his money to their agent, he entered into a voluntary contract with them, that he pledges himself to obey them to support them, and to give them whatever money they should demand of him in the future, is simply ridiculous." - Lysander Spooner, No Treason, VI.

TAXATION: the American Colonists rebelled against taxes and controls." - Liberty Amendment Committee, Report On Freedom, 3/75. - Do you love freedom less? – J.Z. - Q.

TAXATION: The American Dream was not about government's taking huge sums of money (under the label of "taxation") from citizens by force. The American Dream was about individualism and the opportunity to achieve success without interference from others.” – Robert Ringer - INDIVIDUALISM & THE AMERICAN DREAM

TAXATION: The Americans fought on the slogan 'No taxation without representation'. Had they foreseen taxation with representation, they would have stayed home on the farm.” - "COMMON SENSE", Brisbane, June 81. – REPRESENTATION, DEMOCRACY

TAXATION: The ancient rabbis classed tax-gatherers as robbers." - JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA, XII, 69. - This shows that condemnation is not enough - if the victims do not arm and organize themselves. – J.Z. - MILITIA

TAXATION: The art of government consists in taking as much money as possible from one class of citizens to give to the other." - Voltaire. - This is, obviously, an insufficient defence or justification for the existence of any territorial government. - J.Z., 22.3.11.

TAXATION: The art of taxation consists in so plucking the goose as to obtain the largest possible amount of feathers with the smallest possible amount of hissing.” - Attributed to Jean Baptiste Colbert, , 1619-1683, minister of finance to Louis XIV of France. It has also been attributed to Cardinal Mazarin, under whom Colbert served. - The Home Book of Quotations, ed. Burton Stevenson, 10th ed., p.2300f, no. 5 (1967). - Libertarians, as long as they cannot abolish taxation, should at least demand that all taxes become noticed and hurt as much as they should, as part-enslavements and robberies. – J.Z., 4.1.08.

TAXATION: The assumption is almost invariably made by the spending politicians that the taxpayers do not really need the money that is taxed away from them to pay for some grandiose public project..." - Henry Hazlitt, in THE FREEMAN, 3/76. - Are they really grandiose, in concept and performance, quite apart from the fact that they are financed by robbery? - J.Z., 22.3.11. - Q.

TAXATION: The average American family head will be forced to do twenty years' labor to pay taxes in his or her lifetime.” – James Bovard, Lost Rights. – Thus the untaxed might be able to retire 20 years earlier! – J.Z., 3.1.08. – And these people so convicted and punished, are, basically, innocent. Territorial States are prisons, with forced and largely unpaid labor for their mostly innocent inmates. – J.Z., 13.4.09. - AMOUNTS TO A PRISON SENTENCE OF HARD & UNPAID LABOR TERRITORIALISM, TAX SLAVERY

TAXATION: The average family pays more in taxes than it spends on food, clothing, and shelter combined.” – Congressman Dick Armey, Why a Flat Tax? DURELL JOURNAL OF MONEY AND BANKING, Spring 1995 - & LIVING STANDARD, FLAT RATE TAXATION

TAXATION: The average persons doesn’t spend his time plotting and planning how he can get out of paying his bus fare. We are all quite ready to pay for what we get. The problem here is that we’re not getting anything for what we pay. Money is taken out of your pocket every week or every year and wasted on extravagance. …” - Peter Clyne interview, AUSTRALIAN PLAYBOY, June 1979

TAXATION: The average taxpayer now works until well into May each year for the government, or approximately one-third of his life (about one-half of his working life) without compensation. – No matter what one’s opinion regarding the necessity of government functions, how can twenty years of labor without pay be called anything but slavery?” - R. J. Ringer, Restoring the American Dream, p.245.

TAXATION: The battle cry of the American Revolution in 1776 was ‘No taxation without representation’. If they could have seen what taxation is like with representation, they might not have bothered!” – John Singleton with Bob Howard, Rip Van Australia, p.243.

TAXATION: The best description of the nature of taxation was penned by the great nineteenth century libertarian Lysander Spooner. “It is true that the theory of our Constitution”, thundered Spooner, “is that all taxes are paid voluntarily …’ - - “But this theory of government is wholly different from the practical fact. The fact is that government, like a highwayman, says to a man: ‘your money or your life’. And many, if not most, taxes are paid under the compulsion of that threat. - - The government does not, indeed, waylay a man in a lonely place, spring upon him from the roadside, and, holding a pistol to his head, proceed to rifle his pockets. But the robbery is none the less a robbery on that account; and it is far more dastardly and shameful. - - The highwayman takes upon himself the responsibility, danger and crime of his own act. He does not pretend that he has any rightful claim to your money, or that he intends to use it for your own benefit. …” – LIBERTY, 9.10.78.

TAXATION: The best tax is “no tax!” - J.Z., 20.12.93.

TAXATION: The best tax return of all: Don’t return to paying them any taxes at all. – Go on a permanent tax strike. – But to do so successfully you would better be well organized, armed, informed and trained and this together with most of the other former tax slaves. – And in the process do expropriate the politicians and bureaucrats of all the remaining capital assets they control and mismanage in you name. - J.Z., 19.8.99, 19.7.08. – TAX STRIKE

TAXATION: The best thing we can do for family values is to repeal the income tax. Then families will have the resources they need to implement their own values - and not those of the politicians. With the income tax gone, families will no longer be forced to have two breadwinners by necessity. Children will be raised better, family values will predominate, and crime will diminish. If your local school indoctrinates your child with values that are alien to you, you'll have the money to buy a private education.” - Harry Browne, Libertarian Party. – The one good thing about direct taxes is that they are more felt than indirect taxes. I.e., they tend to reduce the approval rate for taxation. They make the victims much more aware of the tax burden. – J.Z., 4.1.08. - INCOME TAX

TAXATION: The biggest robberies are done quite openly and “democratically”, continuously, in broad daylight, by unmasked official and legalized robbers, with the assistance of the official police forces and judges. – You are even forced to help them collect their imposed tributes from you. - J.Z., 3.8.99, 19.7.08.

TAXATION: The biggest slave rebellion is still to come: The Tax Strike! – J.Z.

TAXATION: The bulk of revenues are currently raised by penalizing work, initiatives, productivity, individual effort. In fact we are choking to death the goose that used to lay the golden eggs of prosperity.” – Notes from the Anti-Monopolist Action Group of Melbourne, GOOD GOVERNMENT, 12/77.

TAXATION: the burden is increased, not lessened, by being turned into taxes." - W. Graham Sumner, Selected Essays, p.57, discussing "free services".

TAXATION: The business which could succeed in spite of tax raids would be one operated like a Blitzkrieg, for only a very short period. It would appear, make its killing and disappear again, doing only cash deals and using no records. It would thus remain largely invisible to the government. But how many and what type of enterprises can operate in this way? Only black market activities of a certain kind fall under this, enterprises not tied down to fixed addresses or bank accounts. – J.Z., 78.

TAXATION: The characteristic of the new exploitation, the statist one, which is typical for the modern form of total government, is taxation, i.e., the tribute of the defeated society payable to the victorious State. From this point of view and in this new situation the fight against taxation in form of a tax strike would be more important than the fight against interest on capital and the rent returns from land-ownership.” - Uwe Timm, Gesammelte Schriften, S.257. – I do not share U. T.’s opposition to interest and rent. Under full economic freedom, including monetary and financial freedom, everybody could get easily access to capital and land and be it only via long term purchase of enterprises by their employees, via credit contracts, repayable out of the additional productivity thus attained, in combination with self-management incentives and rewards. – Occasionally, in correspondence with me, he has made some concessions in this direction. - J.Z., 14.9.07. 22.3.11. - EXPLOITATION, TAX STRIKE & THE STATE, DIS.

TAXATION: The chief business of a conqueror of the world.” – Caesar, in G. B. Shaw’s “Caesar and Cleopatra.” – It’s not a business but an extortion racket! A robbery or an imposed tribute. Let’s call the spade a spade! – J.Z., 5.8.08. - DIS.

TAXATION: The citizen is required to swear to things on his tax return that no two people can interpret the same way." - John Chamberlain, in the introduction to Irwin A. Schiff: The Biggest Con.

TAXATION: The clear-cut direct taxes are those levied on incomes, inheritances, gifts, land values; included also are road tolls, licenses, and, since in effect they are taxes, punitive fines. As for incomes, what started as a modest imposition on those who would hardly feel it, has been widened until it includes taxation on wages at the source. Employers are now required to deduct and turn over to the authorities a percentage of the worker’s wage; the so-called social security taxes are in fact levies of the same kind.” - Frank Chodorov, Fugitive Essays, p.272. – But at least this has led to an extensive black market, to black labor, black contract work, whole black factories in Los Angeles, all unlicenced and not directly taxed but, occasionally, subject to raids and penalties for those caught. Just think of the millions of illegal immigrants in the USA, most of them working hard, and for little pay, but better pay than they received in their native countries, in black market jobs, without legal permits. They all help to increase the general standard of living, but are still frowned upon and feared by all too many. I saw once, in L.A., very early in the morning, a garbage truck, stopping for a moment to discharge – a group of illegal immigrants, who spread rapidly and disappeared. – They had probably maps of the city and went to some relatives or friends. – I also met people in the USA, who were proud of cruising, in their spare time, in border areas, in order to give lifts to the interior to help illegal immigrants they saw to get away fast, from official patrols against such immigrants and from private vigilante groups of opponents of free migration. – There are still many people that are quite decent and acting towards liberty in the U.S.A. – Naturally, I would rather like to see immigrants coming in openly and freely, in comfortable buses. Under full monetary and financial freedom there would be work for all of them, in the USA – and also in their home countries. A monetary revolution would take little if any physical effort but a large mental effort. - J.Z., 5.8.08. – BLACK MARKETS, FREE IMMIGRATION, FULL EMPLOYMENT, MONETARY FREEDOM

TAXATION: the cloying sanctity of the Robin Hood syndrome. The fact is that taxation at even half the present (1978) levels can only deter enterprise, destroy incentive and savings and encourage emigration of the skilled. … The process of transference of resources from private to governmental (meaning party political) hands is a transfer from more economic to less and less economic use. It is thus both impoverishing and collectively inhumane.” – Norris McWhirter, Freedom of Choice, in K. W. Watkins, ed. In Defence of Freedom, p. 62/63. – ROBBING HOODLISM

TAXATION: The Commissioner may disregard a scheme in making declarations for the purposes of making a declaration under this subdivision, the Commissioner may a) Treat a particular event that actually happened as not having happened; and b) Treat a particular event that did not actually happen as having happened and, if appropriate, treat the event as: i) Having happened at a particular time; and ii ) Having involved a particular action by a particular entity; and c) Treat a particular event that actually happened as i ) Having happened at a time differently from the time it actually happened; or ii) Having involved a particular action by a particular entity (whether or not the event actually involved any action by that entity.” – GST legislation, Australia, section 165-55, quoted by: SAVE AUSTRALIA ALLIANCE, August/September 1907, p.2, ed. by Dale Chorley, - The above piece of Australian Taxation Legislation confirms the words of Mark Twain, when he said: “The world is run by very intelligent people who are having us on, or by imbeciles who mean what they say.” - To me it means whim and arbitrariness has been legalized in an attempt to fleece the taxpayers ever more. – J.Z., 11.9.07. TAXATION LAWS, THEIR WRONGFUL ABSOLUTISM

TAXATION: The concerted and organized withholding of tax revenues is the biggest and most frightening stick that the large American middle class can shake in front of government." - Jerome Tuccille, Radical Libertarianism, p.110. - But is it mentally and militarily prepared to do so? - J.Z., 7.8.11.

TAXATION: The Congress, a little gang of 535 men, has the outrageous privilege of determining its own revenues. Would you believe that, even as I write this, the radio in the background informs me that the gangsters are preparing to raise taxes once again!” – Pyrrho, THE CONNECTION 99 of 2.11.81, p.69. – PARLIAMENTS, REPRESENTATIVES, DEMOCRACY

TAXATION: The Constitutional philosophy of denying anyone's right to spend someone else's money had suited his frame of disgruntlement admirably.” - James P. Hogan, The Mirror Maze, p.124. - & GOVERNMENT SPENDING

TAXATION: The cost of government increases annually, no matter what party is in power." – Smoot’s LAW, according to LIBERTARIAN DIGEST, Sydney, Aug. 81.

TAXATION: The cost of government is rising faster than anything else..." - SOUTHERN LIBERTARIAN MESSENGER, Winter 75/6. – At least the inflation “tax” is often raised faster than any of the other taxes, and with it, nominally, prices and wages. – Under progressive taxation it also brings more people into the higher tax brackets. – Should we still speak of “government” or only of “mis-government”? - J.Z., 15.10.08. – Q.

TAXATION: The country is mismanaged. Why should it be mis-managed with my taxes, too? Taxes play a very large role in the mismanagement of every country. If you volunteered your tax contributions and would let them be used and abused only among the voluntary victims of the system you prefer, then this I would not mind. – J.Z., 1.12.85, 24.7.08. – TOLERANCE, PANARCHISM

TAXATION: The crimes of politicians, their bureaucracy, their laws and institutions, will continue as long as these crimes pay. – J.Z., 81, 7.8.11.

TAXATION: The current figures disclose on every page the modern determination to push up rates and taxes and public expenditure to the limit of endurance. - Sir Ernest Benn, Modern Government, p.178. – In the long run, through their costs and unwanted services, all territorial governments make themselves unendurable. – J.Z., 7.4.91. – They may also destroy themselves and all their victims by their “modern weapons”. – J.Z., 6.8.08. – TERRITORIALISM, GOVERNMENTS, NWT.

TAXATION: The current figures disclose on every page the modern determination to push up rates and taxes and public expenditure to the limit of endurance. - Sir Ernest Benn, Modern Government, p.178. – In the long run, through their costs and unwanted services, all territorial governments make themselves unendurable. – J.Z. 7.4.91. – They may also destroy themselves and all their victims by their “modern weapons”. – J.Z., 6.8.08. – TERRITORIALISM, GOVERNMENTS

TAXATION: The current tax code is a daily mugging.” - Ronald Reagan, 39th President of the United States - Labor Day address, Independence MO, 2 Sep 85. – Did he stop it? Was he unable or unwilling to do so? – J.Z., 4.1.08. – A DAILY MUGGING

TAXATION: The damage caused by taxes is as incalculable as that caused by tying up a man's hands and feet. How much he might have created without these fetters we will never fully know. We can only point out a history of thousands of years of poverty based on slavery. Taxes have prolonged that poverty – by at least partly continuing slavery or serfdom. Under any taxes a man does not fully own himself. He is partly owned by the State - to the extent that he is taxed. – J.Z., 11.9.81, 17.4.09, 22.3.11.

TAXATION: The degree of the taking does not matter. The right is violated whenever an owner is compelled to part with any portion of his property against his wishes." - George C. Leef, THE FREEMAN, 9/78, p.565.

TAXATION: The democracy will cease to exist when you take away from those who are willing to work and give to those who would not.” – Thomas Jefferson. - - Territorial democracies as well as dictatorships are largely based on lies, misconceptions and self-delusions, among the rulers as well as among the ruled. - J.Z., 23. 11. 06. - HANDOUTS, FAVORITISM, PARASITES, TAX CONSUMERS VS. TAXPAYERS

TAXATION: The fact is, that to deny the smaller societies a real life and meaning, a personality, in fact, is not anti-clerical, or illiberal, or unwise, or oppressive – is untrue. And ‘all the king’s horses and all the king’s men’ cannot make that true which is untrue. The House of Lords cannot do it. Even the Roman Empire, with the mediaeval Papacy thrown in, the fons et origo maili cannot do it; because it is impossible. And we shall win.” – J. N. Figgis, The Church and the Secular Theory of the State, in David Nicholls, The Pluralist State, p.142. – The same could and should be applied to secular societies and communities as well, whether they are small or large, even world-wide. None should be territorially subjugated by anyone – unless it is a society of totalitarians, terrorists and other aggressors, all of them common enemies of mankind and of all other free societies and self-responsible and peaceful communities. – J.Z., 6.8.08. – PANARCHISM, TRIBUTE LEVIES, TERRITORIALISM, WELFARE STATE

TAXATION: The fact is, the IRS is 90% bluff. They have successfully violated our rights only because we allowed them to do so. Our fear is based on our own ignorance of our rights under the Constitution and under federal law. The fact is, a very large number of people are successfully defying the IRS. The aren’t being charged; they aren’t being tried; and they aren’t being convicted. Equally important, they aren’t paying any taxes. (*) The IRS admits that there are now over 5 million tax resistors in the US. Many are using dubious or illegal tax avoidance methods. A growing number, however, are basing their non-compliance on the Constitution and on federal law. There is not overwhelming evidence that these methods are not only successful but completely legal. In fact, they are based on a strict observation of the law.” – René Baxter, FREEDOM TODAY, 9/75. Even the best case should not be overstated. R. B. still relies too much on the Constitution and laws. - As if the government could not very rapidly and legally close any remaining loophole that someone has discovered. Baxter should also have mentioned the number of tax resisters who had been unsuccessful and had been severely punished for their attempts. – Some were old and sick and have been very cruelly treated. - (*) No even indirect ones? - J.Z., 4.8.08.

TAXATION: The fact of taxation was known long before it was so named. (*) … The Danes who made periodic collecting visits to their neighbors called it Danegeld. However, a name and a theory are unimportant to the unsophisticated brigand who takes what he likes; both become important only after the browbeaten victim learns how to buy peace at a price, and the brigand finds it nice to put himself on par with the merchant. The path of skullduggery is made easier with a coating of morality, which is aptly applied to an established custom, by the lawyer and the professor of economics. And so, the business of taking what does not belong to you has been well obfuscated by a “philosophy” of taxation.” – Frank Chodorov, Fugitive Essays, p. 268. - (*) Whole human lives were “taxed” into full slavery, via special “slave raids.”, later, indirectly and partly, e.g. through cattle or camel raids. – At first self-ownership was only recognized e.g. for Greeks or for Englishmen, not for subjected nations. – Let all taxpayers secede! - J.Z., 5.8.08, 22.3.11. - TRIBUTES, DANEGELD, ROBBERIES, THEFT, RAIDS

TAXATION: The fact that someone is getting something for nothing implies that someone else is getting nothing for something. And the 'someone elses’ usually don't like it." - Charles Curley, The Coming Profit in Gold, p.22. – This is, largely, only a paper profit, indicating how much the governments forced and exclusive currency has been depreciated. – J.Z., 16.10.08, 22.3.11.

TAXATION: The fact that taxation is achieved via some measure of democracy makes it no finer a thing than lynching with majority support. That our representatives vote for taxation does not escape the fact that it is legalized theft or, as the philosopher Robert Nozick has called it, ‘forced labor’”. – Tibor Machan, Liberty and Culture, p.112. – DEMOCRACY, REPRESENTATION, MAJORITIES, CONSENT

TAXATION: the fantastic privilege of politicians to determine their own revenues. Once you grant that privilege to anybody, it’s all over but the crying and the dying.” – Pyrrho, LIBERTARIAN CONNECTION 107, p. 56.

TAXATION: The father works so that the grandfather, from his pension, can pay for the studies of his grandson.” – Heinz Peter Neumann, 24.11.86. (“Der Vater arbeitet, damit der Grossvater aus seiner Rente dem Enkel das Studium bezahlen kann.“) – H.-P. N. was one of the few Gesellians I knew or read of, who did favour monetary freedom, for Gesellians and for other monetary reformers. - J.Z., 30.7.11, 7.8.11. - WELFARE STATE, PENSIONERS

TAXATION: The fiery-tongued 19th century anarchist, Lysander Spooner, said he actually preferred meeting a highwayman to a tax agent … for – though they both seize your wealth through threat of force – at least the highwayman doesn’t insult you by claiming he’s doing you a service.” – FREE MARKET REPORTER, 1/277.

TAXATION: The first American Revolution was fought over taxes. (*) With our bicentennial year approaching, it’s time for another great American Revolution, and the issue is again taxes. – - The tax revolt movement is the most important new trend in American life. It’s exactly the same spirit and cause which motivated the Founding Fathers to resist the tyranny of King George III. and his English aristocrats. Taxation was the issue then; taxation is the issue now.” - René Baxter, FREEDOM TODAY, 9/75. - (*) Alas, not against the inflation tax, made possible by legal tender laws and the money issue monopoly (monetary despotism). – It was and is by far not the only issue. – The issue of e.g. the decision-making monopoly on war and peace, that of monetary freedom, that of all genuine individual rights and liberties and of ideal militias for their protection and that of exterritorial autonomy for communities of volunteers are as important and were not raised then and are not yet sufficiently raised now. - J.Z., 4.8.08. - DIS.

TAXATION: The first effect ... of a high rate of peacetime taxation is to reduce a country's influence in world affairs." - C. Northcote Parkinson, quoted by Milton Friedman in NEWSWEEK, 9.2.76. - Perhaps this is the only beneficial effect of taxation? – J.Z.

TAXATION: The first step towards abolishing taxes could be to go on collecting them and then withholding these collected funds from the present distribution channels. Instead, they could be distributed by alternative local agencies which would be much more representative than the present ones and would hold the purse strings for state and federal governments - or what remains of them or would still be tolerated of them. Then, whoever paid the piper would really get a chance to call the tune and more and more disservices and overpriced monopoly services would be rapidly cut out and the difficulties of transition to a free society would be greatly reduced. – J.Z. – However, any such territorial reform will encounter much resistance. All reforms are best introduced for volunteers only – who have obtained full exterritorial autonomy or experimental freedom for this purpose. – J.Z., 18.10.08. – PANARCHISM VS. TERRITORIALISM & COLLECTIVISM, FEDERALISM, EVEN LOCAL GOVERNMENTS

TAXATION: The fraud involved in taxation is indicated by the fact that most people are not, most of the time, fully aware that, how, to what extent, why, by whom and for whose benefit they are robbed in the process. – J.Z., 17.9.81

TAXATION: The free market is a more just, rational, useful and efficient transfer agency than a parliament and its tax department could ever be. – J.Z., 21.12.93, 19.7.08.

TAXATION: The free market takes best care of the needy - by inducing them to work whenever, wherever and at whatever they can be productive, thus improving not only the own situation but that of everyone else - instead of pulling all others and themselves down by receiving handouts based on tax funds. – J.Z., 19.9.81.

TAXATION: The fundamental class division in any society is not between rich and poor, or between farmers and city dwellers, but between tax payers and tax consumers." - David Boaz, CATO Institute. - The total tax take in poor districts still tends to exceed the total government hand-outs in them. And the even the poorest tend to suffer more from the legal and juridical restrictions of their liberties and rights than they gain in hand-outs, whether they are aware of this or not. - J.Z., 23.8.02. - TAX SLAVERY, RICH & POOR ARE BOTH VICTIMS, THE PRIMARY FORM OF EXPLOITATION

TAXATION: the gang that lives on taxes is by trade the vanguard of socialism.” - Frank Chodorov, Fugitive Essays, p. 403. – STATE SOCIALISM

TAXATION: The gathering storm of rebellion against the awful burden of taxes should at last convince the local and federal governments that they have plucked too many feathers from us geese.” - "Isn't It The Truth!"- ARIZONA DAILY STAR, no date given, quoted in: William L. Raby and Carl Riblet, Jr., The Reluctant Taxpayer, a Tower Book, 1970, p.207. - Even if they plucked only a single of our "feathers" against our will, this would already be an unjustified assault and crime with a victim. - J.Z., 22.3.11. - TAX STRIKE

TAXATION: the government ... is now taking too much; it is demanding more than the services are worth. That is unjust." - George C. Leef, THE FREEMAN, 9/78. – Who really cares about such injustices? The governments certainly do not and most of their victims don’t, either. The rest are not yet free to secede from these victimizers and their all too apathetic or even voluntary victims. – And the few protestors have not even bothered, as yet, to declare all their individual rights and liberty in an ideal declaration for them. - J.Z., 17.10.08, 7.8.11. - The least theft is still a theft. None of the "services" of territorial governments are properly priced and sold to willing buyers. - J.Z., 22.3.11.

TAXATION: The Government and big business hold hands - in your pockets." - David Lewis, THE SYDNEY MORNING HERALD, 14.10.72.

TAXATION: The government becomes a mechanism for channeling money from the vast bulk of the people into the hands of the few." – Bob Howard, 17.2.78.

TAXATION: The government can't carry out your plans for you, but you can." – Harry Browne, How I Found Freedom in an Unfree World? - Only once you are free of any territorial government. - J.Z., 22.3.11.

TAXATION: The government hands out the privileges and the taxpayer pays for them.” – From Progress Party leaflet, NSW, Australia. – PRIVILEGES, GOVERNMENT

TAXATION: The government has no right to tax away any, all or most of your output." – J.Z., 75/81, 7.8.11.

TAXATION: The government has not been authorized by YOU to get the major cut of your earnings, via direct and indirect taxes, including the inflation tax. – J.Z., 17.5.89, 7.8.11.

TAXATION: The government has no right to my money. – J.Z., 17.2.95. – That would be more obvious if “my” money were not, via the note issue monopoly and legal tender laws for it, really the government’s money, as its only issuer. Morally, the only ones obliged to accept any notes in payments at par with their nominal value are the issuers of the notes, and, by contract with them, their debtors. A comprehensive tax strike would also requite a monetary freedom revolution. - J.Z., 17.4.09, 22.3.11. – MONETARY FREEDOM VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM.

TAXATION: The government in every 'democratic' country is run like any share company would be in which those who do not hold any shares in that company could, nevertheless, vote themselves dividends from its earnings and could easily outvote those who have invested in that company. Why the victims want to persist with this exploitative absurdity is hard to understand. – J.Z., 22.9.81.

TAXATION: The government is massively and pervasively extracting its pound of flesh from every hide in the country." - Bob Hengerer, quoted in JAG, 2/78. - There isn't much flesh on the hides, but only within them, while they are not yet taken off. - Too many analogies limp. - Including this one. - J.Z., 22.3.11.

TAXATION: The government is not a form of voluntary giving; it is a form of compulsory giving. You lose your home or your land if you don't pay your taxes. There's nothing benevolent about old Uncle Sam when it comes to you paying the tax bill." - Earl L. Butz, THE FREEMAN, 7/74.

TAXATION: The government is not the greatest withholder. You are.” – Jerry Hill, 9.1.91. – Only potentially! Especially when you consider withholding your membership in the State as well, or withdrawing from it and reorganizing otherwise, together with like-minded people, under personal laws. – J.Z., 6.8.08. – What can you do with people, who do not even show a serious interest in all their genuine individual rights and liberties? - J.Z., 7.8.11. - PANARCHISM, INDIVIDUAL SOVEREIGNTY, INDIVIDUAL SECESSIONISM, HUMAN RIGHTS, INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS

TAXATION: The government robs me without my consent – in all my income and all my spending. – J.Z., 19.12.93.

TAXATION: The government says to the citizen; 'Your earnings are not exclusively your own; we have a claim on them, and our claim precedes yours; we will allow you to keep some of it, because we recognize your need, not your right; but whatever we grant you for yourself is for us to decide." – Frank Chodorov, The Income Tax ..., p.11.

TAXATION: The great curse of modern society is this power to raid the market..." GOOD GOVERNMENT, 4/76.

TAXATION: The great enemy of human freedom is the Government. By taking money out of our pockets and spending it, it destroys our freedom." - Milton Friedman, during an interview at the University of Chicago. NATIONAL TIMES, 3.1.77.

TAXATION: the great systems of taxation, which make of the individual mere tax-material, as conscription makes of him mere war-material; ..." – Sprading, Liberty and the Great Libertarians, p.413, on Auberon Herbert.

TAXATION: The greater one's ability and/or willingness to work, the greater one is penalized by progressive taxation." – Workers Party, platform draft, 1975.

TAXATION: The greatest robbery and fraud. It is also continuous. – J.Z., 19.5.91.

TAXATION: The growth of the nation-state can be measured by the increase in taxes. Since the Middle Ages, governments have taken more and more money from the people through ever increasingly refined systems of taxation. Monarchies took more money than did church and nobles; and representative government takes even more.” - Charles Chively, in the introduction to No Treason, VI by Lysander Spooner, Works I, p.4.

TAXATION: The harder you work, the more tax you pay. So, why work harder? – J.Z., 74. - Q.

TAXATION: The hardest thing in the world to understand is income tax.” – Albert Einstein, quoted Barbara Rowe, A Book of Quotes. – We should not show it understanding but, rather, abhorrence and do away with it. – J.Z., 31.8.85. - Our real task is not to understand it by to condemn and to abolish it. - J.Z., 30.7.11. - How many lawyers, rather than economists, have worked on it to make it so complicated and anti-economic? Moreover, how many lawyers and accountants make a good living from its complications? (How many territorial politicians and bureaucrats are wrongfully fed by it? In Red China over 46 million. And this huge figure indicates a much lesser proportion of these exploiters within its large population than is quite common in the supposedly much more limited and democratic territorial States of the Western "civilizations"! - J.Z., 7.8.11.) One should also keep in mind that no one was allowed to opt out from under it. Thus this monstrosity could grow and grow, committing more and more wrongs and causing more and more harm. - J.Z., 24. 11. 06, 7.8.11. - INCOME TAX, SECESSIONISM, DIS.

TAXATION: The hatred the Tax Department has, against “tax evasion” is certainly not shared by me, although it is shared by many taxpayers who are envious of the successful tax evaders. What they hate I love and only wish that I could practise it extensively and successfully. – J.Z., 7.4.85, 4.8.08. - TAX EVASION, HATE, ENVY

TAXATION: The higher the rate of taxation upon the most productive, the less their incentive to keep on producing at an extraordinary pace." - Paul L. Poirot, Why Capital Wants Out, quoted in THE FREEMAN, 6/74.

TAXATION: The higher the tax is, the more the producers are crippled at the expense of (*) non-producers. Hence, the higher the level of taxation, the lower will be both the level of production and the standard of living.” (**) - Christopher P. Weber, REASON, Nov. 78. - Henry Meulen, in one of his short articles in his THE INDIVIDUALIST, once pointed out that all the increases in productivity, that science and technology had made possible in England, since about 1900, had been taxed away. He should have added that in addition the bureaucracy so funded had obstructed further productivity increases by compulsory licensing, price and rent controls, and xyz interventionist laws and regulations, including prohibitions. – J.Z., 6.8.08. – (*) rather for the benefit of the … (**) - The living standard of the obstructors, monopolists, exploiters and coercers rises - at the expense of their victims! - J.Z., 30.7.11.

TAXATION: The history of every country in the world is a record of progressive increase in taxation, culminating, as it must, in a complete breakdown of the national economy.” – Frank Chodorov, Fugitive Essays, p.273.

TAXATION: The horse loves oats, the earth manure and the governor tribute.” – Russian proverb, quoted by Paul Avrich, Russian Rebels, 1600-1800, p.51.

TAXATION: The hue and cry over the cost of living would make more sense if it were directed at taxation, the largest single item of the cost." - Frank Chodorov, Out of Step, p.220. - Or, with enough understanding, against inflation, deflation and stagflation, all caused by the government's central banking system. - J.Z., 22.3.11.

TAXATION: The illusion of prosperity being achievable through some kind of taxation, tribute-payments or penalties does still persist, even among Georgists, who condemn already all other taxes than the single tax that they do propose. – J.Z., 28.2.95, 18.7.08, 16.4.09. - SINGLE TAX, GEORGISTS

TAXATION: The imagination boggles at the thought of the wealth and the comfort which might now be available for all if the money squandered by irresponsible and incompetent agents of the State had been left, like the smaller sums of half a century ago, to fructify in the pockets of the people.” – Sir Ernest Benn, Honest Doubt, p.61. – Actually, in the pockets of the people they would not have fructified but only if they had been productively invested. – J.Z., 19.7.08.

TAXATION: The immediate priority of the Progress Party is to reduce the size and cost of government and to reduce the burden of taxation and inflation. - - We believe that taxation should be minimal, direct and no-discriminatory. It should be used for raising revenue, not social engineering. It should be simple. – - Many of our taxes are discriminatory and unjust. For example payroll tax discriminates against those who provide jobs, sales tax falls heaviest on poor people, progressive income tax penalizes people who work hard, tariff protect manufacturers and penalize consumers, company profits are taxed twice before as shareholder receives benefits, land tax discriminates against farmers, property rates discriminate against home owners. - - Many taxes we will eliminate in our first term of office, e.g. payroll tax, land tax, gift and death duty. Other taxes such as customs duties and export levies will be phased out over a fixed period. The major tax, income tax, will be simplified, levied at one flat rate and reduced to an absolute minimum.” – Viv Forbes, What Is the Progress Party? - Alas, even he did not come out in favor of voluntary taxation - all only within communities of volunteers, after having done away with all territorial powers, monopolies, privileges and coercion. - A compromise with an evil is also an evil. - J.Z., 22.3.11.

TAXATION: The immense and ever increasing sums which the state wrings from the people are never enough for it; it mortgages the income of future generations, and steers resolutely toward bankruptcy.” – P. A. Kropotkin, Paroles d’un révolté, 1884. - Austrian joke after WW I: “The government never goes bankrupt. Only its creditors do! – The German professor Manes wrote an excellent book on State bankruptcies: Prof. Alfred Manes, Staatsbankrotte, wirtschaftliche und rechtliche Betrachtungen, 1918, 3. Auflage 1922, 290 S. – I reproduced it in PEACE PLANS 635, on microfiche. – J.Z., 20.7.08. – JOKES, BANKRUPTCIES OF STATES, PUBLIC DEBT

TAXATION: The imposition of taxes does represent an initiation of force." - Ayn Rand

TAXATION: The income tax created more criminals than any other single act of government.” - Barry M. Goldwater. – But where are the victims of these “crimes”? – J.Z., 4.1.08. - INCOME TAX & CRIME, DIS.

TAXATION: The income tax department operates basically on espionage." - Moshe Kroy, 17.4.77. - Extortion or blackmail, rather. – J.Z.

TAXATION: The income tax has destroyed the concept of financial privacy. It has demolished the idea that a man's home is his castle. It has provided unlimited funding for politicians to wreck lives and property. It has forced one-earner families to become two-earner households - leading to decreased parental supervision of children; loss of family values; and increased crime, promiscuity and drug use. So long as the government has the power to invade our lives, rummage through our records, and take what it wants from our income, we will have only as much freedom and take-home pay as the politicians condescend to let us have.” - Harry Browne, Libertarian Party. - INCOME TAX & PRIVACY & FAMILY VALUES

TAXATION: The income tax has made more liars out of the American people than golf has. Even when you make a tax form out on the level, you don’t know when it’s through if you are a crook or a martyr.” – Will Rogers. – Another version: The Income tax has turned more people into liars than the devil did.” – Rogers. (J.Z. retr. of: “Die Einkommenssteuer hat mehr Menschen zu Luegnern gemacht als der Teufel.“) – JOKES, INCOME TAX, LIARS, DEVIL, SATAN

TAXATION: The Income Tax Return Form 'is the government's licence to kill.’ " - THE NEW BANNER, Feb. 2, 1972.

TAXATION: The income tax, by attacking the dignity of the individual at the very base, has led to the practice of perjury, fraud, deception, and bribery. Avoidance or evasion of the levies has become the great American game, and talents of the highest order are employed in the effort to save something from the clutches of the State. People, who in their private lives are above reproach, will resort to the meanest devices to effect some saving and will even brag of their ingenuity.” - Frank Chodorov, The Income Tax, p.76.

TAXATION: The intellectual “explains” the intricacies of the Gross National Product; the layman wants to know why he has to pay taxes to support services he neither wants nor uses.” - R. J. Ringer, Restoring the American Dream, p. 23. – Q.

TAXATION: The intelligent man, when he pays taxes, certainly does not believe that he is making a prudent and productive investment of his money; on the contrary, he feels that he is being mulcted in an excessive amount for services that, in the main, are useless to him, and that, in substantial part, are downright inimical to him.” - H. L. Mencken, More of the Same.

TAXATION: The IRS constantly uses the threat of punishment under statutes and rules that have been declared illegal, null and void in prior judgments, hoping that their victim will not be sufficiently knowledgeable of the law to defend himself.” – Ascribed to Marvin Cooley.

TAXATION: The IRS has 480 different tax forms, plus 280 more to explain how to fill out the first 480. The original Tax Code had 11,400 words; today it has 7 million.” - Rep. Sam Johnson, R-Texas

TAXATION: The IRS has lifted more money from the purses, wallets, socks, mattresses, and bank accounts of the U.S. public than all conquered nations or empires have paid in tribute throughout history." - FREEDOM TODAY, 2/76. - This is probably the source of the quote: The Taxation Department has lifted more money from the purses, wallets, socks, mattresses and bank accounts of the Australian public than the combined efforts of all other thieves in the whole history of Australia." – Australian reference not noted. – J.Z.

TAXATION: The January, 1976 Survey of Current Business of the US Department of Commerce ... shows that in the fourth quarter of 1975, federal, state and local governments were spending at the annual rate of $ 547 billion. That $ 547 billion is 49% of the total earnings of $ 1,113.1 billion." - AAPS NEWS LETTER, THE VOICE FOR PRIVATE DOCTORS, April 76 - Public service "earnings" should not have been included in the total earnings. This would have revealed the situation as being still worse. – J.Z.

TAXATION: The King is like a robber permanently on the prowl, always probing, always searching for the weak spot where there is something for him to steal.” – Gerald of Wales, 12th century. This before the income tax! - SOUTHERN LIBERTARIAN MESSENGER, 5/79.

TAXATION: The larger the slice taken by government, the smaller the cake available for everyone.” - Margaret Thatcher, Statecraft, 2002, HarperCollins – p.425. - Well, politicians, bureaucrats and their favorites still get the largest slices from the total cake, which is greatly reduced by their take and interventions. – J.Z., 8.10.07. - & LIVING STANDARD

TAXATION: the late Sir Sidney Holland, in a New Year Message to the people, he said, “There is little incentive to greater effort when taxation is so high as to take a large portion of the earnings of the people, and when almost every activity requires a permit from an all-powerful State. We must recover our freedom; place no ceiling on ambition, no limits on achievement, and no penalties on success.” – Alas, poor Sid! Within a year he was Prime Minister. His efforts probably resulted in a few more shackles being laid upon us. Nevertheless, he had the right idea. …” - H. T. A. McGahan, Matamata, N.Z., in GOOD GOVERNMENT, Aug. 76. - As if we ever had full freedom under any form of territorialism. - J.Z., 22.3.11.

TAXATION: the lie that taxes solve all problems.” – Frank Herbert, Chapterhouse Dune, p. 356.

TAXATION: the life of the people was devoured, and the ruin of the country was at hand." - Winwood Reade, The Martyrdom of Man, p. 84.

TAXATION: the looters have a stranglehold over you, which consists of your moral code." - Ayn Rand, Atlas Shrugged, p. 980. - TERRITORIALISM, OBEDIENCE, STATISM

TAXATION: The Lord Giveth and Uncle Sam Taketh Away." – bumper-sticker mentioned by Robert LeFevre. - If the "Lord" gave, we would not have to work for our living. - Praying or worshipping or merely believing in him, her or it would be enough. - J.Z., 22.3.11, 30.7.11. - DIS., RELIGION, CHRISTIANITY, PRAYER, FAITH, WORK, GOD

TAXATION: The man who produces while others dispose of his product is a slave.” – Ayn Rand, Atlas Shrugged. - Alas, she did not clearly distinguish the producer from the trader. Under economic freedom they specialize and cooperate and also engage in competition, which is also, under division of labor and free exchange, a form of cooperation, while cooperation is also a form of competition. The farmer is not the slave of his distribution chain and if he feels unfairly done with by it then he can establish a farmer's coop for this purpose. - She also failed to seriously consider the competitive production, sale and acceptance or refusal of "government", services, i.e., freedom of contract, enterprise, exchange, association and disassociation in that sphere. The limited government model did somewhat blind her. If it had not … - J.Z., 26. 11. 06, 22.3.11. - That hardly applies to close personal relationships, like those of the nuclear family. – Nor does it apply to all employers or to farmers, who do leave the sale of their products to various wholesalers or their farmer’s cooperative society. – J.Z., 26.9.07, 22.3.11. - TAX SLAVERY, WELFARE STATE, SERFDOM, DIS., AYN RAND

TAXATION: The marvel of all history is the patience with which men and women submit to burdens unnecessarily laid upon them by their governments.” – William H. Borah, 1865-1940, speech, U.S. Senate. – Even if governments considered them to be necessary, that still would not make them just impositions or tributes. – J.Z., 22.7.08.

TAXATION: The maximum fine for not filing a tax return is $ 200 – obviously money well spent. You can resist any attempts to make you do it for some years.” - Peter Clyne interview, AUSTRALIAN PLAYBOY, June 1979. – I suppose that this penalty has been greatly increased since. Moreover, high interest charges and possibly also high penalties are raised upon belated tax-payments and these should also be taken into consideration. The David’s under present conditions, not permitted to opt out from under the whole system, do not always win against the State-Goliath. Even the existing tax havens under siege, Here only an almost general tax strike would help, but it must also see to it that the present recipients of tax funds, e.g. bureaucrats, policemen and customs officers, do get other and productive jobs and that some arrangements are made to help the quite helpless, rather than simply cutting off their official hand-outs. That means that at least for the transformation period to voluntary taxation, insurance and credit arrangements and voluntary charity actions, the tax-strikers would have to somehow tax themselves and budget the receipts in a way to minimize resistance against the tax strike. I believe that to be successful they would also have to prepare for and engage in a peaceful monetary and financial revolution. – J.Z., 2.8.08, 22.3.11. – TAX STRIKE

TAXATION: The maximum reduction rate of $ 300 for Rates and Land Taxes means that, at least for the rest, the income tax amounts to a tax on taxes. The same applies, naturally, to licensing and registration fees, sales taxes and xyz other taxes. - - Even that tax-free amount for rates has been abolished in the meantime. – Double or even multiple taxation of the same amounts exists now in many forms. At almost all stages, open to the tax-man, our earnings and our spending are put through their “wringer”. - J.Z., 19.8.82, 2.8.08. - TAXATION, DOUBLE & MULTIPLE

TAXATION: The median family of four ... paid $4,722 in federal taxes last year. That's enough to pay for a new curtain for the secretary of commerce's office, to bribe a farmer not to plant 38 acres with corn ... seven weeks of salary for a Customs man assigned to save us from the terror of high-quality, low priced foreign TV sets, or the subsidy on 6,000 bushels of wheat to prop up the Soviet regime. Surely civilization would collapse without such essential services." - Alan Bock, "Orange County Register" - & GOVERNMENT SPENDING, GOVERNMENT BUDGET ITEMS, JOKES

TAXATION: The medieval serf was taxed 15% of his wealth. You, a 'free' American, are taxed more than 45% of your entire wealth...." - Stanford Young Libertarians. - While this all too often applies to income, it does not always apply to capital. – J.Z..

TAXATION: The meeting of 350 homeowners “shouted their approval” as Jim Tobin charged that “Taxes are immoral.” – LIBERTARIAN FORUM, Aug. 77. – [James Tobin]

TAXATION: The middle ground of politicians is their position between your earnings and your spending. – J.Z., 6.2.97. - COMPROMISES, POLITICIANS, MIDDLE[-GROUND, STATISM, GOVERNMENTS, WELFARE STATE

TAXATION: The monarch 'erected a multitude of new offices and sent hither swarms of Officers to harass our people, and eat out their substance’ at the time of the Declaration of Independence. The Federal and state governments do the same today." - Karl Hess, The Lawless State, p.17/18.

TAXATION: The money government took from us in taxes could have been spent by us on things we want. If the school tax were abolished, for example, people would retain that much money for themselves, which they could use to pay for private education or other things they want.” - Sam Wells Jr., OPTION, 4/.77.

TAXATION: The moral case is not just that heavy taxation saps incentives but that heavy taxation is immoral because it does not allow a man to make his own decisions on how he will provide for his own life, care for his family and fulfill his responsibilities to his fellows. Every time the State takes his money in taxation and rates and educates his children, it is affronting his dignity and weakening the coherence of the family." - Dr. Rhodes Boyson, editor, "Right Turn", p.7.

TAXATION: The more centralized taxation becomes, the lesser becomes the restraint on more government spending. Nobody seems to have to pay his own bills and everybody scrambles for a feed from the federal or State trough. Whosoever refrained from this would still have to pay the same taxes - and would get far less back. So a competition in local programs does set in which are to be subsidized out of state and federal government tax funds. – J.Z., 12.9.81.

TAXATION: The more tax money is available, the more foolishly it is spent." - Dr. R. S. Jaggard.

TAXATION: The more they tax us, the less they serve us. – J.Z., 28.3.89. – Supposed public servants taxing their supposed masters, the people! The usual absurdity of territorial democracies. – J.Z., 5.8.08.

TAXATION: The more this question of taxation is considered, the more clearly I believe will the mischief of the present system come to light. So long as the political faction in power can decree the levying of what taxes it likes, it is unreasonable to hope that either the organized or the unorganized oppression of men by each other can ever be brought to an end. The conception of our true relations to each other is poisoned at an ever-flowing spring." - Auberon Herbert, in Mack edition p.163.

TAXATION: The more you achieve in this society, the more you are penalized by taxation. – J.Z., 20.11.78.

TAXATION: The more you pay, the more they need. // The more you earn, the less you keep.” – Ogden Nash, quoted in PROGRESS, May 1979.

TAXATION: The more you work, the less you get - at least per hour.” - John Pepper, Berrima, 1974. – Rather: the smaller is the percentage of your earnings which you actually get." – J.Z. – PROGRESSIVE TAXATION

TAXATION: The most immoral thing an American can do is to pay taxes.” – THE REASONABLE ANSWER, quoted in NEW LIBERTARIAN WEEKLY 81, of July 10, 77.

TAXATION: The mounting burden of taxation not only undermines individual incentives to increased work and earnings, but in a score of ways discourages capital accumulation and distorts, unbalances, and shrinks production. Total real wealth and income is made smaller than it would otherwise be. On net balance there is more poverty rather than less.” - Henry Hazlitt, ISIL LIBERTY QUOTE LIBRARY 03. - VS. INCENTIVES, PROSPERITY, CAPITAL ACCUMULATION, STANDARD OF LIVING, WEALTH. IT PROMOTES RATHER THAN FIGHTS POVERTY

TAXATION: the mystical trappings of 'sovereignty' have so veiled the process that only libertarians are prepared to call taxation what it is: legalized and organized theft on a grand scale." - Murray N. Rothbard, For a New Liberty, p.12.

TAXATION: the national con-game of using the taxpayers as their own private herd of domestic animals ..." Mark Clifton, "When they come from Space", p.31.

TAXATION: The net effect is that we have a punitive tax scale for our most talented creative people.” - Mr. C. Honnor, of Sydney's Macquarie University, THE AUSTRALIAN, 18.11.74.

TAXATION: the net effect of our taxes is to deter work, enterprise and saving." - Arthur Shenfield, in Right Turn, ed. by Dr. Rhodes Boyson, p. 36/37.

TAXATION: The net payers of tax funds are the ruled and exploited while the net recipients are the ruling class of the exploiters. J.Z., n.d., free after J. C. Calhoun, - EXPLOITATION, EXPLOITERS, RULERS & RULED, RULING CLASS, VICTIMS & VICTIMIZERS

TAXATION: The non-user should never be forced to pay for the user. – J.Z., 80.

TAXATION: the objections necessarily attaching to compulsory contributions is almost always aggravated by the expensive precautions and onerous restrictions which are indispensable to prevent an evasion of a compulsory tax.” - J. S. Mill.

TAXATION: The officers of Congress, may come upon you now, fortified with all the terrors of paramount federal authority. Excise men [taxmen] may come in multitudes; for the limitation of their numbers no man knows. They may, unless the general government be restrained ... go into your cellars and rooms, and search, ransack, and measure, everything you eat, drink, and wear.” - Patrick Henry, ISIL LIBERTY QUOTE LIBRARY 03.

TAXATION: the official figures (referred to in Mrs. Planyi's essay) show that in 1968 a typical family with two children and no more than an average income paid twice as much in taxes as the total value of social benefits they received in cash and kind. So far from enjoying 'free' health, education and cash benefits, most people are more than paying their way." – Ralph Harris, in "Down with the Poor", p. 10.

TAXATION: The oldest surviving tyrannical institution is that of taxation. Let's finally pull it down. – J.Z.

TAXATION: The only “fair taxes are NO TAXES. – J.Z., 14.8.98.

TAXATION: The only incentives of the present taxation system are tax avoidance, tax evasion and land speculation.” – A. Schmidt, Melbourne, quoted in GOOD GOVERNMENT, Feb. 78. - INCENTIVES

TAXATION: The only moral tax refund is the maximum one, which would return all those of one's taxes not yet spent and one’s shares in the public assets, funded with extorted tax revenues. – J.Z., 9.9.81, 18.10.08. – See: my digitized PEACE PLANS 19 c, for the realization of such a plan for Australia.

TAXATION: The only ones not bothered by direct taxes are private criminals. They do not have to produce their income - nor is it directly taxed. If they need more, then, just like the official criminals, they take more. How the citizens put up patiently with either type of criminals, especially the official ones, is beyond my understanding. – J.Z., 7.11.78.

TAXATION: The only people politicians should be free to tax are the other statist politicians and party members of their own parties and all those, who voted for them, as long as they do concede to them the right to secede from them. – J.Z., 1.9.92, 20.7.08.

TAXATION: The only rightful and economical kind and degree of taxation is none at all. The contributions of the members of communities of volunteers are quite another matter even if, formally, they are made in some or the other kind of taxation system. Through the voluntary membership they merely amount to voluntary subscriptions. – J.Z., 19.5.93, 20.7.08. - PANARCHISM

TAXATION: The only rightful taxes would be voluntary ones among members of voluntary societies and communities, in the political, economic and social spheres just as well as in the religious sphere. But what we have instead are numerous wrongful and imposed taxes or tributes, e.g. tariff duties, land taxes, flat taxes, progressive taxes, sales taxes, income taxes and the inflation tax etc. All tax reformers expect miracle from their kind of favorite robbery. – The wrongful and harmful effects of all taxes are usually ignored, just like robbers and thieves ignore the consequences of their actions for their victims. - J.Z., 2.5.95, 18.7.08, 7.8.11. - PANARCHISM

TAXATION: the only security men can have for their political liberty, consists in their keeping their money in their own pockets, until they have assurances, perfectly satisfactory to themselves, that it will be used as they wish it to be used, for their benefit, and not for their injury." - Lysander Spooner (1808-1887). – Not only political but also economic and social liberties are involved. – J.Z., 4.1.08. - VOLUNTARY TAXATION & POLITICAL LIBERTY

TAXATION: The only tax reform needed is tax repeal. Taxation is theft.” – Edward Rosnick – However, there are at least some sensible steps towards tax reform and, ultimately, even it abolition with majority approval: E.g.: 1.) Collecting taxes only in sound tax foundation money, competitively issued with xyz private sound money issues. - 2.) Replacing progressive taxation with flat rate taxation. – Already practiced in some countries. – 3.) Making any tax increase dependent upon a referendum. (Partly practised by some local governments.) – 4.) Having with each election a referendum on which taxes of budget items should be cut altogether. – 5. ) Allowing all individual taxpayers to allocate themselves their tax funds to the budget items they do want to support. – 6.) The inflation tax could be stopped by repealing the issue monopoly of the central bank and the legal tender power for its kind of “money”, at best only a soundly issued tax foundation money. - Would anyone wish to outlaw these and xyz other steps going in the same direction? Naturally, by rights, all taxpayers should be free to secede from this “duty” or “obligation”. – J.Z., 13.4.09. - TAX REFORM?

TAXATION: The only way to stop taxation in practice is from the tax paying end. What the bureaucrats and politicians do not have and cannot get, they cannot spend. One loophole for governments appears to be inflation. But this can be blocked by a wide-spread refusal to accept government paper money and by the issue of alternative exchange media. The tax strike would automatically prevent the sale of many more government bonds. – J.Z., n.d. & 22.3.11.

TAXATION: the people pay for protection, and their payments are used to oppress them.” – Rousseau, Constitutional Project, in F. Watkins, Rousseau, p. 282.

TAXATION: The people starve because those in authority over them devour too many taxes;..." - LAO TZU, in Lionel Giles translation.

TAXATION: The philosophy underlying the system of progressive taxation is that the income and the wealth of the well-to-do classes can be freely tapped. What the advocates of these tax rates fail to realize is that the greater part of the incomes taxed away would not have been consumed but saved and invested. In fact, this fiscal policy does not only prevent the further accumulation of new capital. It brings about capital decumulation. This is certainly today the state of affairs in Great Britain." - Ludwig von Mises, Planning for Freedom, p.32.

TAXATION: The plain truth is that the bulk of taxes collected are not spent on useful services, too much goes into the cost of collection,“ - Mr. W. Younger, 9.11.77, EXP. QUEENSLAND

TAXATION: The plunder through the Congress and bureaucracy is scandalous and must stop." - Donald Quinlan, in a 1975 pamphlet. – Must BE stopped. The “How” is not yet sufficiently answered. – J.Z., 17.10.08.

TAXATION: The point is, is the tax collector’s actions any less immoral simply because he supposedly represents a million people or a majority instead of one lonely robber? Put in rational terms, tax collectors are nothing but sophisticated thieves sanctioned by the State to steal from its citizens for wars, the common good and improvements on Presidential homes to name only a few. Fortunately, the average thief only steals for himself and not, of course, for the beautification of the President’s home.” Lawrence Samuels, in: “Taxation Is Legalized Theft”, a SLL leaflet, under “The Double Standard”.

TAXATION: The point to remember is that what government gives, it must first take away.” - John S. Coleman

TAXATION: the political and moral sin of coercing men through taxation to pursue ends other than their own …” - Ellen Frankel Paul, JLS, Fall 77, p.302.

TAXATION: the politicians are playing games with your money." - THE NATIONAL TIMES, 22-27, 4.74:"... If they were healthy, competitive, educational and voluntary games I would not mind so much but, instead, they are incapacitating, monopolistic, misleading and coercive ones and all coercively and fraudulently funded by various direct and indirect taxes, including inflation. Instead of fair games they are foul and wasteful ones, in which everybody must lose - at least in self-respect. – J.Z.

TAXATION: the politicians took to it because more taxation means more power. And getting and exercising power is the principal business of the politician."” – Frank Chodorov, Out of Step, p. 8. – By why did the taxed allow it, although they do vastly outnumber the revenuers and politicians? And why did they let themselves be robbed of so much, by politicians and bureaucrats for so long? – As the former liberal Prime Minister of Australia, John Menzies, once said: “I can understand it if a man lets himself be bribed, but not if he is bribed with his own money.” – Quoted only from my flawed memory. However, the Australian Liberal Party engaged in much of the same “Welfare State” system or bribery of voters, with tax funds, as did the Australian Labor Party. - J.Z., 15.10.08.

TAXATION: The poor pay most of the income taxes. Eighty percent of the income tax revenues received by the Treasury comes from the 20 percent tax which all must pay, including those who earn as little as $600 a year. The bulk of the tax is paid by those who earn $10,000 a year or less; what with the present purchasing power of the dollar, the man who earns $10,000 a year can hardly be called rich, particularly if he has a family to support. Those who can rightly be called rich, the people who earn upwards of $ 100.000 a year, pay less than one-half of one percent of the total income tax. Repeal of the Sixteenth Amendment would be a bonanza for those who pay most of the income taxes, the poor." - Frank Chodorov, The Income Tax, p.133.

TAXATION: The power to tax carries with it the power to embarrass and destroy.” – Supreme Court of the United States: Decision in Evans vs. Gore, 1920. (Cf. Marshall, ante, 1819.) - - The power to tax involves the power to destroy. – Chief Justice John Marshall: Decision in McCulloch vs. Maryland, March 6, 1819.

TAXATION: The power to tax is the power to destroy.” - Michael Silver’s “Regulations that are killing us(Oct.) leads me to: “The prerogative to protect becomes the power to destroy.” – Jim Roaf, REASON, 1/79, p.11. – PROTECTION, REGULATIONS

TAXATION: The power to tax is the power to destroy.” - This quotation comes from the words of Daniel Webster and those of Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall in the Supreme Court case, McCulloch v. Maryland. - Webster, in arguing the case, said: "An unlimited power to tax involves, necessarily, a power to destroy", 17 U.S. 327 (1819). - In his decision, Chief Justice Marshall said: "That the power of taxing it [the bank] by the States may be exercised so as to destroy it, is too obvious to be denied" (p. 427), and "That the power to tax involves the power to destroy … [is] not to be denied" (p. 431). – Even the governmental spending of this loot destroys much, e.g. in self-reliance, self-help, work incentives. – J.Z., 4.1.08. - & GOVERNMENT SPENDING

TAXATION: The power to tax, once conceded, has no limits.” – Anonymous. - Obviously, when the levying of taxes costs more than they bring in, then a limit is reached by taxation. During the Great German Inflation from 1914 to 1923, most government revenue came from its note printing presses. They were usable for this until a monetary revolution had begun and the printing costs came already to 47 % of the value of the newly printed notes. Obviously, the printing presses for notes would have reached their limit somewhere between 47 % and 100 %, if the monetary revolution and several separatists attempts and Hitler's first Putsch had not occurred in the year 1923. - J.Z., 22. 11. 06. - One simply cannot tax negative incomes or losses. The attempt to do so would amount to taxes on capital and thereby increase the losses further. - J.Z. 25. 11. 06. - NO LIMITS FOR IT?

TAXATION: The practice of taxation has systematically undercut and toppled freedom in America." - I. R. Ybarra, THE MATCH, 5/75. – Not that freedom was ever fully realized there, either. – One all rights and liberties are known, understood and used, they would sufficiently support each other. - J.Z., 18.12.08.

TAXATION: The predictable is that the IRS would not be interested in a declaration of conscience. (Interesting contrast: people who, for reason of conscience, will not kill, are exempted from military service. But no one is exempted, through taxes, from general service to the very state that orders the killing in the first place! The state, it seems, takes money more seriously than life.)" - Karl Hess, in Dear America, p.93. - CONSCIENTIOUS OBJECTION AGAINST TAXATION DISALLOWED.

TAXATION: The present income tax laws are designed to prevent any individual earning by his own productive efforts, any great economic power." - John W. Campbell Jr., in ANALOG, 8/58. - Well, at last some still managed to get rich in spite of them. - Luckily, territorial governments are not even 100% efficient in the sphere of taxation, either. - J.Z., 22.3.11. - DIS.

TAXATION: The present system allows anyone “to put their hands into other people’s pockets for any purpose which they think fit to call a public one.” – J. S. Mill - Not just anyone, but all too many lobbies or pressure groups, which can offer voting blocks to political parties. - J.Z., 23.3.11.

TAXATION: The present taxation system is a violation of human rights and the cancer of labour and industry.” – G. Ravenscroft, in PROGRESS, Melbourne, March 78, a Henry George publication. – Any system of taxation, not only the present one, falls under that accusation, as long as it is not a voluntary one, or one for the voluntary members of a community only. – J.Z., 4.8.08. – PANARCHISM, VOLUNTARY TAXATION

TAXATION: The pressure to take ever more from people compelled to give is overwhelming. – J.Z., 22.10.82.

TAXATION: The price the place puts on the right to live in it.” – L. L. Levingson, Webster’s Unafraid Dictionary. – It’s neither a price nor merely a place. True choice is excluded, country-wide. – J.Z., 25.3.84. – Territorially, for a whole population, with power only in the hands of a few power addicts, who, between them, and quite legally, legalized by themselves, commit more murders, robberies and other crimes than all their numerous private competitors in the country manage to commit, between them, quite illegally. Places or locations cannot command. Only those “humans” or ‘inhumans” placed in or having usurped existing local territorial power positions, can issue commands and legalize their errors, prejudices, whims, false premises and conclusions into laws binding for all those of victims, who cannot escape these chains upon their individual rights and liberties. – Please, do likewise correct my own mistakes! - J.Z., 25.3.84, 5.8.08.

TAXATION: The Prime Minister says he is going to clobber me with taxes. I know what I would like to clobber him with, in return! – J.Z., 8.7.74.

TAXATION: The private criminals usually give you a choice in saying: “Your money or your life!" Governments tend to take both - under the pretence of defending you! – J.Z., 76/81.

TAXATION: The private robbers are honest enough not to pretend that their robberies are undertaken to benefit the public and to demand that they be honored, salaried and, finally well pensioned for them. Some wide sharing of the loot, to buy votes with it, is all that happens in territorial politics – and an all too wide-spread sanction of it by its victims. – J.Z., 10.3.05, 29.10.07. - WELFARE STATE, POLITICIANS & PRIVATE CRIMINALS, VOTING, SANCTION OF THE VICTIMS

TAXATION: The productive man is, as a rule, the most restricted, prosecuted and penalized man and he is also the forgotten man in most State welfare schemes. – J.Z., 81.

TAXATION: The program of the IRS leaves much to be desired. // It seems to me the object is to handicap the hired.” – Anon, in SOUTHERN LIBERTARIAN MESSENGER, 12/77.

TAXATION: The progressive part of the progressive income tax collects very little income and has almost no effect on the accumulation of wealth by means of capital gains." - David Friedman, The Machinery of Freedom, p.33. – But then there is also the capital gains tax and inflation brings more and more people into the nominally higher tax brackets where they are exposed to higher rates of progressive taxation. Many of the criminal actions of territorial governments do support each other. - J.Z., 22.3.11. - PROGRESSIVE TAXATION

TAXATION: The proliferation of bureaucrats and its invariable accompaniment, much heavier tax levies on the productive part of the population, are the recognizable signs, not of a great, but of a decaying society. Historians know that both phenomena were especially marked in the declining eras of the Roman Empire in the West and of its successor state, the Eastern or Byzantine Empire.” - William Henry Chamberlin, ISIL LIBERTY QUOTE LIBRARY 03. – Inflations, outright conquests and confiscations have played a similar role – and are possible and likely largely among monetarily unenlightened people, the victimizers as well as the victimized. – J.Z., 10.1.08. - BUREAUCRACY, STATE, ROMAN EMPIRE, THEIR PROLIFERATION VS. CIVILIZATION

TAXATION: The promise of major parties not to increase taxes any further is like a promise to a weightlifter holding 300 lbs over his head: We will not increase the weight any further. Just keep it up! – J.Z., 76. – PROMISES, POLITICIANS, PARTIES, JOKES

TAXATION: The protection racket of the government costs us more than any other racket. – J.Z., 81.

TAXATION: The public, the owners and producers and exchangers, would have made much better use of their money than the territorial bureaucrats and politicians ever would or could and this with much less waste, mal-investments, corruption and embezzlement. – Only voluntary taxes within communities of volunteers would have a good chance to be rightfully used in the interest of the members. - J.Z., 7.12.93, 19.7.08. – PANARCHISM, VOLUNTARY TAXATION

TAXATION: The question is whether the percentage of the individual’s earnings over which he has jurisdiction should increase indefinitely.” – V. G. D’Estaing, Towards a New Democracy, p.64. - It can only be increased to 100 %, which is his, by rights, to 100 %! - Why not, since they are his earnings after all? Only a politician, bureaucrat, dominator or private criminal would even ask such a question. Who else has a better right to dispose of all his earnings than the one who earned them? Who has the right to question his earnings, and his property rights to them, otherwise than as a consumer of the earner or as his employer or co-owner or partner? – J.Z., 22.7.08, 17.4.09. - DIS., STATISM, INTERVENTIONISM.

TAXATION: the real or pretended necessity of imposing taxes on the subject, ..." – Wilhelm von Humboldt, quoted in Sprading, Liberty and the Great Libertarians, p. 110.

TAXATION: The real point of audits is to instill fear, not to extract revenue; the IRS aims at winning through intimidation and (thereby) getting maximum voluntary compliance." - Paul Strassel, Former IRS Headquarters Agent "WALL ST. JOURNAL" 1/28/80. – In other words, it acts just like any of the Mafia’s extortion or “protection” rackets. – J.Z., 5.1.08. - & TERRORISM, PROTECTION RACKETS

TAXATION: The real problem is that productive capital investment is being siphoned off by taxes, restrictions, and government contracts for unproductive and wasteful government expenditures, including military and space boondoggling." - Murray N. Rothbard, For a New Liberty, p.258.

TAXATION: The real reason for withholding taxes is the unwillingness of workers to share their incomes with the government and the consequent difficulties of collection. To overcome this handicap, the government has simply impressed employers into its service as involuntary and unpaid tax collectors. It is a form of conscription. Disregarding the right of privacy, which is an essential of liberty, the government's agents may, under the law, invade the employer's office, demand his accounts, and punish him for any infraction which they believe he has committed; they can impound his property and inflict a penalty for not having collected taxes for the government." - Frank Chodorov, The Income Tax, p.61.

TAXATION: The real scandal is not tax evasion but tax payment and tax extortion or the tribute payment and blackmail that are involved. – J.Z., 25.8.82, 2.8.08, 7.8.11.

TAXATION: The reason there is a breakdown in family values is that there is no parent at home. The reason there is no parent at home is that one parent works to support the family and the other to support the government.” - Representative from Family Research Council, CNN & COMPANY. - & FAMILY VALUES, JOKES

TAXATION: The resentment of the working classes at paying higher taxes, their rejection of state welfare, their resistance to and evasion of it (by refusing to send children to school, for example) would have been even sharper than it has been, and sharper than it is in the middle and upper classes, if they could see more clearly the weight of the taxes they pay. But, of course, a man who is asked how much tax he pays thinks of the visible deduction from his pay packet, not of the invisible deductions on his purchases. In 1972 a man earning around £1,600 paid £ 560 in taxes: 35 per cent in all, 24 per cent indirectly and 11 per cent deducted from pay. A man earning £ 3,400 paid £ 1,160: 34 per cent in all, 17 per cent indirectly and much the same percentage deducted from pay. And a man earning around £ 5,000 paid £1,600:32 per cent in all, 14 per cent indirectly - less than the 19 per cent deducted from pay. Although the ratio of total taxes paid by the three was roughly similar (34.5, 34, and 32.1 per cent) (*), the percentage paid indirectly by the lowest earner of the three was almost twice as high as paid by the highest earner; and the percentage paid directly by the lowest earner was barely more than half of that paid by the highest. If he were told, he would be angrier. (*) These figures are based on the sample used in the 1972 Household Inquiry Analysis in 'Incidence of taxes and social service benefits, 1972', "ECONOMIC TRENDS", November 1973." - Arthur Seldon, in 1985, Dr. Rhodes Boyson, editor, p.48

TAXATION: The reward of energy, enterprise and thrift – is taxes.” – William Feather. - JOKES

TAXATION: The river of looted tax funds can be stopped effectively only at its numerous sources - not where it runs into the sea or irrigates land parched by its enforced drainage. The refusal to accept the government's depreciated paper money and insistence upon payments in honest currencies instead, would be one of the exceptions. – If the refusal to accept the government's forced and exclusive currency, accompanied by enough private sound exchange media issues or sufficient expansion of private and free clearing, were wide-spread and thus the government money could mostly only be used to pay those taxes which can still be enforced, then the government would soon be unable to pay with the reduced tax revenue and by inflating its currency further. - The resulting government bankruptcy should be welcomed and celebrated rather than feared. Private and free exchanges, including those of willing labor, professional services, tradesmen's services and consumer goods for sound currencies could then grow to their inherent limits. -J.Z., n.d. & 22.3.11.

TAXATION: The robber generally plundered the rich, the governments generally plunder the poor and protect those rich who assist in their crimes. The robber doing his work risked his life, while the governments risk nothing, but base their whole activities on lies and deception. The robber did not compel anyone to join his band, the governments generally enroll their soldiers by force. All who paid the tax to the robber had equal security from danger. But in the state, the more any one takes part in the organized fraud, the more he receives not merely of protection, but also of reward. Most of all, the emperors, kings and presidents are protected (with their perpetual bodyguards), and they can spend the largest share of the money collected from the taxpaying subjects; next in the scale of participation in the governmental crimes come the commander in chief, the ministers, the heads of police, governors, and so on, down to the policemen, who are least protected (*), and who receive the smallest salaries of all. Those who do not take any part in the crimes of government, who refuse to serve, to pay...." - Tolstoi, in Sprading, "Liberty and the Great Libertarians”, p.331. - I deny that policemen are the least protected. Once one of their own has been injured or even murdered, the police will go all-out to find the culprits. - J.Z., 22.3.11. - DIS.

TAXATION: The robbery victims of taxation are threatened with jail sentences when they try to hang on to some more of their own money as their official robbers are willing to allow them. – J.Z., 9.8.92, 20.7.08, 22.3.11.

TAXATION: The schoolboy whips his taxed top, the beardless youth manages his taxed horse with a taxed bridle, on a taxed road; and the dying Englishman, pouring his medicine, which he has paid seven per cent, flings himself back on his chintz bed, which has paid twenty-two per cent., and expires in the arms of an apothecary, who has paid a license of a hundred pounds for the privilege of putting him to death.” – Sydney Smith, Review of Seybert’s Annals, 1830, EDINBURGH REVIEW. – JOKES.

TAXATION: The secret weapon of the centralists is money - your money. You work for it. They squander it." - Peter A. Wright, Australian campaign against centralization.

TAXATION: The servitude is indirect. It is by way of taxation, by income taxes, property taxes, sales taxes, and any one of hundreds of variations. When one's substance is taken from him to be used to provide services for others, that is a species of servitude. Presumably, he has served in order to acquire the substance. The amount of time and energy which he devoted to acquiring the substance forced from him to use for the service of others, is the measure of the degree of servitude." - Clarence B. Carson, THE FREEMAN, 5/75. – Taxes upon oneself and all one’s activities will be continued until one can secede from the tax gatherers, their laws and institutions. – J.Z., 17.4.09.

TAXATION: The silent tax of currency depreciation can only be stopped by reestablishing a sound money.” – Prof. James L. Green, MM. - Not only one sound money but as many sound monies and as much of them as potential issuers can issue and their potential issuers are willing to accept. – J.Z., 6.8.08. – MONETARY FREEDOM, INFLATION, FORCED & EXCLUSIVE CURRENCIES, LEGAL TENDER, MONETARY DESPOTISM, CENTRAL BANKING, DIS.

TAXATION: The simple fact is that taxation is robbery. It is a barbarous practice, as anachronistic and oppressive as the tribute paid by medieval serfs to their kings feudal lords.” – J.Z. 7.10.78. – In form of local rates, State land taxes and all income taxes at least, this formal feudalism is still legally continued. – J.Z., 17.4.09. - LIBERTY, FEUDALISM, SERFDOM

TAXATION: The 'sinews of the class war' - as every communist knows – are the funds provided by that beast of burden, the taxpayer. For, when you look into the matter you find that those 'sinews' are nothing but the tithes by which the priesthood and their acolytes prosper. In this country, as the investigations have so amply shown, Communism thrived in proportion to the number of jobs provided by Congress at the taxpayer's expense. (*) As long as jobs are available there will be communists, either by infiltration or by incubation; the emoluments and the pomp which go with a political job will convert the meekest bureaucrat to the religion of power." - Frank Chodorov, The Income Tax, p.184. - - (*) The reverse is also true: The religion of "power" (over others) and of "sharing" (the property of others) will also establish the jobs required to realize this religion in practice. - J.Z. – Intellectually that kind of statism is hardly above the “cargo cult” mentality of some of the people in New Guinea. And how many other pious people do still “pray” to their supposed “God”, to be good to them? – J.Z., 16.10.08.

TAXATION: The sneakiest two words in the English language are Plus Tax." - Mack McGinnis, - READER’S DIGEST, 10/76.

TAXATION: The solution is to deregulate and de-tax the economy so that business can expand and create jobs.” – Ed Clark

TAXATION: The specter of the undeserving squandering the unearned haunts us all." - John A. Goodson, New Jersey Libertarian Party

TAXATION: the state had openly raised the trade of robbery to a policy, …” - Rudolf Rocker, Nationalism and Culture, p. 402.

TAXATION: the state has been living on a revenue which was being produced in the private sphere for private purposes and had to be deflected from these purposes by political force." - Joseph Schumpeter, Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy, N.Y., Harper, 1942, p.198.

TAXATION: The State is not concerned with the welfare of the 'poor' - or even of the 'rich' - but takes where the getting is good; and the wages of the country is a cornucopia the State could not overlook." - Frank Chodorov, Out of Step, p.213.

TAXATION: The State is taking control and ownership of the people. It is using the power to tax to destroy their independence and self-reliance. It is converting free men into vassals and dependents. It is devouring the substance of self-supporting people to render them self-supporting no longer, and to establish a condition of universal reliance upon the biased paternalism of a great White Father - a "Father" corrupted and corrupting, since great power does corrupt and absolute power corrupts absolutely." - OMAHA WORLD HERALD, Quoted by Admiral Ben Moreel, Log II, p.125.

TAXATION: The State makes use of the money which it extorts from me to unjustly impose fresh constraints upon me; ..." - Taine

TAXATION: the state never relinquishes one form of revenue for another, for it is inherently incapable or restraining its lust for power. The highest Tariff walls in the history of the country sprang up after income taxation was constitutionalized.” – Frank Chodorov, Fugitive Essays, p. 262.

TAXATION: The State taxes you because it would be unable to sell you its services under free competition. They are neither wanted widely enough nor good enough for that. If they were, a government could just become an effectively competing service business, working to achieve and maintain satisfaction among its voluntary customers. – J.Z., 11.11.93, 7.8.11. – PANARCHISM

TAXATION: the State, unlike all other persons and institutions in society, acquires its revenue not by exchanges freely contracted, but by a system of unilateral coercion called 'taxation'." - BARR, Charles, Barr, "reason", 3/72:

TAXATION: The states are asking for federal aid, and the federal government is asking for taxpayer aid, and the taxpayers are applying for social-service aid. This is known as the economic cycle.” - Bill Farmer – JOKES

TAXATION: The stone birds on the doorposts of the taxation office in Chichester, U.K. are vultures!" - UPI. – JOKES

TAXATION: The straight-thinking pioneer knew full well that the power of the government is in direct ratio to its income, and he was therefore all for cutting its income to the bone; that way it could not get out of hand. About all he would allow it was what it could pick up from tariffs on imports. Grudgingly, because, as Hamilton pointed out, tariffs could not produce enough to pay the running expenses of the proposed government, he allowed it some excise taxes. More than that he would not give, and more than excise and tariff taxes did not get into the Constitution." - Frank Chodorov, The Income Tax, p.122. - We ought to get all governments running - away from us, as fast and as far as possible! - J.Z., 30.7.11.

TAXATION: The study of this sacred monster, government, occupies the attention of armies of learned men. The scholars and students peer down the trunk of the elephant, look up its anus, pull its ears, apply stethoscopes to its hide, describe the howday, criticize the mahout and even cadge rides on its back. But few spare a thought for the poor peasants who supply the mountains of food the beast consumes. Even fewer ask the question, why elephants?” - - "There are several ways of studying the monster. All of them yield information, but few yield understanding useful to the poor peasants collecting its food." - H. S. Ferns, The Disease of Government, p.17. - Sacred? - J.Z., 30.7.11.

TAXATION: The surest path to bankruptcy and tyranny is called uncontrolled and unconstitutional taxation." - THE INDIVIDUALIST, vol. 4, No. 2.

TAXATION: The surprising fact, then, is that there are constitutional limitations protecting the citizens against many forms of arbitrary government action, but not against the most obvious and omnipresent of all: taxation. Criminal defendants are protected against police harassment, and even against police questioning, by such constitutional rituals as the “Miranda” warning. Newspapers are protected from any form of “prior restraint”. The Constitution even shelters owners of household appliances from the excessive zeal of finance companies. But the taxpayer is left without any constitutional protection at all. - - There is no adequate political protection for the taxpayer, because the beneficiaries of redistribution either outnumber, or are better organized than the payers.” – Joseph F. Johnston, Jr., The Limits of Government, Regnery Gateway, Chicago, 1984, p.99. - - Let taxpayers secede and this problem is solved. Via voluntary membership in personal law communities their taxation would be voluntary, too, also assured by individual and group secessions from them. Moreover, they would tend to be greatly reduced in numbers and percentages of their take. If compulsory taxes were properly named, namely “tributes”, then resistance against them would be increased. – J.Z., 2.10.07. - & CONSTITUTIONALISM

TAXATION: The 'take' gets bigger every year. The parasites multiply faster than the harvest." - Gladys Vaughn, in SOUTHERN LIBERTARIAN MESSENGER, Winter 75/6.

TAXATION: The Talmud classes tax gatherers with burglars and bandits. – But neither the inflation tax nor all other taxes were abolished in Israel. – J.Z., 17.4.09.

TAXATION: The tax and spend system of the government is so muddled up and inefficient that no one knows clearly by how much he is rather a tax payer than a tax fund recipient and, inevitably, most, except public 'servants' and welfare recipients are rather being taken than takers. – J.Z., 12.9.81.

TAXATION: The tax burden, due to the ignorance of human rights, is a harmful disincentive to labor and industry in the production of wealth.” – G. Ravenscroft, in PROGRESS, Melbourne, March 78, a Henry George publication. – Georgists only imagine that their “single tax” would be a quite rightful substitute for all other taxes. – J.Z., 4.8.08.

TAXATION: The tax collector has no intention of earning the property he takes from the market. His object is something for nothing; and in monetary matters the most instant process is to create a fiat money and declare it 'legal tender' in place of the money chosen by traders." - Paul L. Poirot, THE FREEMAN, Oct. 73. – LEGAL TENDER, MONETARY DESPOTISM

TAXATION: The tax commissioner is morally no more entitled to hear the truth from us than any other coercive criminal is. – J.Z., 20.11.78.

TAXATION: The tax department represents the “Inquisition” of our times – and yet it still received some “conscience money”. – J.Z., 28.6.83. – Let the statists and the non-statists disassociate themselves from each other, to do their own things only for and to themselves. – J.Z., 4.8.08. – PANARCHISM, EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY FOR VOLUNTEERS

TAXATION: The tax laws have become the instruments of our oppression. Who can respect a law that was not designed to protect? Why am I less entitled to the fruits of my labor than someone who has many dependents to claim? Am I equally free? Am I less of a citizen? Or, am I merely a subject?” – Terrence D. Oaks, THE JUSTICE TIMES, 5.10.78. . - PROTECTION, OPPRESSION, EXPLOITATION, EQUAL RIGHTS & LIBERTIES

TAXATION: The tax money saved would be applied far more to the general good of the national economy if left in the hands of the taxpayers.” - Norris McWhirter, Freedom of Choice, in K.W. Watkins, ed., In Defence of Freedom, p.65.

TAXATION: The tax money taken from you- your money- is always spent by others ..." while "you know your individual needs and desires better than politicians and bureaucrats possibly can." - MARKET FOR LIBERTY, Libertarian Party of Oregon Newsletter, Aug. 78, arguments in favor of measure No. 6.

TAXATION: The tax people can make life very nasty.” – Heard on TV and considered by me as the understatement of the year. – J.Z., n.d.

TAXATION: The tax records of everyone, who accuses tax dodgers, should be very thoroughly investigated, even privately, if necessary and quite ignoring “privacy” just as he does, and this even for years backwards. These accusers are offenders against the common public interest and individual rights and liberties and defenders of the worst and greatest criminal organizations. – J.Z., 8.6.82, 23.7.08.

TAXATION: The tax revolt is our best weapon." - Gary North, in "reason", Oct. 73. - At least it is one of our best weapons - but even this only once it has been properly thought out, prepared and put into action. For instance, it must embrace a system of paying for police and army and a systematic refusal to accept the government paper money any longer, combined with the issue of alternative sound currencies. – J.Z.

TAXATION: The Tax Revolt will fizzle out – until it gets sufficient intellectual support! – J.Z, 4.6.82.

TAXATION: The Tax System is comprised of over 7000 pages of rules, regulations and stipulations that cannot be understood by the tax paying people of Australia. It is full of pitfalls and traps.” - SAVE AUSTRALIA ALLIANCE, August/September 1907, p. 3, ed. by Dale Chorley, - TAXATION SYSTEM, AUSTRALIA.

TAXATION: The Taxation Department has lifted more money from the purses, wallets, socks, mattresses, and bank accounts of the Australian public than the combined efforts of all other thieves in the whole history of Australia.” – Libertarian Bookshop, Kalgoorlie, 1977. - CRIME

TAXATION: The tax-based financing of any service means only that the tax “price” goes up, while the service goes down. – J.Z., 21.9.91. – Need I mention e.g. the Post Office, government railways, government bus and subway services? – J.Z., 5.8.08. – PUBLIC SERVICES, BUREAUCRACY, SUBSIDIES

TAXATION: the taxes he is obliged to pay take away the greater part of his thin savings; …” - Marquis de Sade, in G. Gover, The Revolutionary Ideas of the Marquis de Sade, p. 143. – His sexual practices were perverted, his freedom thinking was not. – J.Z., 19.7.08. - SAVINGS

TAXATION: The taxpayer is someone who works for the federal government but doesn’t have to take a civil service examination.” – Ronald Reagan, Quoted Barbara Rowe, a Book of Quotes. - JOKES

TAXATION: the taxpayer was helpless ….” - Kurt Tucholsky, Politische Texte, S.88. – J.Z. tr. only of: “… der Steuerzahler war wehrlos …” – If the views of the taxpayers were really decisive in this respect then taxes would, most likely, not exist at all. However, too many taxpayers have granted the sanction of the victim to the territorial State and taxes were only one of the many wrongful and harmful consequences of this establishment. – J.Z., 6.8.08. - MILITIA, AS A FORCE OF ALL VICTIMS OF TERRITORIAL STATES, WELL ORGANIZED, TRAINED & ARMED TO DEFEND ALL THEIR GENUINE INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS & LIBERTIES AGAINST ALL TERRITORIAL GOVERNMENTS, UNTIL THESE INSTITUTION ARE, FINALLY, ABOLISHED AS TERRITORIAL INSTITUTIOS & REDUCED TO COMMUNITIS OF VOLUNTEERS UNDER PERSONAL LAW.

TAXATION: The taxpayers are largely disarmed, disorganized and insufficiently informed on their rights, liberties and opportunities. The looters and parasites are largely armed and organized and well led, into wrongful victories after victory, over centuries, through a statist faith shared even by most of their victims. – J.Z., 15.6.91. The taxpayers haven’t even organized themselves as yet into an efficient political party to represent their interests. The existing parties are, largely, powerful lobbies against the rights, liberties and interests of the tax payers. – J.Z., 5.8.08. - PARTIES

TAXATION: The tendency of taxation is to create a class of persons who do not labor, to take from those who do labor the produce of that labor, and to give it to those who do not labor.” – William Cobbett: Paper Against Gold, 1811.

TAXATION: The territorial governments continue to set world records in the greatest robberies of all times. – J.Z., 26.9.99. – And we manage to let them get away with this. They also tax you through their inflations and the mass unemployment their laws and policies cause. – J.Z., 20.7.08.

TAXATION: The testimony of history is that the Roman people finally welcomed the inroads of the barbarians as a lesser evil than the continuance of their tax system." – Edward Gibbon, quoted in SOUTHERN LIBERTARIAN MESSENGER, 2/77.

TAXATION: The theory of progress through robbery is still held in esteem." - Bastiat, Sophisms, p.196.

TAXATION: The theory of republican government is that sovereignty resides in the citizen, who lends it to his elected representative for a specified time. But a people whose wealth is siphoned into the coffers of its government is in no position to stand up to it; with its wealth goes its sovereignty, its sense of dignity. People still vote, of course, but their judgment in the ballot booth is unduly influenced by handouts from their government, whether these be in the form of 'relief’, parity prices, or orders for battleships. Though it is not exactly an over-the-counter transaction, the citizen's conscience is bought. Nor are voters immune to the propaganda issued by the bureaucrats, in their own behalf, and paid for by the voters themselves." - Frank Chodorov, The Income Tax, p.47.

TAXATION: the theory that the state has eminent domain over all life and property. Upon that theory it claims and collects taxes at rates that would cause the most callous feudal lord to blush." – Brian Summers, THE FREEMAN, 3/74.

TAXATION: The things we lose by the robberies of criminals are nothing in comparison to the amount we lose when we are robbed by our own government." - Perry E. Gresham, THE FREEMAN, 10/78, p.610.

TAXATION: The time for a taxpayers' revolt is long overdue." - Jerome Tuccille, Radical Libertarianism, p.103. TAXATION: The time will come when passive resistance to taxation will be recognized as the most effective method of abolishing the State." - Benjamin R. Tucker, quoted in Reichert, Partisans of Freedom, p.163. - The aim to abolish the State altogether, completely and for all, is intolerant towards those who want it and are prepared to support it on their own. Consequently, in other passages, Tucker also favored individual secession from the State. This would indeed, destroy the State as a territorial and monopolistic agency but would let it survive in relatively harmless forms, comparable to the survival of some monarchies, as constitutional monarchies, now. – J.Z.

TAXATION: The timely “Give me liberty or death!” of the American Revolution has been turned into the State’s tax extortionist threat: “Give me the tax tributes I demand or die!” – Our counter-slogan might be: My liberty or your death! – J.Z., 28.7.93, 19.7.08.

TAXATION: the torrent that passes from the pockets of the people into the treasury - …” - Joseph H. Delaney, A Man of Letters, ANALOG, 4/88, p.129. - Taxes do not stream freely into the government's revenue. They are, mostly, forcibly extorted, under threats of severe punishment upon non-payment. - J.Z., 7.8.11.

TAXATION: The tribesmen paid their tithes to the chieftains, the elders, the witchdoctors - as always.” - Mark Clifton & Frank Riley, They'd Rather Be Right, Part II, ASTOUNDING SF, August 1954, 29. - TRIBUTES, STATISM

TAXATION: The trouble … with government of the people, by the people and for the people is that the people get billed for it in triplicate.” – Oren Arnold, quoted in READER’S DIGEST. – JOKES

TAXATION: The trouble with an income-tax reduction is that it stimulates business just enough to put everybody in a higher tax bracket.” – Harold Coffin. – JOKES. - A genuine stimulation of the economy can neither be achieved through taxation, government spending or monetary despotism. - J.Z., 22.3.11.

TAXATION: The trouble with pulling the wool over the taxpayer’s eyes is that after a while they begin to recognize the yarn. – S. G., quoted in READER’S DIGEST. – So far, their enlightenment process took much too much time. - J.Z., 22.3.11. - JOKES

TAXATION: The ultimate answer to taxes is the refusal to pay. Become well prepared for this, together with most of your neighbours, friends and other like-inded people. – J.Z., n.d. & 7.8.11. - TAX STRIKE

TAXATION: the unfairness of forcing some people to pay for programs which others use. Whether or not the program is considered “good” or “needed” is not the issue here.” - Sam Wells Jr., OPTION, 4/.77.

TAXATION: The various “free” services provided via taxation usually cost much more than they are worth and would be supplied better and more cheaply by private enterprise or cooperative or mutual aid competitors. But the whole coercive and propaganda and mis-education system territorial States have set up do keep them alive. – J.Z., 10.9.99, 20.7.08.

TAXATION: the very existence of taxation and the State necessarily sets up a class division between the exploiting rulers and the exploited ruled." - Murray N. Rothbard, For a New Liberty, p.11.

TAXATION: The very nature of taxation precludes a taxpayer from being properly represented: A crime victim is never represented by the criminal! - .Z., 81.

TAXATION: The wads of worthless paper money were growing heavier in the pockets of the nation, but there was less and less for that money to buy." - Ayn Rand, Atlas Shrugged, p.1004. – If they were already quite worthless, they would already be generally refused! – J.Z., 17.10.08.

TAXATION: The way to crush the bourgeoisie is to grind them between the millstones of taxation and inflation." - Lenin

TAXATION: the way we should go about doing things should make the rich richer, the poor richer, and the IRS poorer.” – G. Harry Stine and Wilfred C. Smith, Laughing All the Way to Orbit, ANALOG, Feb. 88m, p. 69.

TAXATION: The Welfare State will decline when the votes of the people who think they benefit are exceeded by the votes of those who know they pay for what they do not get." - THE INDIVIDUALIST, vol. 4, No. 2.

TAXATION: The whole population of Al Hogarija in Yemen assembled in the mosque to celebrate a thanksgiving - after a fire had destroyed all files of the tax office.” - From DIE WELT, 31.12.1954. – JOKES

TAXATION: The wisdom of man never yet contrived a system of taxation that would operate with perfect equality.” – Andrew Jackson, Proclamation to the People of South Carolina, Dec. 10, 1832. – Taxation itself is unwise. – J.Z., 21.11.85. And it establishes the basic inequality between the taxed and the taxes, between the tax-payers and the tax money recipients. – But man was always foolish enough to find some excuses for wrongful acts like taxation. - J.Z., 25.7.08. - As if an equal enslavement through taxation could, possibly, be a genuine ideal. - J.Z., 30.7.11.

TAXATION: The word 'taxation' belongs to the slang of criminals. – J.Z., 1974.

TAXATION: The worker is no longer free to work for himself. He has been subjected, under various pretences, to numerous looters - who use all of the State's power against him. – J.Z., n.d.

TAXATION: The workers pay most of the taxes, directly or indirectly. – J.Z., 25.8.75.

TAXATION: The working man pays the lion’s share: The wealthy pays very little tax – mostly they pay less than you and I yet earn millions.” - SAVE AUSTRALIA ALLIANCE, August/September 1907, p.3, ed. by Dale Chorley – But the poor are still being fooled into believing that the rich people are soaked by taxes, to make the own taxes appear more bearable in comparison. - Let them secede from each other! – Then the rich as well as the poor will be better off or at least have less reason to complain about the other. – As freedom lovers we should be glad that at least some people are almost free from direct taxes. The rich are certainly not free from all indirect ones under territorialism. - J.Z., 15.4.09. - PANARCHISM, SECESSIONISM, DIS.

TAXATION: The worst “robbing hoods”, judging by their total “take”, are those working for the tax departments. – J.Z., 21.8.93.

TAXATION: The worst deals are those involuntarily and indirectly “bought” by taxpayers with their taxes. – J.Z., 11.9.88. – No bargains there but only illusions, delusions, disappointments and “lemons”. – J.Z., 6.8.08.

TAXATION: Theft is still theft even if done by legislation." - John A. Goodson

TAXATION: Theft is theft, … no matter who does the stealing or how many wish it done.” - L. Neil Smith, Bretta Martyn, p.286.

TAXATION: Their own subjects they mulct under the euphemism 'taxation'". – Laurance Labadie, What Is Man's Destiny?

TAXATION: There are 116 business taxes, so-called, in the price of a suit of clothes. All such taxes are passed on to the ultimate consumer – the individual citizen.” - Ronald Reagan, p.106, in “Sincerely, Ronald Reagan”, a collection of his letters, compiled by his secretary Helene von Damm, 1976. – Would people voluntarily pay such taxes and as many? – J.Z., 16.9.07.

TAXATION: There are all too many people around who legally or illegally interfere with property. The worst and the most harmful ones have the law on their side. – J.Z., 75/81. - PROPERTY

TAXATION: There are moral principles that stand much higher than those of the Tax Department. The Tax Department says, in effect: What is yours is largely mine! – The resisting taxpayer states in effect: What is mine is mine to keep or spend, give away or invest. Everything is mine that I have peacefully and honestly acquired or produced or worked for. – J.Z., 11.2.88, 2.8.08. – MORALITY, ETHICS, PROPERTY RIGHTS, OWNERSHIP

TAXATION: There are more than 150 different taxes represented in the price of a loaf of bread. – Federal spending has increased by some 15,000 percent between 1929 and 1975, while population rose only by 80 percent.” - David Boaz, in a YAF leaflet.

TAXATION: There are no other rightful claims to the products of the labor of others than those arising out of free agreements." - LERNZIEL ANARCHIE, Nr. 5.

TAXATION: There are thousands of taxes these days but, alas, no place where the taxpayer can hide.” – TIMES, St. Louis, quoted in SOUTHERN LIBERTARIAN MESSENGER, 11/83.

TAXATION: There are times when I suspect that the first of our 'natural resources' to be exhausted may turn out to be the American taxpayer." - Edgar B. Speer, THE FREEMAN, 3/74.

TAXATION: There are two distinct classes of men - those who pay taxes and those who receive and live upon taxes.” - Thomas Paine - TAX CONSUMERS VS. TAX VICTIMS

TAXATION: There be many Caesars // Ere such another Julius. Britain is // A world by itself, and we will nothing pay // For wearing our own noses.” – Cloten, 3,1,11, in Shakespeare, Symbeline, - Hyman Quotations, p.304.

TAXATION: There can be no true condition of rest in society, there can be no perfect friendliness amongst men who differ in opinions, as long as either you or I can use our neighbor and his resources for the furtherance of our ideas and against his own. The present power to levy taxes compulsorily seems to me the inner keep, the citadel of the whole question of liberty; and until that strong-hold is leveled to the ground, I do not think that men will ever clearly realize that to compel any human being to act against his own convictions is essentially a violation of the moral order, a cause of human unrest, and a grievous misdirection of human effort. Of the immediate ill effects, of the waste, of the extravagance, of the jobbery, that are all born of the compulsory taking of taxes, I will not speak here. The first and greatest question is whether to help oneself to one's neighbor's property by force is or is not morally right." - Auberon Herbert, in Mack edition p.164.

TAXATION: There cannot be a good tax nor a just one; every tax rests its case on compulsion.” – Frank Chodorov (1887-1966), Out of Step, p.239. - But it is part and parcel of any territorial government over any number of involuntary subjects. - J.Z., 24. 11. 06. - BASED UPON COMPULSION & THEREFORE IT IS UNACCEPTABLE TO ALL WHO HAVE NOT GIVE THEIR INDIVIDUAL CONSENT TO IT

TAXATION: There cannot be a good tax, or a just one; therefore, every tax rests its case on political power. And the power behind every levy fattens on its collections, while the power of the individual is commensurately weakened. The ultimate of the progressive process of taxation is the absorption of all production by the state – which is the ideal of socialism.” - Frank Chodorov, Taxation Is Robbery, in Fugitive Essays, p.285/86. – Of State-socialism or State capitalism only! – J.Z., 5.8.08.

TAXATION: There has never been a perfect taxation system in the world and there never will be." - Arthur A. Shenfield, Trial by Taxation , in Right Turn, ed. by Dr. Rhodes Boyson, p.28.

TAXATION: There is a grim jest to the effect that if the rebels of 1775 thought that taxation without representation was an outrage, they should only have lived to see it WITH representation." - Libertarian Handbook, 1973, p.31. - REPRESENTATION

TAXATION: there is invariably a concentration of power. And it is power that enables the thumbs to turn down. Withdraw that power and the exactions would no more be possible than it would be possible for an infant to intimidate a grown man.” – Stanton A. Coblentz, The Long Road to Humanity, p. 458. - POWER, CENTRALIZATION, TERRITORIALISM

TAXATION: There is just one thing I can promise you about the outer-space program: Your tax dollar will go farther.” – Werner von Braun. – Why didn’t his imagination go farther than financing space research via taxation and grants for military purposes? He did not care much whether his rocket hobby was promoted by the Nazis, for their purposes or by militarists and taxers in other countries, for their purposes, not even when many of his rockets were used to carry nuclear war-heads. – Should we not dispense with the services of as immoral “scientists”? – J.Z., 2.8.08. - JOKES

TAXATION: There is no art which government sooner learns of another than that of draining money from the pockets of the people.” – Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations. – With the exception of tax anticipation warrants, issued soundly as its only paper money, using a sound value standard and having no legal tender power in general circulation. – With it, according to numerous historical precedents, it could anticipate the taxes for up to the next 3 months and supply the economy with sufficient suitable currency to pay its taxes. Naturally, this should not be the only currency allowed. It would use this paper money to pay all its expenses. And it could not increase this circulation – unless it increased taxes. But present governments have, apparently, all forgotten about this monetary tradition. - J.Z., 23. 11. 06, 13.4.09. – TAX FOUNDATION MONEY, THE ONLY MONEY A GOVERNMENT SHOULD ISSUE.

TAXATION: There is no fair way to steal people’s money.” – NYLP, 11/90. - FAIRNESS, FAIR TAXES, DIS.

TAXATION: There is no justification or excuse for any compulsory taxes. - J.Z., 30.1.02.

TAXATION: There is no lingering gratitude for tax cuts.” – Treasurer Keating, in Radio News, 13.4.89. – Why should there be? – J.Z., 7.4.09. Should there really be any gratitude for no longer being robbed to the extent of these tax cuts? – J.Z., 13.4.89. - - Moreover, most of these “cuts” are not absolute cuts of the total tax take but only “cuts” of planned tax increases, announced beforehand, to really frighten people and then being reduced to show how “generous” our lords and masters are to us. - Often they are merely a cover for the total tax take being increased in other ways. – J.Z., 25.8.92. 5.8.08. – Even if they were genuine tax cuts, under as heavy a tax burden as we suffer under now, the actual tax revenue can very well be increased by reducing the tax rate. This is an experience already known to the ancient Chinese and only very occasionally rediscovered by some economist, political scientist or even a politician and finance minister or treasurer and then applied. Do not forgive most of them, for they do not really know – or care – what they are doing to us, as long as they are in power and their salaries etc. etc. and pension funds are good for them. – J.Z., 5.8.08. - DIS.

TAXATION: There is no reason to believe that ... the avoidance of tax has a more distortening effect on business activity than that caused by taxation. … there are circumstances in which avoidance obviously mitigates the distorting effect of taxation." - Arthur A. Shenfield, in "The Political Economy of Tax Avoidance" in R. Harris & A. Seldon, “Not from Benevolence", p.154. - distorting? distortioning? - J.Z.

TAXATION: There is no such thing as a fair and a just tax.” – R. C. Hoiles, quoted by K. E. Grubbs, Jr., in LIBERTARIAN REVIEW, U.S., 3/77.

TAXATION: There is no such thing as a fair tax, no more so than a fair robbery. – J.Z., 1.12.92. – The only exception would be the taxes of voluntary communities, from which members would be free to secede, individually or in whole groups. – J.Z., 25.7.08.

TAXATION: There is no such thing as a good tax system any more than there is a good robbery or a good government, a good politician or a good bureaucrat. – J.Z., 1.8.99, 19.7.08.

TAXATION: There is no such thing as a temporary tax or a permanent press.” – J. G., quoted in READER’S DIGEST, 10/81, p.92. - JOKES

TAXATION: There is no taking without loss!" - Daniel P. Dern, ANALOG, 10/76.

TAXATION: There is no taxation like: no taxation! – J.Z., 9.10.93.

TAXATION: There is no truth to the rumor that the IRS is staffed with reformed muggers,” says Al Batt. “They are not reformed – they’re just better dressed.” – SOUTHERN LIBERTARIAN MESSENGER, 1/78, p.7. - JOKES

TAXATION: There is no worse tyranny than to force a man to pay for what he does not want merely because YOU think it would be good for him.” - Robert Heinlein, The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress.” - TRANSFER SOCIETY, GOVERNMENT SPENDING, BUDGET, TERRITORIALISM

TAXATION: There is one difference between a tax collector and a taxidermist – the taxidermist leaves the hide.” – Mortimer Caplan, TIME, Feb. 1, 1963. - JOKES

TAXATION: There is only one way to kill capitalism – by taxes, taxes, and more taxes.” – Karl Marx. - The supposedly anti-communist and anti-socialist governments, wrongfully called capitalistic ones, levy even more in total tax revenues than the communist and State socialist ones! – J.Z., 13.4.09. - VS. CAPITALISM, FREE ENTERPRISE, FREE EXCHANGE & THE FREE MARKET

TAXATION: There is something abhorrent about sharing one’s earnings with a seemingly irresponsible structure of management.” – B. & F. Sterling, Will Roger’s World, p.94.

TAXATION: There is, I believe, one principle, and only one principle, upon which taxation could be based which avoids injustice to any citizen. It is the same principle which underlies all market transactions: You pay for what you get." - George C. Leef, THE FREEMAN, 9/78, p. 562. I would add: "and had ordered". – J.Z.

TAXATION: There should not be any taxes – unless you want to pay for service." - Owen Warrington, in AIR discussion, 1973/4. - Wanted services paid for by taxation are unlikely to be competitive ones. Nor will these payments and these services ever be fully balanced under compulsory taxation, for the individuals involved. - J.Z., 30.7.11.

TAXATION: There was another promise that America held forth during most of its first century of unorganized existence. Except for the indentured, assuming they held to the terms of servitude, these immigrants knew they could keep all they produced; there was no tax-gatherer to claim a share of their earnings. This assurance of complete ownership induced industry and thrift. The immigrants therefore applied themselves to their tasks with vigor and in short order came up with an excess over consumption, a profit, which they invested in what we call capital : ships and shops and all sorts of devices to improve their output. Unfortunately, when their opulence became evident, the inevitable tax-gatherer showed up, and though his demands were modest they resented his presence and shortly threw him into the Atlantic Ocean. This took some doing- in fact, seven years of war - but, being men of freedom, they thought the effort worthwhile." - Frank Chodorov, The Income Tax, p.151. – Was, actually, a single tax collector thrown into the ocean? – J.Z.

TAXATION: There’s another major hurdle to a new year of prosperity: our tax code. No human being understands it. The current code, which runs over 8,000 pages and countless thousands more pages of IRS rulings and interpretations, is beyond redemption. Incalculable amounts of the nation’s intellectual brainpower are devoted to the dead-end task of coping with the current tax code. Over one-half million people in the U.S. make their living off it, whether in lobbying, lawyering, tax preparing, or accounting. … Americans spend five and one-half billion hours a year filling out tax forms … and spend between $100 billion and $300 billion to comply with the current code.” – Malcolm S. Forbes. - - In short, even before the government more or less wastes the extorted funds, much waste results from gathering them. - J.Z., 23. 11. 06. - PROSPERITY & THE TAX CODE

TAXATION: There's only one kind of tax that would please everybody - one that nobody but the other guy has to pay.” - Earl Wilson. – Another version: “There's only one kind of tax that would please everybody - one that nobody but the other fellow has to pay." - Earl Wilson, in READERS DIGEST, 10/81. - JOKES

TAXATION: These indirect extractions, // Take much of what they earn; // They go to distant projects, // Which are of no concern. // … There would be far less pressure, // Less hardship and dismay, // If those, who gained the blessings // Were called upon to pay. // Our mode of high taxation, // Which strangulates and kills, // The pursuit of the farmers // Secluded in the hills.” – From a poem by J. S. Rankin, in PROGRESS, 10/76.

TAXATION: They can force you to pay taxes but they cannot enforce your approval for this extortion racket. – J.Z., 9/81

TAXATION: They continue to impose harsh new taxes to satisfy the whims of politicians or to buy votes with expensive handouts and privileges to pressure groups..." – Workers Party, Economic Policy, NSW State Elections 1976.

TAXATION: They have transformed taxation into confiscation and expropriation." – Ludwig von Mises, Omnipotent Government, p.4.

TAXATION: They may differ in their approach, but if you think that our domestic brand is any less determined than the foreign variety, just try deducting from your tax bill your share of the cost of socialized housing in America. First, you will be fined. If you refuse to pay the fine, you will be sentenced to prison. If you resist the officer who is sent to arrest you - well, just what does happen in our country to persons who resist arrest?" - Admiral Ben Moreell, Log I, p.32.

TAXATION: They pretend to help you while they rob you and force you to help them in robbing you. – J.Z., 22.10.03. – Unpaid and compulsory labor in their favor is still slave labor. – J.Z., 26.10.07. - TAXATION OFFICE, REVENUERS, TAX COLLECTORS, TAX DECLARATIONS & RECORD KEEPING FOR TAX PURPOSES

TAXATION: They rule us by their laws and finance their impositions by tax levies. How much longer will we put up with the lie that it is our will that is being done? – J.Z., 12.9.81. – Q.

TAXATION: They see taxation as … taking away free energy that might create more new things.” - Frank Herbert, Chapterhouse Dune, p.371.

TAXATION: They took infinite pains to inculcate, as a fundamental principle, that in all monarchies the people must in effect themselves, mediately or immediately, possess the power of granting their own money, or no shadow of liberty could subsist." - Edmund Burke, quoted in C. Bingham, Men and Affairs, p.20. - Taxation, even when lawful, does not realize this principle. Even in a direct democracy the dissenting minorities are not represented. – “The people”, there, too, is nothing but a convenient fiction. - J.Z., 16.10.08.

TAXATION: They try even to tax us into voting by putting a penalty of $ 25 on non-voting! – J.Z.

TAXATION: They were not allowed to impose taxes on the kingdom." - (p. 146) - STUART, on the Constitution of England, the Saxon monarchs, quoted in Lysander Spooner, Works, II/55.

TAXATION: They were particularly aware of the fact that the power of the State is in proportion to its income, and made sure that the State would not go hog-wild by limiting its power to tax. ..." - Frank Chodorov, The Income Tax, p.126.

TAXATION: They're putting us on! The money collected from all the wealthy people in this country is not enough to run the government for a week, at the present rate of spending." - Edson I. Gaylord, 10.6.75, quoted in THE FREEMAN, 9/75., p. 526. – SOAK THE RICH? PROGRESSIVE TAXATION

TAXATION: think about how much of that’ll get grabbed for taxes. Any other business, paying that much’d make me a major shareholder entitled to a seat on the board of directors.” –Dean McLaughlin, The Eternal Juice Machine, ANALOG, Feb. 1, 1982, p.112.

TAXATION: Think for thyself; and let no clown in trappings wield thee for his gain."- William Walstein Gordak, quoted in Reichert, Partisans of Freedom, p.316.

TAXATION: think of taxes as simply a matter of extortion by the biggest crooks who happen to live nearest to you." - Samuel R. Delany, Triton, 178.

TAXATION: Thinking of taxes as bribes to corrupt officials can have a salutary effect in demystifying the whole process of levying and collecting taxes, revealing it for what it really is, the ‘protection’ racket writ large.” – Erwin Strauss, How to Start Your Own Country, p.29.

TAXATION: This amounted to unrestricted hunting by local, State and Federal tax collectors." - V. Forbes, quoted in LIBERTARIAN OPTIMISM, 11/78

TAXATION: This burden prevents efficiency because the proliferation of taxes weakens the economy and effectiveness of tax administration; because it deters work, enterprise and saving; and because, beyond some point well below the present taxation level, the transfer of resources from private to governmental hands is a transfer from more economic to less economic uses." – Arthur A. Shenfield, Trial by Taxation, in Right Turn, ed. by Dr. Rhodes Boyson, p.29/30.

TAXATION: This communistic wedge, pounded by violence, opened an ever-widening crack in the wall of limitation on government. Here was formal acknowledgment of government as an agent of plunder. The final limit to the extent of the plunder against private property is everybody's total property. Beyond that the plunderer cannot plunder." - Leonard E. Read, "Instead of Violence", p.16.

TAXATION: This huge inventory of taxes has reduced once-proud Americans to the status of chattel slaves.” - Paul Roberts in his Feb. 7, 1996 column. - TAX SLAVERY

TAXATION: This is neither begging, borrowing, nor robbery; yet it has a twang of all of them.” – Phillip Massinger, The Guardian, Act V, sc.4.

TAXATION: This is the history of governments - one man does something which is to bind another. A man who cannot be acquainted with me, taxes me; looking from afar at me ordains that a part of my labor shall go to this or that whimsical end - not as I, but as he happens to fancy. Behold the consequence. Of all debts men are least willing to pay the taxes. What a satire this is on government! Everywhere they think they get their money's worth, except in these." - Ralph Waldo Emerson, Politics.

TAXATION: This largely parasitic burden on the diminishing wealth-creating private sector must be drastically cut back." – Samel in "Dr. Rhodes Boyson, editor, “1985”, VI.

TAXATION: This nation … cannot continue to fill all the tin cups that are held out and grease all the hands extended palms up. …” – Congressman H. R. Gross. – Source & date not noted by me. – J.Z.

TAXATION: This repeats the all too common story of taxpayers having been forced to support government programs attempting to achieve one goal, only to later be forced to pay for an attempt to undo the earlier efforts.” – Robert J. Smith, Earth Resources: Private Ownership vs. Public Waste, p. 100. – Undoing former wrongs is not one of the strengths of territorial governments. They rather tend to impose further wrongs and their costs, via more laws, bureaucracies, taxes, measures and policies. Moreover, they tend to blame private enterprise and economic freedom – which they had suppressed, for the consequences of their former interventionism and then, with “good conscience” intervene even more, more wrongly and more harmfully. – J.Z., 24.10.08. - GOVERNMENT PROGRAMS, GOVERNMENT MEASURES, WASTE, GOVERNMENTAL MISDIRECTION, PUBLIC MISMANAGEMENT

TAXATION: this shameless raid …” Lord BALOGH, - quoted in Henry Meulen's THE INDIVIDUALIST, 8/75.

TAXATION: This view that Washington is the enemy, and that any tax dollar paid there is a tax dollar wasted, is grotesque.” - Thomas Friedman, The Lexus and the Olive Tree, p.465, Harper Collins Publishers, ISBN 0 00 655139 4. – Is it, really? Who should decide? Voluntary members and subjects, through their various voluntary taxation systems. Statism only for Statists, Anarchism only for Anarchists, Libertarianism only for Libertarians, etc., under exterritorial Panarchism, with its various panarchies, peacefully coexisting because of their very nature. – J.Z., 14.9.08. – DIS., TAXATION, STATISM, PANARCHISM

TAXATION: Those favoring taxation want to be humane, charitable and public-spirited with other people’s money. -- J.Z., 81.

TAXATION: Those tax exempt bonds were put in so that a town or a state or a government could sell more bonds than it ought to.” – Will Rogers. - TAX-EXEMPT GOVERNMENT SECURITIES, PUBLIC DEBT, INVESTMENTS IN TAX SLAVES

TAXATION: those who have nothing but their labor to sell, pay for the bounties handed to them, as well as for the administration of the handouts, although, to be sure, they believe (and are told) that they are getting something for nothing, that the "rich" pay all the taxes." - Frank Chodorov, Out of Step, p.213.

TAXATION: Those who pay taxes for the support of others are to that extent slaves to the recipients of welfare." – Paul Lepanto, "Return to Reason”, p.141.

TAXATION: Those who pay their taxes voluntarily for their own protection, and who can conceive of no better means whereby their homes and country can be saved from invasion except by the government method, do not really support government from a sense of duty. It is self-interest, clearly, in their case; and, when they force others to pay taxes and preach duty for others to follow, against what appears to them as their interests, they are attempting to bind obligation upon their fellows which they do not feel themselves in the same way." - John, Badcock, Jr., "Slaves to Duty."

TAXATION: Those who strain themselves to give taxation a moral character are under obligation to explain the State's preoccupation with hiding taxes in the price of goods." - Frank Chodorov, Out of Step, p.220.

TAXATION: Thou Shalt Not Steal!" - whether against the law or with it. – J.Z., 12.9/81.

TAXATION: Though the people support the government, the government should not support the people.” - Stephen Grover Cleveland (1837-1908), Veto, Texas Seed Bill, February 16, 1887. - WELFARE STATE, GOVERNMENT VS. PEOPLE

TAXATION: though we long ago abolished debtor's prisons, we do have prisons for those who violate the income-tax laws." - Frank Chodorov, The Income Tax, p.107.

TAXATION: Through my own effort and skill I had made my business a success; the government hat contributed nothing. Why should the government take a larger cut?” - Piers Anthony, Politician, Bio of a Space Tyrant, vol. 3, 158. - Or any cut at all? - J.Z. - PROFIT, WEALTH, PROSPERITY

TAXATION: Through taxation people pay for their statist beliefs with large slices of their lives. Unfortunately, even the death penalty does not deter the true believer. – J.Z.

TAXATION: To all those asserting, when defending progressive taxation: 'You can afford it" or 'He can afford it!', one should take a big stick, hit them hard on their thick heads with it and then 'justify' one's action by saying to them: 'You can afford to suffer in this way because you are so thickheaded! - Moreover, your pain satisfies some of my needs and gives me great pleasure. This is just about equivalent to the pain you want inflicted upon others by means of taxation. – J.Z., 78. - DIS.

TAXATION: To argue that government gives people services in return for the money it expropriates from them is, of course, irrelevant for the same type of reason explained in connection with “eminent domain” in the last chapter. If someone takes your money at gunpoint in an alley, but gives you something in return that you either do not want or did not bargain for, it does not make him any less a robber.” – R. J. Ringer, Restoring the American Dream, p.240.

TAXATION: To argue that the political party's 'tax' provides for some good and necessary service, does not alter the fact that the acquisition process was one of theft. During the 1930s, supporters of Adolph Hitler pointed to the many hospitals, social services and magnificent highways that were the product of his regime." - LEON, Sy Leon, None of the Above, p.118. - Of his tax victims, rather. – The forced labor employed in building these highways got just their meals, shelter and 50 Pfennige a day! - J.Z., 17.10.08.

TAXATION: To be sure, the original Populists, and the aping Democrats and Republicans, to say nothing of the conscious Socialists, little thought that their income-tax gadget would ever be used to 'soak the poor’. It was an instrument, they thought, that could lend itself to no other purpose than to expropriate the rich in favor of the poor. How the poor would benefit from the expropriation, they did not explain; their intense hatred of the rich conveniently filled this vacuum in their argument. Their passion blinded them to the fact that this 'soak the rich' law would enable the government to filch the pay envelope." - Frank Chodorov, The Income Tax, p.51.

TAXATION: To compel a man to furnish contributions of money for the propagation of opinions which he disbelieves and abhors, is sinful and tyrannical.” – Thomas Jefferson. - How many items in the extremely long budget of present territorial governments, are really wanted by the average tax payer? How many of them are utilized in carrying out ideas and opinions that he is strongly opposed to? Tribute payment to centralized spending organizations must become replaced by voluntary contributions to communities only in which one is and remains a voluntary member. - J.Z., 22. 11. 06. - COMPULSORY VS. VOLUNTARY TAXATION

TAXATION: To force a man to pay for the violating of his own liberty is indeed an addition of insult to injury. But that is exactly what the state is doing.” – Benjamin R. Tucker, Instead of a Book, 1893.

TAXATION: To help the poor and the middle classes, one must cut the tax rates of the rich.” – George Gilder, Wealth and Poverty. – “Gilder argues that only the rich have enough capital to stimulate rapid economic growth, and only reasonable tax rates (*) can induce them to invest rather than spend their money in unproductive ways.” – TIME, Feb. 9, 1981. - Alas, economic sense does not make sense to most voters, as products of government schools, and thus not to most political parties, either. – (*) A contradiction in terms! - J.Z., 23.7.08. – POVERTY, WEALTH, SOAKING THE RICH

TAXATION: to me a man who does avoid taxes and therefore stops public squandering is a hero..." - Terry Arthur,"95% Is Crap", p. 229.

TAXATION: To rob Peter to pay Paul.” – Proverb of 14th c. – Hyman Quotations, p.276.

TAXATION: To say that we must find an alternate way of financing government before we reject income taxes is to say to a girl, being raped, that she cannot repel her attacker until she finds for him an alternate form of sexual gratification." - Henry Hohenstein - JOKES

TAXATION: To tax and to please, no more than to love and to be wise, is not given to men.” – Edmund Burke, speech, On American Taxation, April 19, 1774.

TAXATION: To tax the community for the advantage of a class is not protection: it is plunder." - Benjamin Disraeli, Commons, 14.5.1850.

TAXATION: To the middle classes, however, income tax makes life into an endless treadmill. Even the most productive find themselves unable to accumulate significant capital." - Peter McAlpine, in The Occult Technology of Power.

TAXATION: Tobin told the cheering throng that “You can never call a tax fair when you are forced to pay against your will. It’s immoral to force me to pay for educational facilities when I don’t have any children to send to school. It’s immoral to force the elderly and retired to pay for schools that are no use to them.” – LIBERTARIAN FORUM, 8/77, quoting James Tobin. – EDUCATION, SCHOOLS

TAXATION: Today taxpayers pay to support the tax privileged classes. The middle class is the tax slave class. Congress creates tax loopholes for the rich and gives subsidies to various classes only to confuse the people." - Mike Tecton, view ascribed to him in SOUTHERN LIBERTARIAN MESSENGER, 5/77.

TAXATION: Today the average family pays more in taxes than for food, clothing, and shelter combined.” - Walter E. Williams, Do the Right Thing, Hoover Institution Press, 1995, p.64. – And such institutions are still called “Welfare States”! – J.Z., 15.4.09. – TAXES COMPARED WITH LIVING EXPENSES

TAXATION: Today the freedom of the property-owner is being severely curtailed. Through the modern taxation system, the State has become a kind of joint proprietor, without sharing any part of the risk.” – Otto von Habsburg, The Social Order of Tomorrow, p.30. - PROPERTY RIGHTS – Has any of the Hohenzollern written a similar book? – J.Z., 21.7.08.

TAXATION: Today they cost the American family more than food, clothing or shelter." - Robert Bartell, quoted in SOUTHERN LIBERTARIAN MESSENGER, 10/76.

TAXATION: Today, he concludes that the federal income tax is unconstitutional because tax laws deny equal civil rights to taxpayers by establishing tax classes." - Mike Tecton, view ascribed to him in SOUTHERN LIBERTARIAN MESSENGER, 5/77.

TAXATION: Today, people are beginning to understand that the government's account is overdrawn..." - Ayn Rand, "AYN RAND LETTER, 11.3.74.

TAXATION: Today's bushrangers come in the form of politicians who steal in ever-rising sums from the earnings and savings of the Australian people." - Doug, Anthony, quoted in THE SYDNEY MORNING HERALD, 28.6.75. - For once I must agree with him. But this particular “bush ranger” is not resigning, either, but seems, instead, to enjoy being Deputy Prime Minister! - J.Z.

TAXATION: Tom Paine’s dictum, that “the taxes were not raised to carry on wars but that wars were raised to carry on taxes.” – Author and book title? I find this quote on page 159, which is headed: The Missionary Spirit. – J.Z. – WAR, GOVERNMENTS, TERRITORIALISM, POWER, IMPERIALISM, AGGRESSION, TRIBUTES, CONQUESTS

TAXATION: Too many are being paid too much for too little." - The 'King' of Warragamba, a self-proclaimed monarch-tax-resister, 11.9.75, also called sometimes "King Ron". - While I found all too little details about this secessionist in the Australian media, by now Google, in a first search, offers me 791 results in searching for him. - Under: "King Ron's secession, near Waragamba dam", I get 294 results. - Alas, most of these hints do not refer to this secessionist but just to the search words used. - We need search engines for ideas, plans, projects, not just names or worlds. - J.Z., 7.8.11. - PANARCHISM, SECESSIONISM

TAXATION: Total tax exemption for all but politicians and bureaucrats. – J.Z., 17.12.93. – We should at least get something back from them. – J.Z., 18.7.08.

TAXATION: Townsend, in his famous book Europe and Asia, ... wrote that the peasants 'were the stakes in the game, not the players. It is for the right of taxing them that all Indian revolutions, wars, invasions, movements of all kinds have occurred!" - Dr. G. T. Wrench: Land and Motherland, p.61. Replace "peasants" by "people"! – J.Z.

TAXATION: Treasury’s discussion paper dispels the popular illusion that the more we can shift the burden of taxation on to companies, the less tax you and I have to pay. – The sad truth is that, in the end, inanimate objects such as companies don’t pay tax, only humans do. – When governments impose taxes on business, the burdens of those taxes is shifted to humans. – It may be shifted forward to customers in the form of higher prices, or backward to employees in the form of lower wages. Failing that it’s shifted to the humans who ultimately own the business – which increasingly these days is likely to be you, in your guise as someone with superannuation savings.” - Ross Gittins, the Herald’s economics editor, THE SYDNEY MORNING HERALD, - Aug. 9-10, 08, p.41. - COMPANY TAX, TAXES ON BUSINESS, ON CORPORATIONS, DIS.

TAXATION: Trial by Taxation" - Arthur A. Shenfield, in Right Turn, edited by Dr. Rhodes Boyson, p.28, in a chapter heading. - Trial by fire or trial by taxation? What is the difference? You are always -'proven' guilty and penalized. – J.Z., 13.4.76.

TAXATION: Tribute is a synonym for taxation and a much more honest and realistic name. – J.Z., 76.

TAXATION: Tribute to whom tribute is due.” – Bible, Romans, XIII, 7, ca. 55. - Tribute is due to nobody! – J.Z., 6.11.85. - There is not much "holy" about this supposedly divinely inspired book. - J.Z., 7.8.11. - BIBLE.

TAXATION: Two detectives discussing a murder case, in a rich man’s house. “We have to ask ourselves, … who stood to gain most from his death, and the answer is, of course, the Treasury.” – SUN HERALD, 26.8.73. - JOKES

TAXATION: Two gentlemen met at the seaside. "I," said the first, "believe only half of what people tell me." - "What s your profession?"- "I'm a lawyer." - "I believe twice what people tell me," said the second. - "What are you?" - "A taxation investigator." - TEMPO, Italy. – JOKES

TAXATION: Two points may be made about these hyper-rates: (1) they do not raise much revenue, but (2) they do hurt not only the rich but the poor, and tend to make them poorer." - Henry Hazlitt, The Conquest of Poverty, p.122.

TAXATION: Two tax officials in front of a grocery store. Above the store an open window, in which a man is seen, calling to someone behind him: “Isn’t that oil boiling yet?” – PUNCH, 3.9.75, p.351. – JOKES

TAXATION: Two things in life are certain: death and taxes. Death to taxes!” – David Taylor, 5.6.85. - How can taxes die when there are never living entitites but just wrongful impositions upon the living? - J.Z., 7.8.11. - DIS.

TAXATION: Ultimately, of course, every American holds in his hands the most explosive weapon that possibly could be turned against such a government as that of the United States as it has developed. That weapon is the sword of tax refusal." - Karl Hess, The Lawless State, p.27/28. – A general refusal to accept the government’s currency would achieve the same. – J.Z., 17.10.08.

TAXATION: Uncle Sam needs you! - Resist! Join the tax rebellion." - Libertarian Handbook, 1973.

TAXATION: Under freedom you could look after yourself - with your own money. – J.Z., 75.

TAXATION: Under taxation and compulsory subordination under territorial States the “free vote” means a vote, once every few years, for politicians and daily payments for their daily decisions regarding all too many affairs of your own life and relationships, your own individual rights and liberties, rather than leaving you free to make your own choices for yourself, with your own money or at least free to select, individually, those among competing public service suppliers whom you still trust sufficiently. And this whole immense protection racket is misnamed political liberty and democratic self-government. – The alternatives to it, namely voluntary forms of taxation all under panarchism or free choice among societies and governments, is only rarely considered so far and this only by a few people. - J.Z., 31.7.99, 19.7.08.

TAXATION: Under the graduated income tax someone working 75 hours per week may earn less per hour than someone working only 40 hours. Even higher overtime payments do often not make up for it. - (This is in accordance with 'spread the work’ “policies” and thus approved by all too many!) – J.Z.

TAXATION: Unless we have a society in which the producer enjoys the full fruits of his labor, our freedom is impaired precisely to the degree that political exactions deprive the man who works, whether with mind or muscle, of his production." - Admiral Ben Moreell, Log I., p.148.

TAXATION: Untax Us" - sticker mentioned in LIBERTARIAN OPTION, 9/75.

TAXATION: Various segments of archist societies are licensed to steal if not overtly (e.g. by collecting taxes) then covertly via de jure monopolistic practices. Can you name others?” - George Kysor, THE CONNECTION, No.122, p.70. - GOVERNMENTS: LICENSED TO STEAL, Q.

TAXATION: Very definitely has Frederic the Great expressed himself in favor of progressive taxation, in the instruction for the West Prussian contributions, 1772, to Roden the President of the Ministry of Finance. The protocol of Roden states: ‘If a rich man had an income of 5000 Thalers, then he could well give half of it, for he could live from the rest. But a poor man, earning only 80 Thalers could not give half of that amount because then not enough would be left for him to live on.’” – J.Z. tr. of the German original: “Sehr energisch has sich Friedrich der Grosse zu Gunsten des progressiven Steuerfusses geaeussert in der Instruktion fuer die westpreussische Kontribution 1772 an den Praesidentender Oberrechnungskammer Roden. Es heisst indem Protokoll Rodens: ’Wenn ein Reicher 5000 Thaler Einnahmen haette, so koennte er wohl die Haelfte abgeben, weil er dennoch leben koennte; ein Geringerer aber, wenn er 80 Thaler Einnahme haette, koennte davon nicht die Haelfte abgeben, indem er alsdann nichts zu leben haette; bei diesem waere es schon genug, wenn er von 80 Thalern einen Thaler gaebe.’“ – Zakrzewski, Die laendlichen Steuern, S. 83f., in: Gustav Cohn, System der Finanzwissenschaft, Stuttgart, Ferdinand Eule, 1899, S. 262. – Property rights are, typically, not recognized here at all. The royal "right" or prerogative to tax subjects is presupposed. The only consideration is: How much can be taxed away without killing the victim, so that he can be taxed again and again. Presupposed is also that everybody would be entitled to the State’s “services” and disservices, though not to all the private services that could and should be competitively supplied. On the same principle Doctors sometimes charged different prices for medical services and Governments subsidized e.g. bread, transport, rent, other prices, while charging high taxes on supposed “luxuries”. - Everybody ought to pay his way – until disabled. And then he should be covered by his voluntary social insurance, mutual aid, fraternity or, credit contracts or societies or helped by charity. – J.Z., 15.9.90. - DIS., PROGRESSIVE TAXATION

TAXATION: Via taxes productive people are, so to speak, gradually cannibalized, into food for others, over and over again. – J.Z., 4.7.92.

TAXATION: Voluntary taxation would keep taxes few, simple and low. – J.Z., n.d. & 30.10.07. They would be more like voluntary contributions or subscriptions than the currently coercively levied tributes. – They would not tend to multiply the number of taxes, their total amounts and government powers, spending, programs and institutions. – In the absence of territorial supply monopolies, competitive free pricing would tend to become introduced for all competitively provided public services that are really wanted and for the privately supplied competitive services. - J.Z., 30.10.07. - PANARCHISM

TAXATION: Vote no on every tax override." - Gary North, in "reason", Oct. 73. - I'd rather say: Vote no on every tax - except those you impose on yourself only.

TAXATION: Voting: All is does is give you a pick on who will pick your pocket. – J.Z., n.d. - VOTING

TAXATION: Wake up and work for yourself rather than for every bum who asserts his need for your money - through the political channels. – J.Z., 75/81.

TAXATION: Wanninski puts together a model with two tools borrowed from Arthur Laffer of the University of Southern California – the “wedge model” and the “Laffer Curve". Taxes and regulations create a “wedge” between what business pays for labor and capital and what workers and investors ultimately receive. …” - Alan Reynolds, Wedges and Curves, in REASON, 12/78. – REGULATIONS, WORKERS, BUSINESSMEN, LABOR, CAPITAL

TAXATION: Warning! Taxation is hazardous to your liberty. The medieval serf was taxed 25% of his wealth. You, a 'free; American, are taxed more than 45% of your entire wealth." – Source?

TAXATION: We are all being "... extorted by every form of direct and indirect, and unequal taxation." - Lysander Spooner, No Treason, VI/55, in Works, I.

TAXATION: we are all virtually fined by taxation whenever we employ each other." - S. S. Gilchrist, in an essay: The Keynesian Myth and Stagflation.

TAXATION: We are going to tax and tax, spend and spend, elect and elect.’ – Franklin D. Roosevelt. - - At least that promise he did keep. - J.Z., 23. 11. 06. - Nobody can deny that he and his supporters did just that. – J.Z., 7.1.08. - & SPENDING MANIA OF GOVERNMENTS & POLITICAL CAMPAIGNS

TAXATION: We are not the bosses of taxpayers; they are ours.” – T. Coleman Andrews, Director, Internal Revenue Service, 1955. – Apparently, many of his subordinates did need such a reminder. – But, can I, individually, fire them, as their boss? That would really demonstrate my position as their boss. Alas, I could do so only as a voluntary members in a panarchy that no longer satisfied me, so that I would, individually and freely, secede from it. – J.Z., 2.8.08. – PANARCHISM, VOLUNTARY TAXATION.

TAXATION: We are often told that there are many things that must be done on time, such as paying income taxes. The fact is that one need only file on time. Paying later is fine as long as you pay the fine. But because the penalty carries a lower interest rate than many financial institutions pay on the same money, it's practical to procrastinate in paying Uncle Sam." - Les Waas, in OMNI, 1/80, under “Last Word”. - If the penalty consists only on paying a relatively low interest on the amount paid belatedly, then this is fine. To have to pay double the tax, as a penalty, would be another matter. In the first case the advantage would also consist in having to pay the total and the imposed interest from an income much increased, nominally, due to inflation. – J.Z.

TAXATION: We are robbed daily.” – Dr. H. L. Soper, PROGRESS PARTY NEWSLETTER, 10.3.84. – By our supposed protectors. – J.Z., 30.3.84.

TAXATION: We are supposed to pour still more money down the governmental rat-hole!" - Murray N. Rothbard, For a New Liberty, p.199.

TAXATION: We are taxed today in everything we have or do, and tax compounds upon tax." - I. R. Ybarra, THE MATCH, 6/75.

TAXATION: We are, so Mr. Schiff suggests, contributing to our own destruction by paying taxes to a government that engages in so many unlawful and criminal activities that it makes the Mafia look lily-white by comparison. This poses a nice question for the taxpayer: if you cooperate with a thief, doesn't that make yourself the perpetrator of an unlawful act?" - John Chamberlain in THE FREEMAN, 5/76, in reviewing Irvin A. Schiff's "The Biggest Con".

TAXATION: We call ourselves tax patriots. We refuse to pay taxes on patriotic grounds. Paying taxes is actually evil for the country, true patriots don’t finance their own destruction.” – Robert Clarkson of Anderson, quoted in SOUTHERN LIBERTARIAN MESSENGER, 9/81. - PATRIOTISM

TAXATION: We can legislate ourselves into a free-for-all world. I would prefer to pay my money and take my choice. At least in these circumstances, what I see is what I get. In a free-for-all, one seldom gets even this much. What you don't see is what you get, such as a fist in the ear. Those who are productive tend to do poorly in slug-fests, and those who are expert brawlers are not very efficient producers. A world of production can afford a few brawls, but a world of constant brawling starves." - Gary North, THE FREEMAN, 12/73.

TAXATION: We can no longer say that man has a right to enjoy the fruits of his labor, but only that man is permitted to enjoy that which the state does not demand be put to purposes of its choosing." - George C. Leef, THE FREEMAN, 9/78, p.562.

TAXATION: We contend that for a nation to try to tax itself into prosperity is like a man standing in a bucket and trying to lift himself up by the handle.” – Winston Churchill, 1903. – That stupidity is currently practised by most governments, once again, via their bail-out schemes. The only difference is that they are mainly using the inflation tax, just printing and distributing more of their forced and exclusive currency, while continuing their monetary and financial despotism, which caused the crisis in the first place. Their “solution”, as usual, will make matters worse. – J.Z., 13.4.09, 31.7.11. - & SOCIAL ENGINEERING, SUBSIDIES, PROGRESSIVE TAXATION, DEATH DUTIES, COMPANY TAXES ETC.

TAXATION: We don’t seem able to check crime, so why not legalize it and then tax it out of business? – Will Roger. - The biggest criminals, the territorial politicians, were always opposed to the competition from small criminals. – J.Z., 20.9.07. – Although they pretended to be our protectors, they could not even solve this relatively minor crime problem. – Instead, they made it worse, e.g. by Prohibition and the Anti-Drug War. – J.Z., 15.4.09. Their prisons have often been described as schools for criminals. Their legislation multiplies at least what theyconsider to be "crimes" against their laws, even when such actions have no other and real victims. - J.Z., 24.3.11, 7.8.11. - & CRIME, JOKES

TAXATION: we each work more than two and a half hours of each eight hours just to pay our taxes." - Lowell Ponte, Libertarian Handbook, 1973, p.34. - If not even more, considering the numerous indirect taxes and the monopoly prices that are legally forced upon us. - J.Z., 7.8.11.

TAXATION: We have a system that increasingly taxes work and subsidizes non-work.” – Milton Friedman, 1977. – Well, it could hardly exist if it did not exact a tribute upon all work and private property and were confined only to those, who do not work and who do not own any property except themselves. – J.Z. 7.10.07. - TAXATION ON WORK & SUBSIDIES FOR NOT WORKING!

TAXATION: We have direct control over the dollars that we spend individually; however, we lose direct control over our dollars when we pay them out as taxes. The control then becomes diffused and political and hard for any one of us as an individual to do very much about." - Earl L. Butz, THE FREEMAN, 7/74.

TAXATION: We have had enough. We are not going to pay these taxes." - The 'King' of Warragamba, a self-proclaimed monarch-tax-resister, 11.9.75. – An international survey about the successes or failures of all these individual tax resisters would be enlightening. At least in one US case, 1990, a cruel and unusual punishment was involved: The “culprit”, an old and very sick man, was imprisoned, far away from his wife, and the tax “debt” was increased beyond any possibility of paying it. – His wife was forced to sell some of his books to get some cash. – I believe governments are “setting deterrent examples” by such treatments. - J.Z., 18.10.08.

TAXATION: we have not been getting our money's worth...throwing increasing amounts of the taxpayer's money at very real social and economic problems has made them worse, not better." - Milton Friedman, NEWSWEEK, 9.2.76.

TAXATION: We have vast resources, surpluses, and a residuum of collective loyalty and humanitarianism. Neither of those conditions need prevail. Taxes can end both, and there are signs they are working to that goal ..." - GALAXY, 9/77, p.83.

TAXATION: We know that because of a man's right of ownership, it is morally wrong for any of his wealth to be taken from him without his consent. But this is precisely what taxation does: the citizen is forced to pay money over to his government. Only one conclusion can logically follow: All taxation is theft." – Paul Lepanto, "Return to Reason”, p.135.

TAXATION: We live in a land of real people, most of whom react to government as that thing which eats out their substance (Jefferson's phrase from the Declaration of Independence).” - Lowell Ponte, Libertarian Handbook, 1973, p.34. – Alas, most Americans, too, have turned into territorial statists and have granted the State the sanction of its victims. – J.Z., 17.10.08.

TAXATION: We live in a very low state of the world, and pay unwilling tribute to governments founded on force. There is not, among the most religious and instructed men of the most religious and civil nations, a reliance on the moral sentiment, and a sufficient belief in the unity of things to persuade them that society can be maintained without artificial restraints, as well as the solar system, or that the private citizen might be reasonable, and a good neighbor, without the hint of a jail or a confiscation." - Ralph Waldo Emerson, Politics, quoted in Sprading, Liberty, p.152. – FORCE, STATE, GOVERNMENTS, COMPULSION, COERCION, TERRITORIALISM

TAXATION: We may not always recognize it, but government plays a bigger role in our lives than any other single person or institution. We spend nearly half of our lives working to pay for it. Children spend more time in government schools than they do with their parents. Birth, death, marriage, every area of our lives feels the influence of government.” - Harry Browne, when Presidential Candidate of the Libertarian Party - & GOVERNMENT

TAXATION: We need tax cut not tax shifts.” – Ed Clark

TAXATION: We need tax relief, not tax reform. Repeal Marxist Income Tax!" – Source?

TAXATION: We pay more taxes to have more public money wasted and still more taxes extracted from us. – J.Z., 14.12.85.

TAXATION: we prey on ability and willingness in order to subsidize indolence." - Charley Goodman, "All these rights", THE FREEMAN, 1/78.

TAXATION: we see a newer, emerging pattern of class warfare: the governing class (or tax consumers) versus working people (or tax payers).” – Timothy Condon, REASON, 9/80, p. 55. - CLASS WARFARE

TAXATION: We shall tax and tax and tax and spend and spend and spend.” – Harry Hopkins, President Franklin Roosevelt’s confidant and alter ego, quoted by Arthur Shenfield in REASON, 8/76. – GOVERNMENT SPENDING

TAXATION: we should ask about every public project, 'Is it worth what it costs if we had to pay for it directly?’ - Earl L. Butz, THE FREEMAN, 7/74.

TAXATION: We should have an end also to … crushing and inevitably inequitable taxation, to the ever increasing and unnatural meddling of politics in all things, …” – Bastiat, in - G. C. Roche III, Bastiat, A Man Alone, p.230.

TAXATION: We should hold elections every year, because there never seem to be tax increases in an election year." - Earl Wilson, READER’S DIGEST, 11/76. - JOKES

TAXATION: We should make it a complete tax strike. Taxes are by now unpopular enough. To stop ordinary taxation you have to refuse to pay money to the government. To stop taxation through inflation you have to refuse to accept payment- if offered in its deteriorated legal tender money. – J.Z., 1.6.76.

TAXATION: We should not only be able to laugh about the antics of taxation but even to laugh it out of existence! – J.Z., 2.8.08. - JOKES

TAXATION: We should not see to it that there are more involuntary taxpayers but, rather, that there are no involuntary taxpayers at all. – Fair prices or charges for monopoly services supplied can only be determined once the monopoly is abolished and free competition is introduced for all public services that are still wanted. - J.Z., 1.11.92, 25.7.98.

TAXATION: We should start a subscription fund to retire all tax collectors immediately, on a full pension. – J.Z.

TAXATION: We tried, in vain, to elect genuine representatives – not taxation authorities and automated robots for producing still more wrongful laws. – J.Z., 18.7.85, 4.8.08. – REPRESENTATIVES, POLITICIANS

TAXATION: We will allow politicians to reduce or abolish taxes, but it is time the voice of the people was heard clearly before they are increased.” – Viv Forbes, in FINANCIAL REVIEW, 14.7.77. – V. F. was a prominent spokesman for the libertarian Progress Party in Queensland. Now he is mainly concerned in countering the myths about Global Warming and its supposed causes. – J.Z., 4.8.08. – REFERENDUM, PEOPLE

TAXATION: We work 2 days in 3 for the whackers in Canberra - to do for us what we could do better for ourselves!" - John Singleton, 20.10.76.

TAXATION: We, as taxpayers, have to PROVE why we should be ALLOWED to keep our OWN money that we have WORKED for, whilst there are more and more people trying to show us that welfare recipients not only have a RIGHT to more and more of our money, but that they should be ENCOURAGED to take it. THAT is the evil of the welfare state." - Bob Howard, in "FREE ENTERPRISE", Sept./Oct. 75.

TAXATION: We, i.e., the non-statists, should all be freed from taxes, instead of being merely equally or fairly or monopolistically, always coercively, collectively and territorially taxed. – There is no justification for imposed tributes. - J.Z., 1.12.92, 25.7.08, 7.8.11.

TAXATION: We, rather than politicians, bureaucrats and their favorites, should be free to spend all the money we have earned or have acquired otherwise, quite rightfully and peacefully. – J.Z., 5.11.92, 25.7.08.

TAXATION: We’re in a position where half the people in America work for a living and the other half vote for it.” – William Simon, quoted in REASON, Feb. 78, p.25. - VOTING, WELFARE STATE

TAXATION: We’ve been taxing work and output and employment and we’ve been subsidizing non-work, leisure and unemployment. It should come as no shock from Economics 1 to find that in the United States we’ve been getting so little work and output and employment while we’re getting so much non-work, leisure and unemployment.” – ON LIBERTY, Nov. 79, “Laffer’s Logic”. – SUBSIDIES

TAXATION: We’ve got what it takes to take what you’ve got.” – Internal Revenue Service. - JOKES

TAXATION: wealth can be obtained by earning it, which is hard; or by seizing it - which is easier. (*) Of course, if a man seizes another man's property, the action is called a crime; but if done by a government, it is called, say, taxation or devaluation, or even deficit financing.” - Eugene Guccione, in "reason”, 4/74. - "(*) I would add here: "for criminals and governments." – J.Z., 75.

TAXATION: Wealth should only be transferred by individual agreements not by collective voting. Individual budgeting rather than government budgets! - J.Z., 28.1.02. - BUDGETS, WEALTH, EXCHANGE, SUBSCRIPTIONS & CONTRIBUTIONS VS. TRIBUTES OR TAXES

TAXATION: Weisman’s portrayal of the city government as a ‘fiscal junkie’ ”. – Lawrence White, LIBERTARIAN REVIEW, 11/77. – Governments have a “fix” on your earnings. – J.Z., 21.11.82.

TAXATION: Well, fancy giving money to the Government! // Might as well have put it down the drain. // Fancy giving money to the Government! // Nobody will see the stuff again.” – A. P. Herbert, “Too Much!”

TAXATION: What a pity that there is no karate or judo defence against the taxation department. – J.Z., 9.1.78. – Love and hate are so often mobilized. Why is the hate against taxes not yet sufficiently mobilized? – Who does really love taxes except bureaucrats and politicians and their hand-out recipients? But even these recipients do, sometimes too often, pay more in taxes than they receive in hand-outs. Have they not learned to count, in government schools? - J.Z., 2.8.08, 24.3.11.

TAXATION: What a predicament we have got ourselves into! Governments which should be our servants have been taken over by politicians who see only the opportunity to hold the intoxicating reins of power. They attempt to regulate our lives rather than discovering our real needs and desires, and they tell us what we are allowed to keep! They penalize us for going to work by stealing our wages through income tax, and they make goods dearer by imposing sales tax, petrol tax and other taxes on the transport of goods." - GOOD GOVERNMENT, 12/75.

TAXATION: What about a bill of Parliament for the needs of the long-suffering and exploited taxpayers and their families? – J.Z., 8.1.97. – They would be helped most by the repeal of all previous tax bills and the resolution to pass no further ones. – J.Z., 18.7.08, 31.7.11. - LAWS

TAXATION: What an absurdity: When you are a peaceful and productive citizen then you are penalized by thousands of dollars every year, while if you are a violent and convicted criminal thousands of dollars are spent on you every year to keep you in relative idleness and comfort in prison. Does this mean that the top criminals in the country look after the welfare of the minor ones, who were caught and convicted? – J.Z., 20.8.82, 24.3.11. - TAXATION, CRIME & PRISON SENTENCES

TAXATION: What awesome U.S. weapon wipes out millions every year? - - Income taxes!” – Al Jaffee, in MAD. - JOKES

TAXATION: What can a man put his money in these days? Taxes. You needn’t worry about what to do with your money. That’s all been arranged for you… Everybody’s money is to go into taxes. … That’s going to save you a lot of trouble.” –Will Rogers. – JOKES, INVESTMENTS, CAPITALISM, WORRIES

TAXATION: What can a refusal mean to a society? If you refuse to pay taxes, and enough do so, you bring down any present society." - D. Barbour, in GEGENSCHEIN 33. - The author should have replaced "society" by "State". – J.Z.

TAXATION: What can you expect from people who let themselves be taxed without even protesting against it? Well, their ancestors put up with slavery and serfdom for hundreds of years, mostly without protests and resistance, too. And the more they are owned by their territorial governments the more nationalistic they feel – or the more they are indoctrinated to be and remain obedient tax slaves. – J.Z., 20.9.92, 25.7.08.

TAXATION: What do you get for your tax burden? Politicians, bureaucrats, policemen and thousands of laws and regulations. Are they worth their "price"? – J.Z., 6.8.03. - BUREAUCRACY, POLITICIANS, WARS & WASTE & OBSTACLES, Q.

TAXATION: What good does it do you to brag that you are a free man? Don’t you have to pay taxes, punctually? Although you dislike them?" – Wilhelm Busch, Schein und Sein, Unfrei. (J.Z. tr. of the German original: “Was hilft es dir, damit zu prahlen, // Dass due in freies Menschenkind? // Musst du nicht puenktlich Steuern zahlen, // Obwohl sie dir zuwider sind?“)

TAXATION: What has the government done with our taxes? – J.Z., 7.6.74. – One might as well ask: What hasn’t it done already, to us and others, at our expense? – J.Z., 17.4.09. – Q.

TAXATION: What if they had a tax and nobody came?" - FREEDOM TODAY, April 76. - "Gave" might be better than "came". - J.Z.

TAXATION: What if they had a tax and nobody gave?" - SLAM slogan. - TAX STRIKE

TAXATION: What is at stake is your job, your taxes, the prices you pay, and whether the money you earn by your work is spent by you for what you need, or by government for what someone else wants.” - President Nixon, THE AUSTRALIAN, 30.1.73.

TAXATION: What is money? Something that stays only shortly in your pocket - on the road to the tax department." - B. & A. - JOKES

TAXATION: What is needed is NOT 'tax reform' which is a euphemism for 'tax him more and me less'; NOT more taxes on business which are always ultimately passed on to the consumers; NOT more taxes on more things or on 'bad' things like cigarettes, poor housing, or luxury cars; NOT tariffs or savings bonds or deficit spending or inflation or any other gimmick that politicians pull to hide the magnitude of their theft from the wage earner. What is needed is an end to taxes!" – David Taylor.

TAXATION: What is taxation but theft on a gigantic and unchecked scale?" - Murray N. Rothbard, reason, 3/73.

TAXATION: What is the justification for requiring hard-working people to give up a substantial portion of the fruits of their labor?” – Joseph F. Johnston, Jr., The Limits of Government, Regnery Gateway, Chicago, 1984, p.181. – Only in communities of volunteers would there be nothing wrong with that. But most of them would rather pay contributions for services they do want than taxes for services they do not want. – J.Z., 2.10.07. - TAXATION UPON LABOR, Q.

TAXATION: What kind of taxes should be levied? That is like a discussion among slaves on what kind of chains they should wear. – J.Z., 5.11.92. – DIS.

TAXATION: What percentage of old age security schemes remains untaxed at every stage, if any, in the payment of contributions, in the investment of the funds and in they payouts when due, apart from the inflation tax which the monetary despotism of central banks imposes upon all of them and apart from the anti-economic regulation and direction of such investments? The legislation on the subject seems also to be changed every few months to every few years, thereby almost destroying any security expectations. – How much of all these funds has to be legally and coercively “invested” in governmental insecurities, which will motivate the imposing, if repaid at all, further future taxes upon the insured and their children and grandchildren? – Not only goods and services are x times subject to taxation. – All these schemes are accompanied by the false pretence that the employer pays half of the contributions, while, in reality and economically, these amounts, too, are part and parcel of all wages and salaries paid. – In Australia it even happened with superannuation of public servants, that the total of the “government’s contribution” was paid-in only afterwards, when the superannuation became due, i.e., these amounts were not productively invested on long term, earning high interest, thus increasing the average superannuation. In some countries the funds went straight into general revenue and payouts came from general revenue. There are many kinds of frauds involved in almost every governmental old age insurance scheme and social insurance laws and controls. Thus, in future, governments should have no say at all in this sphere, just like they should have no say when it comes to religion, science, technology, the arts, free enterprise, free exchange and transport and communications, generally, on any genuine individual rights and liberties. – J.Z., 18.7.08, 24.3.11. - SOCIAL SECURITY, PRIVATE PENSION- & SUPERANNUATION SCHEMES, OLD AGE SECURITY, SOCIAL INSURANCE, Q.

TAXATION: What percentage of your tax money do you get back in form of services? – J.Z., n.d. – And what percentate in form of disservices? - J.Z., 31.7.11. - Q.

TAXATION: What these examples of private garbage-collection and fire-protection services mean is that not only do taxpayers normally pay for government services used by others, but they pay much more than necessary because of government’s insistence on trying to be an entrepreneur.” - R. J. Ringer, Restoring the American Dream, p.153.

TAXATION: What we have is the ugly spectacle of a societal gang war, each group attempting to manipulate government so as to enrich itself at the expense of the others. This is possible - indeed, inevitable - because our tax system is not rooted in principles of justice (as are, e.g. our property and tort law)..." - George C. Leef, THE FREEMAN, 9/78.

TAXATION: What we want is not “tax reform” or proposals to shift the tax burden – we want real tax reduction, reduced government spending and less government.” – NEW GUARD, July 78, Advice and Consent Section. – Just compare what just such limited ideas led to, from the time of the American Revolution to our time. Ideally, all of us would only be members of communities of volunteers, all only as much in taxes, contributions and subscriptions as their members want for themselves and as many or as few governance or management – as they want for their own affairs. Collective, monopolistic, territorial and coercive decision-making, in this sphere as in all others, even if done by "representatives" elected by a temporary and usually vastly under-informed majority, will always lead to bigger burdens, more waste, most destruction, more killings and lesser rights and liberties. Under panarchism this process would be reversed, for some very fast, for others only gradually. Each could then become as free or unfree as he wants to be, as fast as he desires, with only criminals and aggressors with victims excepted. These would then encounter not only statist and bureaucratic protection and defence, but free enterprise in this sphere as well and potential victims, who are enlightened, well organized, armed and trained in the defence of their basic rights and liberties, with no pity or excuses for the remaining offenders. – J.Z., 4.8.08, 7.8.11.

TAXATION: What would remain of the present States and of their tax system, if State membership and subordination became voluntary, through secessionism, and exterritorially autonomous competition with it from the various panarchies of volunteers if that re-organization became recognized officially and by the vast majority of all citizens, either in a quite rightful, rational and peaceful reform or by a revolution? What kind of taxes would remain, if any? And would not all these former tribute extortions then become automatically voluntary taxes or contributions – among the remaining volunteers of the State, then, through this voluntarism also reduced merely to an exterritorially autonomous body of volunteers, one in competition with all the other and very diverse panarchies of the secessionists? It would be a political Reformation and even a much more tolerant one than the religious one was, originally. It took decades before it became sufficiently tolerant towards its own dissenters. – J.Z., 29.4.09, 24.3.11, 7.8.11.

TAXATION: What would you pay for a certificate which you needed to possess in order to stay out of jail? There is no denying that such a certificate is an economic good. (*) For the same reason, the fact that the US government accepts its own dollars as tax money gives the dollar exchange value. No backing behind the dollar? Nonsense! It’s backed by Faith and Force.” – Albert the Unknown, LIBERTARIAN CONNECTION, 8/11/75. – (*) For you, subjectively. – J.Z. - TAX FOUNDATION MONEY

TAXATION: Whatever it is you want, there's bound to be a direct alternative available that requires only your own decision. If there are people you want to aid, for example, you can accomplish far more by keeping the taxes and paying the money directly to those people.” - Harry Browne, How I Found Freedom in an Unfree World, p.99. - His wrongful assumption was that we are already as free to act as we ought to be. He was right only for some cases, including some not generally known or appreciated, but not right in his generalization of these cases. At last in his title he still admitted that this world is still unfree. In details he denied it. Did he ever list the free and the unfree aspects in two separate lists? - Was he successful in refusing ALL or ANY tax payments? - J.Z., 24.3.11.

TAXATION: Whatever measures the government takes to improve productivity will fail if we continue foolishly to tax success at the present rate.” – Henry Meulen, THE INDIVIDUALIST, Dec. 76, p. 69. – How come some people want to entrust even the promotion of productivity in private industry to the most wrongful, wasteful, irrational and inefficient public body of all, namely, the territorial government? – Nor would increased productivity, if the government could achieve it, help us enough, seeing the barriers the government puts upon exchange or sales, especially via monetary and financial despotism, protectionism, compulsory licensing, bureaucratic regulations and controls. - J.Z., 4.8.08. - PRODUCTIVITY

TAXATION: whatever politicians support tax-wise, it’s the wrong proposal for the citizen.” - Carl Worden. – quoted in: Carl Vigo - - POLITICIANS, CITIZENS

TAXATION: Whatever the sacrifice, our government must live within its income; and the amount of that income which is taken from the people must be drastically reduced." - Admiral Ben Moreell, Log I., p.36.

TAXATION: What's this country coming to. Paying ten times as much in taxes as we used to and we are not governed 1/10th. as well." - Will Rogers. - Did he ever recognize that a "good" territorial government is impossible, as long as its territorialism is upheld? - J.Z., 24.3.11.

TAXATION: When a government takes tax monies from its citizens, and redirects that money in the form of subsidies, bounties, concessions and grants to industry, it acts in defiance of the market." - Giles Edwards, in pamphlet "FREE ENTERPRISE".

TAXATION: When a nation is burdened with taxes, nothing is more difficult, as I would say, impossible, than to levy them equally. The statisticians and fiscal authorities no longer even try to do so. What is still more difficult, however, is to shift the tax burden onto the shoulders of the rich. The State can have an abundance of money only by taking from everyone and especially from the masses." - Bastiat, quoted by G. C. Roche III in Frederic Bastiat, A Man Alone, p.238.

TAXATION: When a self-governing people confer upon their government the power to take from some and give to others, the process will not stop until the last bone of the last taxpayer is picked bare.” – Howard Kershner - UNDER DEMOCRACY & ITS TRANSFER PAYMENTS, ITS ULTIMATE END

TAXATION: When everybody has got money they cut taxes, and when they’re broke they raise ‘em. That’s statesmanship of the highest order.” – Will Rogers, The Autobiography of Will Rogers, 1949, p.17. – JOKES, TAX POLICY, DEPRESSIONS

TAXATION: When government monetary policy shrinks the value of the dollar, prices respond by moving up. Since a dollar is the yardstick by which all wealth is measured and taxed, measuring one's wealth with smaller dollars creates the illusion of greater wealth and compels the payment of higher, unwarranted taxes." - Irvin A. Schiff, "The Biggest Con." – INFLATION, PROGRESSIVE INCOME TAX

TAXATION: When government needs money, citizens are forced to contribute.” – SLL leaflet. – Regardless of whether they need or want government services or not. – J.Z., 4.8.08.

TAXATION: When in Rome, do not render unto Caesar." - Jim Clarkson, in SOUTHERN LIBERTARIAN MESSENGER, 2/77.

TAXATION: When in the ancient world the entire economic fabric rested on personal slavery, the greatest minds could not see it. To Xenophon and Plato, and Aristotle, and the Romans it seemed that things could not be different, and that slavery was the inevitable and natural result of wars, without which, in turn, humanity was inconceivable. Similarly, in the Middle Ages, and until very recently, people could not perceive the significance of landed property and the slavery consequent upon it, which upheld the entire economic structure of the Middle Ages ... And even so, today, nobody sees, or wishes to see, that in our time the enslavement of the majority of men is based on the money-taxes, levied upon land and otherwise, which are collected by government from the subjects, - taxes collected by the administration and the army, the very administration and army which subsist upon these taxes." – Tolstoi, in Sprading, "Liberty and the Great Libertarians”, p.324. - Even Tolstoi was, apparently, unable to visualize property in land without slavery, feudalism and serfdom. - J.Z., 24.3.11. - DIS.

TAXATION: When more of the people's sustenance is exacted through the form of taxation than is necessary to meet the just obligations of the government and expenses of its economical administrators, such taxation becomes ruthless extortion and a violation of the fundamental principles of a free Government.” - Grover Cleveland. - Are there any just obligations of the government - within territorial States? Rightly they can apply only to those who have given their individual consent to a government, not to those who did not vote or voted against it. - J.Z., 24.11.02. - TAXATION BECOMING EXTORTION

TAXATION: When normal returns after taxes are down to 5 to 20 %, then reducing a tax rate of 40% plus becomes, subjectively, the major incentive. – J.Z., 2.10.88, 24.3.11. – Probably more ingenuity is spent upon tax reduction and tax avoidance schemes than on increasing productivity, which might merely mean still higher taxes. – J.Z., 5.8.08. - Not the weight of the chains or tax-burdens should be objected to but, objectively, their imposition on involuntary and innocent victims. - J.Z., 24.3.11. - INCENTIVES

TAXATION: when one may take by law that which another has put his labor into, we have injustice of the keenest kind, for the denial of a man's right to possess and enjoy what he produces is akin to a denial of life..." - Frank Chodorov, The Income Tax, p.45.

TAXATION: When people are forced to support a government institution, many can no longer afford to patronize a private one." - Duncan Yuille, in leaflet on public education.

TAXATION: When people learn that government robs them while they work or save, it is little wonder that an underground economy flourishes. People cheat on their taxes, shift from saving to speculation, and are willing to go bankrupt or undertake any other kind of behavior which will give them a break because they know their government will not give them a break.” - Newt Gingrich, Window of Opportunity, A Blueprint for the Future, p.189. - GOVERNMENT & UNDERGROUND ECONOMY, BLACK MARKET

TAXATION: When people pay for things they want through prices, they pay for the services that they want and use, and they are not forced to pay for services which they do not want and do not use. On the other hand, when people are forced to pay for government services, they must pay for programs somebody else uses. For example, a school tax is levied against all taxpayers – not just the ones who send their children to government schools.” - Sam Wells Jr., OPTION, 4/.77.

TAXATION: When plunder hears the name of impost fortitude is intimidated and wisdom confounded: resistance shrinks from an alliance with rebellion, and the villain remains secure in the robes of the magistrate.” – Samuel Johnson: The Rambler, Aug. 17, 1751.

TAXATION: When putting one’s hand into the own pocket one usually notices that the hand of the public was already there beforehand.” – Graffiti – (“Beim Griff in die eigene Tasche stellt man immer wider fest, dass die oeffentliche Hand schon vorher drin war.”)

TAXATION: When taxes are too high, people go hungry.” – Lao Tse. - The victimized and exploited people - yes. The rulers and public servants: No. They will as a rule not reduce their take but merely their handouts to others. Rulers have long learnt how to "suffer" the miseries of their subjects with dignity and in luxury for themselves. - Their victims do often only rebel when matters have already somewhat improved for them and they have more expectations for the future. Total misery can be totally depressing. But in extreme cases, like that the last inmates of Nazi extermination camps, even they will sometimes rise in desperate and even partly successful resistance. - J.Z., 22. 11. 06. – By now in somewhat developed countries, almost all with very high taxes, productivity is so high that the problem even of the poor is rather obesity than hunger. – Part of the high taxes is used to feed those made unemployed by xyz laws. – J.Z., 6.10.07. - & HUNGER

TAXATION: When taxes first started … who started ‘em anyhow? Noah must have taken into the Ark two taxes, one male and one female, and did they multiply bountifully! Next to guinea pigs, taxes must have been the most prolific animals.” – Will Rogers, Autobiography, p.345. - JOKES

TAXATION: When the federal government is held to its proper constitutionally limited functions, tax reform will take care of itself.” - Rep. Ron Paul, ISIL LIBERTY QUOTE LIBRARY 03. – Even constitutional taxes are not yet voluntary taxes. – J.Z., 10.1.08. – I know of no proper functions of any territorial government. – J.Z., 13.4.09. - TAX REFORM & CONSTITUTIONALISM, TERRITORIALISM

TAXATION: When the government is short of money – cut spending; when the government has a surplus of money, cut taxes!” – Dick Rider, in ENTERPRISE, Simi Valley, Calif., 7.3.84. - Alas, who is free and authorized to cut the spending and the taxes? Only the government is. We are almost fully disfranchised in this respect, too! – J.Z., 18.7.08. - CUT TAXES & GOVERNMENT SPENDING

TAXATION: When the government raises taxes, that's not a gouge, but when you try to earn money so you can pay your taxes, that's a gouge." - Robert LeFevre, in "GOOD GOVERNMENT".

TAXATION: When the honest workers were finally forced to turn over ALL their property to The Wise Ones (who would then properly handle their affairs for them), the workers realized they had slowly but surely been robbed and sold into slavery. In desperation, they shot the bureaucrats and burned down the taxing bodies." - Dr. R. S. Jaggard, JAG, 31.3.74.

TAXATION: when the results of their efforts are taken from them, when the prospect of possession and enjoyment is diminished, they lose interest in producing. Why work when there is nothing in it? And this disinterest in production arises whether the insecurity of ownership is caused by regular visits from marauders or tax collectors. The name or the uniform of the absconder makes no difference to the one deprived of his property; he sees no point in trying to improve his circumstances, in widening his horizon; his point of interest is mere existence. That is civilization in decline." - Frank Chodorov, The Income Tax, p.125.

TAXATION: When they take your money to finance the further taking away of your liberty, then you should at least become angry rather than remaining a willing and rationalizing victim. – J.Z., 75/81.

TAXATION: When you examine any species of government intervention, you find that it is made possible by revenues. A government is as strong as its income. Contrariwise, the independence of the people is in direct proportion to the amount of their wealth they can enjoy. We cannot restore traditional American freedom unless we limit the government's power to tax. No tinkering with this, that, or the other law will stop the trend towards socialism. We must repeal the Sixteenth Amendment." - X. - While this could be a start, it should definitely not be our final aim. - J.Z., 24.3.11.

TAXATION: When you pay taxes you help thieves stealing from yourself. – J.Z., 6.6.92.

TAXATION: When you shear sheep, you do stop when you come to the skin. But the Chancellor is fleecing people and he is practically down to the skin." - Mrs. Margaret Thatcher, as opposition leader, THE SYDNEY MORNING HERALD, 19.4.75.

TAXATION: When you withhold money from the government, you're acting as you would when you lock your home at night to protect it against thieves. In either case, you're acting to preserve what is yours from those who would like to take it without your consent." - Harry Browne, How I Found Freedom in an Unfree World, p.189.

TAXATION: Where income is derived from privilege - and every privilege rests on the power of the State - it is eminently fair that the state confiscate the proceeds, although it would be fairer if the state did not establish the privilege in the first place..." - Frank Chodorov, The Income Tax, p.238.

TAXATION: Where is the man who can honestly say: 'I like paying taxes'? – J.Z., 25.8.75. – Q.

TAXATION: Where there is a man who does not labor because another is compelled to work for him, there slavery is.” - Leo Tolstoy - "The Slavery of Our Times" (1900). - TAX SLAVERY & OTHER SLAVERY

TAXATION: Where there is an income tax, the just man will pay more and the unjust less on the same amount of income.” – Plato, Republic, ca. 428-348 BC. – As if taxes had anything to do with justice rather than injustice. – J.Z., 22.7.08.

TAXATION: Whether the taxes were collected in the name of ‘the people’ or 'the king’ made little practical difference." – G. C. Roche III., Frederic Bastiat, A Man Alone, p.26. - One might add: The only difference is that kings demanded much less. – J.Z.

TAXATION: Which is really crushing our lives more? Paying the taxes or doing the taxes? I think it’s close.” – Jerry Seinfeld, SeinLanguage, Bantam Books, 1993, p.106. - Having to work on my tax declaration is always and every year the most despicable job for me. - J.Z., 24.3.11.

TAXATION: While all taxes are morally and economically objectionable, to initiate tax reduction and maximize resistance against the remaining taxes, all indirect taxes should be abolished first. Then only those who pay direct taxes should be allowed to vote. Otherwise we would continue to experience absurdities like “pensioner power”, by people, who failed to insure themselves well enough for their old age, and to see to it that they could freely and safely do so, using their voting power to get old age security out of current tax payments. – J.Z., n.d. & 22.7.08.

TAXATION: While I would welcome the removal or at least reduction of any taxes and government spending, I do oppose the introduction of any new taxes and budget items or the increase of any old ones. – J.Z., 26.8.98, 17.7.08. - TAX & SPENDING OR BUDGET REFORM

TAXATION: While individuals must produce more in order to earn more, governments must find new methods of expropriation. The tax levies must be raised, or new taxes imposed. But taxation is often unpopular, and may precipitate the downfall of governments. This is why inflation is such a convenient source of revenue." - Hans Sennholz, "Inflation or Gold Standard?” p.17. - Inflation is also an indirect tax and it also becomes easily unpopular as soon as it becomes progressive and it has also strongly contributed to the downfall of many governments, through its effects, not through wide-spread awareness of cause and cure. – J.Z. - The gold standard is not the only sound and rightful alternative value standard, even though many believe that it is. Those believers in the classical and redemptionist gold standard are mostly unaware that the gold-clearing standard, without gold redemptionism, is even more rightful and sound and can be used for many more free exchanges than the gold-redemption standard. - It is quite independent of the amount of gold coin that are available for gold-redemption purposes. With it the last trace of an exclusive currency or monopoly money disappears. It is or should be among the options under a free choice for value standards. It should be no more exclusive than a gold-redemption standard should be or any exclusive exchange medium or clearing avenue. - J.Z., 24.3.11. - GOLD REDEMPTIONISM, GOLD CLEARING STANDARD, VALUE STANDARDS, FREE CHOICE AMONG VALUE STANDARDS & MEANS OF EXCHANGE.

TAXATION: While it is probably morally better to steal from the government than through the government, it is still something an honest man would be disinclined to do, particularly when part or all of his income is already financed out of taxes and when, apart from getting part of the own money back, one might easily come to increase, through one's thefts. the tax burdens upon others. – J.Z., 6.6.73.

TAXATION: While some say: 'We need taxes to run the country’,' I say: It would , indeed, be impossible to mismanage a country as badly as happens now, if there were to be no compulsory taxation to finance this mismanagement. – J.Z., 11.9.81. - DIS., RUNNING A COUNTRY? STATISM, TERRITORIALISM, GOVERNMENTS

TAXATION: While taxation is still continued and to speed up its progressive reduction and final abolition, they should be as few, as direct, as visible and as painful to every taxpayer as possible. – J.Z., 23.9.91.

TAXATION: WHITE PAPER (ON TAXATION) SPURS INFORMED DEBATE.” – That was the heading of an article today. What are the bets that the information offered there is not extensive enough to include the replacement of compulsory taxation for the spending on various services and disservices, whether they are wanted or not by the taxpayers, by various voluntary contribution schemes only for wanted and ordered services, competitively supplied.? – J.Z., 14.6.85. – But we should not really blame these statists, in their antics, for we, the libertarians, have not yet bothered to collect and closely examine, discuss and publish all the voluntary taxation proposals so far made! – The few I came across I micro-fiched. I have not yet seen an anthology and thorough discussion of all of them. Have you? - J.Z., 4.8.08. – However, I find it interesting the Google offers a huge number or results upon a search for "voluntary taxation". - J.Z., 7.8.11. - VOLUNTARY TAXATION.

TAXATION: Who are ever taxed? Individuals only. Who have property that can be taxed? Individuals only. Who can give their consent to be taxed? Individuals only. Who are ever taxed without their consent? Individuals only. Who, then, are robbed, if taxed without their consent? Individuals only." - Lysander Spooner, A Letter to Grover Cleveland, p.9.

TAXATION: Who believes in working for the benefit of bludgers? – J.Z., 25.8.75.

TAXATION: Who but politicians, bureaucrats and other monopolists and parasites have ever been “saved” by taxation? – Need we really be saved from a fate “worth than death”, namely from being really free to take care of ourselves, via free societal, community, social, insurance and credit, mutual aid and constitution contracts and personal laws, after free individual and group secessions, under free enterprise, free competition, free exchange and free markets in every sphere, as free or even as unfree as we ourselves want to be? – J.Z., 3.3.95, 18.7.08. - FREEDOM, ANARCHISM, PANARCHISM, TOLERANCE

TAXATION: Who likes taxes except the small group of bureaucrats that handle the mazuma?" - Mickey Spillane, My Gun Is Quick.

TAXATION: Who many times have you been promised taxes would not go up? How many times has it proven true?" - SOUTHERN LIBERTARIAN MESSENGER, Winter 75/6. – Q.

TAXATION: Who needs taxes except politicians, bureaucrats and other unproductive people? Who needs politicians and bureaucrats? Almost all the needs of the other groups of unproductive people can be met by their insurance or credit contracts. Otherwise, they should depend on charity from relatives, friends and strangers, given quite voluntarily. – J.Z., 9.9.81. – However, if they want to establish a Welfare State or other state socialist utopia for themselves, at their own risk and expense, they should not be obstructed in such efforts. – But they should not be given votes or taxing powers over the affairs and properties of others. - J.Z., 18.10.08. - PANARCHISM

TAXATION: Who voted for any of the taxes imposed upon him? Who granted them his individual consent? Who really trusts any politician or bureaucrat with that much of his own earnings? Let us have some REAL voting and decision-making for a change, instead of confining ourselves to merely picking territorial masters over us via majority voting. - J.Z., 24.5.00, 2.2.02. - COMPULSORY VS. VOLUNTARY TAXATION

TAXATION: Whoever desires liberty should understand these vital facts, viz.: (1.) That every man who puts money in the hands of a ‘government’ (so called), puts into its hands a sword which will be used against himself, to extort more money from him, and also to keep him in a subjection to its arbitrary will. (2.) That those who will take his money, without his consent, in the first place, will use it for his further robbery and enslavement, if he presumes to resist their demands in the future. …” - Lysander Spooner

TAXATION: Whoever is taxed is not properly represented. The proof lies in the robbery involved! (People would certainly not pay the same amounts voluntarily.) – J.Z., 13.2.81.

TAXATION: Whoever pays Danegeld never gets rid of the Dane!" - Ancient proverbial wisdom.

TAXATION: Whoever pays the piper calls the tune!’ does not apply here. In practice the taxpayer has less influence on how his tax 'contribution' is to be spent than those have who clamor for handouts or for the 'right' to dispense them. They have to pay the piper but do not even get to select the tune. - J.Z., 13.2.81.

TAXATION: Whoever successfully dodges taxes, i.e. withholds his funds from being abused by politicians or bureaucrats, is a public benefactor rather than a criminal. – J.Z.

TAXATION: Why “enforce involuntary servitude through taxation?” – Jack Anderson and Perry Miles, A Constitution for a Moral Government, p.46 or 49?

TAXATION: Why are the people starving? // Because those above them are taxing them too heavily. //That is why they are starving.” – Lao Tzu, Tao The Ching, No.75, p.107 in the tr. of John C. H. Wu.

TAXATION: Why can't we just take the taxes home and give them the rest?" - Dennis Burgess, 2.11.76. - JOKES

TAXATION: Why does a slight tax increase cost you $200 and a substantial tax cut saves you 30 cents? - Peg Bracken - & ITS FALSE PRETENCES, JOKES, TAX INCREASES & TAX CUTS, Q., JOKES

TAXATION: Why is any surplus always expropriated?" - PROGRESS PARTY - There is no “surplus” - except in the eyes of the tax collectors! – J.Z.

TAXATION: Why is it that only with taxes one does not think one gets one’s money’s worth? – Because one doesn’t. – J.Z., 4.5.94.

TAXATION: Why should a childless person or a couple who believe in 'zero population growth' be forced to contribute to the maintenance of large families?" – George Hardy, The Doom of the Welfare Society, p.12.

TAXATION: Why should the taxpayers be forced to pay for the upkeep of their natural enemies?” – A. Bertram Chandler, Gateway to Never, p.192. - GOVERNMENT, POLITICIANS, RULERS, STATESMEN, BUREAUCRATS, PUBLIC SERVANTS

TAXATION: Why should those, who work harder, longer or better, be taxed more? – J.Z., 78, 7.8.11. – Q.

TAXATION: Why should we pay politicians and bureaucrats anything for what they are doing to us? At least let us reduce all these tribute payments to voluntary contributions by their believers, voters and members only, for their own favorite projects. – J.Z., 2.3.94, 24.3.11. – VOLUNTARY TAXATION, PANARCHISM.

TAXATION: Why should you pay taxes to politicians and bureaucrats when they give you nothing worthwhile in return? – J.Z., 81.

TAXATION: Why taxes at all, for any wanted goods and services? And why impose taxes for any unwanted goods and services? – J.Z., 25.7.08. – Q.

TAXATION: Why work harder only to see the government taxing most of your extra earnings away, directly and indirectly? Why shouldn’t we rather loaf than the bureaucrats do, at our expense? – J.Z., 17.11.97. – BUREAUCRACY, PROGRESSIVE TAXATION

TAXATION: Why work when there is nothing in it? Why go into business to support politicians?" - Frank Chodorov, Out of Step, p.226.

TAXATION: why would you ever pay for something you didn't want - you nuts or something?" - ST. JOHN'S BREAD, undated.

TAXATION: Why, the government is spending money like a 14 year old kid in a candy store with a credit card." - Don Douchette, Houston, Republican candidate, quoted in NEWSWEEK, 29.7.75. - JOKES

TAXATION: Why, the very first act of the State, the compulsory assessment and collection of taxes, is itself an aggression, a violation of equal liberty, and, as such, vitiates every subsequent act, even those acts which would be purely defensive if paid for out of a treasury filled by voluntary contributions." - Benjamin R. Tucker, Relation of the State to the Individual.

TAXATION: Will any honest worker be allowed to keep enough of his own earnings to make it worth his while to keep trying?" - Dr. R. S. Jaggard, JAG, 31.5.75.

TAXATION: With 40 per cent of our income, an equal proportion of our liberty has gone, liberty to employ one another, to trade and to prosper. And also, this same 40 per cent appears in the price of everything that we make and buy and sell, while weakening the home market puts us right out of every market beyond our shores. – Lastly, and most serious of all, we are forcing a lower standard upon our children.” – Ernest Benn, speech, 27.1.31, in Deryck Abel, Ernest Benn, Counsel for Liberty, p.159. – I have often wondered whether the famous/infamous UK Labor Party politician, also called Benn, was one of his children or grandchildren. – That kind of “fate” can happen to any libertarian. - J.Z., 5.8.08.

TAXATION: With a fraction of the present tax burden, each could buy better services and these only the ones he wants. But presently the politicians and bureaucrats won't let us proceed in this way. Shall we tolerate this condition forever? – J.Z., 23.8.81.

TAXATION: With government out of your pocket and out of your wallet you could pay your own way. – J.Z., 17.5.89.

TAXATION: With money you can employ soldiers and with soldiers extort money." - Caesar, or ascribed to him. - Since then this method has become standardized and popularized under various cover names. – J.Z.

TAXATION: With taxation you pay your money - but you don't get your goods and services for it. – J.Z., 76.

TAXATION: With taxes they force you to dig your own grave and force you to an early death. – J.Z. – 13.7.75.

TAXATION: With taxes we buy barbarism, and primitivism. – J.Z.

TAXATION: With taxes you pay through the nose - for things you do not want at all. – J.Z., 80.

TAXATION: With the coin which I do not owe it - and which it steals from me it defrays the expense of the persecution which it inflicts upon me. Let us beware the encroachments of the State, and suffer it to be nothing more than a watch-dog." - Taine - The territorial State is much too dangerous for our own genuine individual rights and liberties to be considered as a watchdog. We might as well try to use a wild lion or tiger as a watchdog for ourselves. - J.Z., 24.3.11.

TAXATION: With your money, taken forcefully out of your pay-packet or added to the cost of the beer and petrol and household goods you buy, politicians are buying the subservience and political indebtedness of a whole range of community groups and organizations." –Peter Samuel, THE BULLETIN, 24.5.75. -We have during the last few years seen numerous mass meetings and demonstrations, e.g. of pensioners, women, public servants and especially of teachers, all asserting their 'rights" and using their voting powers against those who pay their bills. – J.Z.

TAXATION: Withdraw from the tax racket - by opting out of the State! – J.Z., 75. - SECESSIONISM

TAXATION: Without a big tax rip-off, there wouldn't be a big government." - E. Raymond, Pastor, - LAISSEZ FAIRE REVIEW, 5-6/74. – BIG GOVERNMENT

TAXATION: Without income taxation, socialism is impossible; with it, socialism is inevitable." - Frank Chodorov, The Income Tax, p.213. – STATE SOCIALISM

TAXATION: without punitive taxes, people would be able to voluntarily provide for themselves." – Workers Party, Economic Policy, NSW State Elections 1976.

TAXATION: Woman in taxation office: 'But surely, you're not going to tax me on money I've spent!'" - Mike Connolly, READER’S DIGEST, March 74. - JOKES

TAXATION: Work hard. You have a government to support.” - Pauline Russell, quoted in Meulen's THE INDIVIDUALIST, Oct. 1971, p.52. - & GOVERNMENT

TAXATION: Work harder and still harder - until you get finally almost nothing but your tax receipts in return and are barely kept alive out of your nationalized earnings? – J.Z. - Haven't we got enough records already of dozens of millions of forced labourers and their living conditions, in totalitarian States? - J.Z., 7.8.11.

TAXATION: would seem self-evident that if no one would accept social security payments there would be no governmental plundering to finance the program. And the same is true of thousands of other ignoble schemes." - NOTES FROM FEE, 3/78. - But this would go rather against human nature than with it. It would be more in accordance with human nature not to part with the tax money in the first place, to hang on to one's own for one's own purposes - if a practicable technique for this can be found. – J.Z.

TAXATION: Would you put a gun at your neighbour's head and demand his money? - Certainly not! Would you hire one of our professional Chicago hoodlums to put a gun at your neighbour's head and demand that he share his money with you? - Certainly not! Would you hire an IRS agent to do the same thing? To demand that your neighbour share his money with you? - Careful!" - SOUTHERN LIBERTARIAN MESSENGER, Winter 75/6. – Q., JOKES.

TAXATION: Writing off the State as a cost of living/business is like driving around dragging a log chained to your car and writing it off as an expense instead of taking a bolt cutter to the chain.” – P. W. Hermeneutics, THE CONNECTION 141, p.69. - JOKES

TAXATION: Yet political thoughts predicated on the submergence of the individual are not alien to democracies. In our own country, for example, President Johnson declared: “We are going to take all of the money that we think is unnecessarily being spent and take it from the ‘haves' and give it to the 'have-nots' that need it so much.” And, in a similar vein, President Kennedy said: "Ask not what your country can do for you - ask what you can do for your country." - W. H. Peterson, THE FREEMAN, 2/75, p. 110. - One might also add Malcolm Fraser's "Life was not meant to be easy!" and the fact that his Australian policies helped to assure to make this saying would come true. – J.Z.

TAXATION: You can only get other people's money by force and violence. The violence may be concealed, as when the force is the tax collector's hand in your pocket." - Milton Friedman in Australia, 1975, p.65.

TAXATION: You can’t trust anyone with your money except your personal friends and close family members – and you can’t even trust all of them very far with it. – J.Z., 10.4.79. – So why should we entrust politicians and bureaucrats with our money? – J.Z., 23.10.08. - POLITICIANS & BUREAUCRATS

TAXATION: You cannot bring about prosperity by discouraging thrift.” – “Not a Lincoln quotation but a 1942 leaflet by the Committee for Constitutional Government.” – Gorge Seldes, The Great Quotations. - PROSPERITY

TAXATION: You cannot trust the government with your money." - Henry Hazlitt, in THE FREEMAN, 7/74.

TAXATION: You complain - but why do you keep on paying taxes?" - The 'King' of Warragamba, a self-proclaimed monarch and tax-resister, 13.9.75. - He is also an individual secessionist! I would rather say: Secede from all tax gatherers! - But so far territorial governments have not made that any easier than refusing to pay taxes. – I do not expect they ever will, unless their hands are forced. – J.Z., 18.10.08.

TAXATION: You don’t have to support the Welfare State. You don’t have to support the socialists. You don’t have to support anyone but yourself and your own family. If this puts the politicians and the bureaucrats out of a job, well, that’s too bad. They’ll just have to go out and get honest jobs like the rest of us, and do something productive for a change.” – René Baxter, FREEDOM TODAY, 9/75.

TAXATION: You earn it or try to spend it and the politicians immediately claim they have a right to it." - From 76 Libertarian Party election leaflet..

TAXATION: You have a legal right to avoid taxes, even valid Constitutional taxes. – “The legal right of a taxpayer to decrease the amount of what otherwise would be his taxes or altogether avoid them, by means of which the law permits, cannot be doubted.” – (Gregory vs. Helvering, 293 U.S. 465.) – Your property is, after all, yours,. It does not belong to the government. You must, however, use legal means to do so. Otherwise you place yourself in jeopardy under Amercian law.” – FREEDOM TODAY, 9/75. – Underlining by me. – Under laws and court decisions they do not even have the time, interest and energy to read! How much simpler and how much more just would be the democracy and voluntarism of individual and group secessionism and of voluntary associationism under personal laws and full exterritorial autonomy? It would not only made tax avoidance but also tax evasion rightful and easy. - J.Z., 4.8.08. – LAWS, PANARCHISM, SECESSIONISM

TAXATION: You may do everything, put up the most dangerous demand, in theory, make literary revolutions, depose of God – but the tax legislation they prefer to do by themselves.” – Kurt Tucholsky, Politische Texte, S.89. – J.Z. tr. only of: “Alles darfst du: die gefaehlichen Forderungen aufstellen, in abstracto, Buecherrevolutionen machen, den lieben Gott absetzen – aber die Steuergesetzgebung, die machen sie doch lieber selbst.” - LEGISLATION, POLITICIANS, PARLIAMENTS, REPRESENTATION, DEMOCRACY, FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION

TAXATION: You may sue your neighbor if he has stolen a potato from you. But try to sue the State which under the name of dues and taxes steals from your property every day, in order to fatten a legion of bureaucrats with the produce of your sweating.” – Georg Buechner.

TAXATION: You now work Monday and Tuesday for us, Wednesday for yourself and Thursday and Friday for us." - John Singleton, 20.10.76, impersonating a bureaucrat.

TAXATION: You pay your taxes voluntarily - or else! – J.Z.,11/73.

TAXATION: You Pays Your Taxes, But You Gets No Choice.” - Arthur Seldon, Charge, Temple Smith, London, 1977, p.59, heading of part 2. - CHOICE

TAXATION: You should have the opportunity to pick and choose only the services you want and should have to pay only for these. – J.Z., 19.9.81.

TAXATION: You take my life when you take the means by which I live.” – Shakespeare. – Those, who have him digitized should be able to add the place of this remark of his. – J.Z.

TAXATION: You want more production? Don't tax overtime!" - John Pepper, Berrima, 1974.

TAXATION: You yourself should "have the final say about how you'll spend your money - not the politician" or bureaucrat.” - John Curvers, election leaflet, 1976.

TAXATION: You, the American taxpayer, are victim to a parasitical government that is spending the United States into economic and political oblivion." - Tax Rebels Of America, quoted in the Libertarian Yearbook, 73.

TAXATION: Your car registration sticker is a token of your enslavement by bureaucrats. – J.Z.

TAXATION: your father, like everyone else, finds government taking half of his pay check to pay for all the bureaucracy it takes to do things we should be doing for ourselves.” - Ronald Reagan, p.146, in “Sincerely, Ronald Reagan”, a collection of his letters, compiled by his secretary Helene von Damm, 1976. - & BUREAUCRACY VS. SELF-HELP

TAXATION: your government decreed that robbery was legal and resistance to robbery illegal." - Ayn Rand, Atlas Shrugged, p. 986.

TAXATION: Your involuntary contributions to the power addiction of and to territorial governments. – J.Z., 10.12.92, 25.7.08.

TAXATION: Your money is your life." - adv. in THE FREE MARKET, 30.3.73.

TAXATION: Your money is yours." - Ayn Rand in AYN RAND NEWSLETTER, 2/63.

TAXATION: Yours Is Not Your Own", – Frank Chodorov, The Income Tax..., chap. II, heading, p.9. - One might add: “or so the tax commissioner says.” – J.Z.

TAX-INQUISITION: A term coined by Eugen Duehring.

TAXPAYERS: Taxpayers are unrepresented or outvoted victims of the territorial establishment. – J.Z., 20.4.89, 5.8.08.

TAX-SOCIALISM: A term coined by Eugen Duehring.

TECHNOLOGY: Carnegie justifiably boasted that he transported four pounds of raw materials – iron ore, coal, lime, and manganese – hundreds of miles to his Pittsburg steel mills, “and these four pounds of materials I manufactured into one pound of steel, for which the consumer pays one cent.” – Cited by L. Huberman, We the People, rev. ed., New York, Harper, 1947, p.218. Here quoted from: L. S. Stavrianos, The Promise of the Coming Dark Age, 1976, p. 26/27. – The current steel prices do also, to some extent, indicate how much the US Dollar has been depreciated since C. made this statement. – J.Z., 15.4.09. - I guess that it would be very difficult to use a general steel index, since there are so many different kinds of steel, as opposed e.g. to rare metals. But the range of price increases for standard kinds of steel, since Carnegie's times, would be interesting. - J.Z., 23.3.11. - MARKET PRICING, STEEL

TERM LIFE INSURANCE MADE SIMPLE: Lamenting | Term Life Assurance Lamenting ...- 18 Jul 2011 – The cover story of the November 24, 2008, issue correctly points out, “In a Free Market, Money Doesn't Grow on Trees. ... - While that is obvious, almost anyone, who does have something to offer, which others want, can issue his or her own money in some or the other form of clearing certificates, redeemable in what he has to offer. - J.Z., 25.7.11.

TERMINOLOGY: Hard money vs. soft money. Metallically redeemable money vs. metallically irredeemable money, usually called fiat money. Covered money vs. uncovered money. Scarce or hard money vs. easy money. (Sound money should be easy to get as well, once it is competitively supplied. Whether it has a metallic cover and a redemption claim to it then it is not necessarily better than a currency that merely reckons soundly in rare metal weight units. The latter can be supplied independent of the quantity of rare metals in circulation and in stock. The former is dependent upon that supply and this cover by the issuer, i.e. it is not limited merely by the readiness to accept foundation of the issuer for wanted consumer goods and services. Ultimately, all goods and services could be freely exchanged by barter, much easier through free clearing, using sound value standards. These exchanges should not be limited by providing only a limited quantity of exchange media, limited to the availability of a scarce metal like gold or silver, a single commodity, or in the case of a parallel currency using both metals, by the quantity of these two metals available to the issuers. Flawed and misleading terms are useful merely as debating points but not to clarify an issue. INSUFFICIENT DISTINCTIONS, BLACK & WHITE TERMS, POLIRIZED TERMS, INAPPROPRIATE TERMINOLOGY, FALSE ASSUMPTIONS, FLAWED CONCLUSIONS, DEFINITIONS, GENERALIZATIONS

TERRORISM: strong as terror gripped, it was a transient glue.” – Donald Kingsbury, Courtship Rite, ANALOG, 29 March 82, p.153.

TERRORISM: Terran Archives 2803: Terrorists were bands of desperate persons much like governments in that their chief occupations were murder and extortion. In his excellent study, “From Baboon Food-Gathering Bands to Consciousness”, Nomis of Noom demonstrates at least three differences between terrorists and governments: (1) the alpha male in a terrorist band was usually an intellectual, whereas in government he was usually a lawyer: (2) terrorists did not print their own currency, but governments did (*); (3) terrorists usually murdered small groups (from two or three to a few dozen), whereas governments murdered millions. – Otherwise, the two types of organization were indistinguishable from any other hominid predator-band from the autralopithecines ca. 4,000,000 B.C.E. to the dawn of True Consciousness begun by the evolutionary mutation recorded in this Romance.” – Robert Anton Wilson, Schroedinger’s Cat, p.161. - - (*) Printing and issuing the own currency is nothing wrong – IF it is one soundly founded, with sufficient reflux or acceptance foundation to keep it generally at par with its nominal value and is not an exclusive and forced currency, i.e. one with compulsory acceptance and an enforced value, one that is competitive on a free market for other privately or cooperatively issued exchange media, clearing certificates and value standards. – J.Z., 26.7.08.

TERRORISM: When voluntary paths are blocked then many true believers resort to coercive methods and hold even mere subjects of coercive territorial government collectively responsible for the wrongful and intolerant actions of these governments against dissenters. Admittedly, all terrorists are territorialists as well and as such we should never give in to them and their terrorist methods. But that does not mean that we should not respect their right to do their own things to or for themselves, at their own risk and expense. That might be the most effective way to disarm them, together with a thorough discrediting of almost all methods based upon collective responsibility notions. Realizing all economic rights everywhere, especially full monetary and financial freedom, even if at first only applied among volunteers, would also greatly reduced the conditions under which private terrorism tends to grow. – J.Z., 6.11.80, 4.6.82, 26.7.08, 24.3.11.

THE NEW AMERICAN: In a free market, money doesn't grow on trees ... - Cached - This digital document is an article from The New American, published by American Opinion Publishing, Inc. on November 24, 2008. The length of the article is ...

THEORIES OF HISTORY: Numerous fallacies have been connected with the theory that one or [the] other group has secretly manipulated world politics for their own ends undetected until the author’s own exposé was triumphantly published. The most notorious of such theories is that persistently suggesting that the world is in the hands of Jews. The Russian tract “The secret of the Jews” (possibly drawn up by the Russian secret agent and occultist Yuliana Glinka) formed the basis for the “Protocols of the Elders of Zion” which purported to be documents proving the existence of such a conspiracy, all totally fabricated. Norman Cohn and Léon Poliakov have shown that the Nazi use of the conspiracy theory owed a great deal to anti-Jewish and anti-masonic propaganda of certain Roman Catholic writers at the turn of the century. …” – Philip Ward, A Dictionary of Common Fallacies, The Oleander Press, 1978, ISBN 0 900891 14 0, p.54/55. - - Altogether there are over 1000 conspiracy theories or hypotheses or mere assertions. Certainly, they cannot all be right and the vast majority at least is quite wrong. – Almost all are full of “personal thinking” rather than “causal thinking”. – Compare my proposal for an encyclopedia of the best refutation of popular errors, myths, prejudices etc. which are obstacles to progress. - J.Z., 9.9.08. - Perhaps we need a separate one to refute all the conspiracy theories. Among them are also the hypotheses, fallacies and speculations on present private banks supposedly being able to create credit or deposits out of thin air, lend them and charge interest on them. - In such notions either the clearing involved or the debt claims upon the credit recipients, are ignored. - J.Z., 24.3.11. - CONSPIRACY THEORIES, ANTI-SEMITISM, JEWS, “PROTOCOLS OF THE ELDERS OF ZION” A FORGERY, DIS.

THEORIES: People are all too ready to subscribe to a single theory that appears plausible to them and then to reject all others wholesale. – J.Z., 4.4.76. – This certainly saves them much reading and thinking but hardly assures that they come close to the truth on a subject. – Miseans, for instance, have a plausible crisis theory. But that does not authorize them to reject about 150 others, although some, many or even most of them are flawed, incomplete or altogether false. But are all of them, without close enough examination? – I deny that the Misean and Rothbard theory and assumptions and conclusions are optimal against the threats of inflation, deflation and stagflation. Hayek came, finally and rather belatedly, closest of them to the full monetary freedom solution. As far as I know. But I do not know as yet of any of the Austrian school whose writings are superior, in this respect, to those of Ulrich von Beckerath, Professor Heinrich Rittershausen and Dr. Walter Zander. – But then I haven’t had access to all of the old and new monetary freedom writings of the Austrian School – and of any other school. Probably no one has had access to all of these writings as yet, because most of these writings are still largely unknown or long out of print and not all of them have been micro-fiched or scanned in by myself and others. - J.Z., 20.7.08, 7.8.11. - SINGLE VS. MULTIPLE HYPOTHESES.

THINK: Insurrection of thought always precedes insurrection of arms.” – Wendell Phillips: Speech on John Brown, Harper’s Ferry, November 1, 1859. – Quoted in Seldes: The Great Quotations. - It should. Unfortunately, for most insurrections, revolutions and resistance or “freedom”–fighters it does not or does not sufficiently. – How many have, for instance, seriously considered the problem of how to finance a revolution, using monetary freedom options rather than the self-defeating monetary despotism options that were used in all too many revolutions. I know only of two people who did, Ulrich von Beckerath and Georg Holzhauer. – J.Z., 21.7.08. – REVOLUTION, INSURRECTIONS, FINANCING THEM

THORNTON, MARK, Money: Sound and Unsound - December 3, 2010, reviewed by Mark Thornton. - "The book does a marvellous job of presenting all the important theoretical debates on money. There are of course some complex historical episodes that are beautifully disentangled, particularly with regard to the Great Depression. The book is filled with analysis of policy, including some of the very best discussions of inflation and deflation. Finally, in terms of moving forward, the book contains several important essays on the gold standard and how to implement it." - Roy Halliday, in section on Genuine Money. - Book's Author? - J.Z.

THRIFT: Capitalism derives its name from the fact that capital is essential to the success of any venture, whether it involves an individual, a corporation, or a nation-state. Capital is formed by thrift. The person who accumulates capital is personally rewarded and, at the same time, a public benefactor.” – Percy E. Greaves, THE FREEMAN, 3/77. – Cooperative savings or credit unions can also save capital and productive cooperatives could gradually build up a capital of their own, by going into debt, issuing bonds, to purchase the enterprise their members work in, and repaying them with part of the returns from the additional productivity they could thus achieve. – J.Z., 2.8.08. SAVINGS, CAPITAL, PURCHASE OF ENTERPRISES, COOPERATIVES, EXTENDING CAPITALIST INCENTIVES TO EVERY PRESENT MERE EMPLOYEE

THRIFT: Thrift in inflationary times, that ends up with large “savings” in form of largely depreciated paper money, is not rational form of thrift but a form of self-destruction. The most thrifty way to utilize fast depreciating currencies is to spend them as soon as possible, turning them in commodities of some lasting value. – Those who often speak about thrift and savings do rarely talk about a sound precondition for sound savings and investments, like stable and competing currencies, using sound and self-selected value standards, gold clauses etc. and also freedom from taxes, regulations and other interventions, like price controls, monopolies. - J.Z., 15.2.86, 25.7.08, 7.8.11. – DIS.

TIGHTNESS OF THE ECONOMY: The economy is tight, indeed, it’s hanging in a noose put around its neck by the government. – J.Z., 19.8.75.

TIMBERLAKE, RICHARD H., Prof.: Free Market Money in Coal Mining Communities. - Free Market Money in Coal-Mining Communities | The Freeman | Ideas ... - ... - Cached - by SAP - Related articles - 28 Jun 2011 – Richard H. Timberlake is professor of economics, University of Georgia. This article originally appeared in the Journal of Money, Credit, ...

TIMBERLAKE, RICHARD H., How Gold Was Money--How Gold Could Be Money Again - April 1995. - "The only way to ensure that gold becomes a viable money is first to separate the gold from the state and the state from any further role in the operation of a gold money. Indeed, the separation of gold and the state would begin as an economizing measure--a form of privatization. Here are all those thousands of tons of gold lying idle and useless. Give them back to the people from whom the gold was unconstitutionally snatched in 1934." - Roy Halliday, in section on gold.

TIMBERLAKE, R. H., Prof., Private Production of Scrip-Money in the Isolated Community - - by R. H. Timberlake - 1987 - Cited by 27 - Related articles - The possibility of free market money. Ever since the abolition of the operational gold. Standard in the early 1930s, the federal government through its agent ...

TIMBERLAKE, RICHARD H., The Theory of Free Banking: Money Supply …, 1991, - <product> <article-title>The Theory of Free Banking: Money Supply ... - - by R. H. Timberlake - 1991 - Intellectually, if not politically, free market money is at the cutting edge of monetary economics and a force to be reckoned with. - The private store currencies that he described and that were issued in an astonishing number of cases, do certainly not need any gold- or silver-cover or redemption, even when their prices are marked in gold- or silver weight units. - His historical writings on this special subject are the best that I have encountered. I am still unaware of his monetary theory. - If it is based on the experience with coal mining money issues, then it is as likely to be as sound as the monetary freedom writings of Ulrich von Beckerath. - Alas, I was unable to download this article but merely a review page. - J.Z., 27.7.11.

TOKENS: Token money is optional, competing and honest money, market rated and freely accepted, at least locally, or refused, or discounted by all but the issuers. It obliges only the issuers to accept it in all payments are par with its nominal value. It will tend to motivate also the debtors of the issuer to accept it in order to pay their debt with them to their issuer. Thus a local and considerable readiness to accept them can be established for them. In other locations they would suffer, if accepted at all, a considerable foreign exchange discount, which would drive them soon back to their local issuers for payments to them for their goods and services, at par with the nominal value of the tokens. – J.Z., 26.2.10, 24.9.10.

TOKENS: Token or ticket money, purchasing vouchers, service and goods warrants in standard denominations are, to some extent, money substitutes. They are voluntarily offered, accepted by potential users and finally used by consumers to purchase anything that it offered in them by their issuers. They can be quite honestly issued, accepted and used as self-help alternatives to government currencies that are still all too monopolized, coercive and fraudulent. They can offer better value standard than are offered now in most governmental monopoly monies. They do require a sufficient local readiness to accept them. E.g. my own certificates, redeemable only in my LIBERTARIAN MICROFICHE PUBLISHING microfiche, could not serve as a local currency, far less as an international one, for lack of demand for such goodies. In other words, all such issues are quite naturally self-limiting. No more of them could be issued than would be found useful to issue and to accept. But as many could be issued and locally supplement the official money supply and, partly, replace it with something better for their issuers and acceptors. Precisely for that quality governments tend to suppress all such issues when their local circulation reaches any significant volume. As optional, not legal tender means of payment, market rated, discountable against their value standard and refusable by all but their issuers, they are quite rightful, honest and useful, providing a self-help option in a sphere that is full of governmental coercion, monopolism, interventionism, prohibitions, obstructionism, dishonesty and fraud. They are self-supporting and self-limiting. The tokens issued by governments are almost the opposite in every respect. Nevertheless, they can be legally and juridically imposed upon involuntary victims, upon a whole and country-wide economy and render it correspondingly incomplete and ineffective. Their acceptors would not have to use them themselves and directly but can pass them on, as means of payment, to those people who, finally, would use them as intended by their issuers. – J.Z., 26.2.10, 24.9.10. - There is a vast experience with various token-money and emergency money issues. Collectors have provided a large number of texts about them, bringing tens of thousands of instances, among them many sound ones. We could and should learn from these experiences, especially once we did up information about them that go beyond the interests of mere coin and note collectors. - J.Z., 7.8.11.

TOOLS: I don’t like to contradict your friend. Especially since he’s not here to defend his position. But the fact is, Gigi, that there are no jobs at all without tools. Every job in the world is tool connected. There aren’t any exceptions. Of course, it’s true that when a new tool is introduced, right at the place where that tool is applied to the job, some people may be ‘dis-employed’. I use that term rather than unemployed because, in fact, more employment occurs just on account of that tool. While the tool displaces some, it causes jobs for others who make that tool – and for those who sell it and who service it. And since tools do a better job than we do by hand with our very limited time and energy, we begin to reduce the critical scarcity of all those scarce things we’ve been talking about.” – Robert LeFevre, Lift Her Up, Tenderly, p.90. - JOBS, MACHINES, UNEMPLOYMENT, MACHINES, AUTOMATION, SCARCITY, SHORTAGES

TOOLS: American workers have been provided with more and better tools than have any other workers in the world, with the result that output and wages are higher here than anywhere else. It has been estimated that our superior tools (mechanical power an labor-saving devices) have expanded our natural human energies to the equivalent of a billion extra workers!” - Henry Grady Weaver, The Mainspring of Human Progress, revised edition, FEE, 1953, p.240. - MACHINES, AUTOMATION, ENERGY, POWER

TOOLS: Proof of Worthiness. Profit is the proof of the worthiness of production; loss is the proof of its unworthiness, of the waste of the energy and thrift that provided wrong tools of production, or of the job destroying rapacity of the tax gatherers or of workers employed in their operation. The greater the profit, the greater the incentive for expanding production and progress while loss is the proof that progress has stopped. It is not profit that is evil, it is the enemies of profit who are evil, for if they prevail, millions must die as a spreading dearth of tools blights capacity for survival production. - - With tools men can produce ten to twenty times as much as without them, with the tool providers getting but one-twentieth to one tenths of the multiplied production.” – Enders, M. Voorhees,”The Uncommon Man”, quoted in THE FREEMAN, 2/78. - PRODUCTION, PROFIT, WASTE, LOSS, MACHINES, DIS.

TOTALITARIANISM: After the defeat of the totalitarian Nazi regime in WW II - did German minds finally and quite consistently turn to the opposite of all totalitarian institutions, namely to individual liberty and rights in every sphere, to voluntary communities under full exterritorial autonomy only? Far from it. For the victors were territorialists too, even though most of them were democratic ones. The very moral and intellectual morass and the resulting laws and institutions that led from the Weimar Republic to the Nazi regime, in the first place, kept their minds captive and allowed them no more than to establish another territorialist federal democracy and Welfare State system, which, during future man-made crisis times could lead, once again, to the rise of another totalitarian regime, with much hatred against foreign competitors or groups of immigrants or members of minority groups as scapegoat for the results of the own still all too popular wrongs and mistakes, in Germany as well as almost anywhere else in the world. - If you consider that far-fetched, consider the proliferation of mass murder devices and their stockpiling, even by "democratic" governments. The use of these indiscriminate mass murder devices would be even more indiscriminately mass murderous than were the mass murder camps of the Nazis. Also contemplate central note issuing banks with legal tender powers as the preconditions for further inflations, deflations, stagflations and their mass-unemployment, without which the Nazis could never have risen to political and war-making power. – They had also taxation, imposed territorial legislation and public debts in common with all the other democratic states, and the decision-making monopoly power on war, peace and international treaties. Consider also the mass murders committed by democratic governments via indiscriminate air raids with conventional bombs. The difference between the attack on Dresden and that on Hiroshima is only one of degrees. – J.Z. 23.2.95, 18.7.08, 25.3.11, 7.8.11. – DEMOCRACIES, TERRITORIALISM, PANARCHISM

TOTALITARIANISM: One of the proper answers to the emigration restrictions of totalitarian and authoritarian regimes are unlimited asylum and free immigration to all political, economic and other victims of such regimes who managed to escape them. Other answers are the rightful and necessary law repeals to achieve full employment, paid for in sound competitive currencies, an abundance of housing, even if initially only in form of emergency shelters, which can be cheaply mass produced, starting with tents and sheds, in the long run by a quite free building and housing market, numerous untaxed and unregulated profitable investments, free enterprise, free trade, especially in the monetary and financial sphere. – J.Z., 25.2.86, 25.7.08.

TRADE BALANCES: Active and passive trade balances exist only in the imagination or in the faults of trade statistics.” – Ulrich von Beckerath, Die Durchfuehrung der Vorschlaege von Milhaud, 1934, p.5. – They can at most come into existence, as artificial and enforced non-market phenomena, under protectionism and exchange rate and currency controls and would disappear without them. They seem to exist only under the wrongs and absurdities of monetary despotism and foreign aid instead of monetary freedom, free investments and free trade. – In the long run all sound credits are paid back and all unsound one are more or less lost. – Under full freedom there would not be too many unsound exchanges and credits. - J.Z., 16.7.08. - ACTIVE & PASSIVE TRADE BALANCES, EXCHANGE RATE CONTROLS, SHORTAGES OF FOREIGN EXCHANGE

TRADE: Freedom in transactions is an absolute principle.” – Leonard E. Read, Who Is Listening? p.153. - That means full freedom in transactions with territorial governments as well and that requires individual secessionism and voluntary associationism under personal laws, i.e. full exterritorial autonomy for such communities. R. never arrived at that conclusion but stuck with the limited government concept applied to a whole territory and all its population and, to that extent he remained still an authoritarian or statist. – But he did stand up for the kind of panarchism, voluntarism and experimental freedom that is involved in monetary freedom. - J.Z., 15.10.08. - TRANSACTIONS, COMMERCE, CONSENT, PURCHASE, PRICING, SELF-OWNERSHIP, SELF-DETERMINATION, SELF-HELP, FREEDOM OF ASSOCIATION, FREEDOM OF CONTRACT, INDIVIDUAL SOVEREIGNTY, PANARCHISM, ETC.

TRADE: The principle of trade is the only rational ethical principle for all human relationships, personal and social, private and public, spiritual and material. It is the principle of justice.” - Alan Greenspan, THE OBJECTIVIST, July 66, quoted in O'Neill: Ayn Rand, p.49. (Also in: Ayn Rand: The Virtue of Selfishness, p.31.) And then Alan Greenspan worked for decades in the powerful, monopolistic and coercive central banking system of the U.S.A., mostly acting and speaking as if “proper” interest rate manipulation for its monopoly money would be all that is required for a free and healthy economy. By how much did the value of the US dollar decline under his chairmanship? - To that extent he, too, acted like a totalitarian. – Seeing just one aspect or fragment of liberty and rights is simply not enough. - J.Z., 15.10.08. - CENTRAL BANKING, INFLATION

TRADE: The Realist is not afraid of commerce; for trade promotes more than material benefits - it bears the light of knowledge, elevates the arts and animates good will, which is the essence of brotherhood. Trade opens the resources of the world to the world, and is the natural process by which, ultimately, the myriad peoples of the world will evolve to one harmonious society. For trade is the "Diffuser of Knowledge, the Eradicator of Prejudice, the Extinguisher of War." - I. A. Akeroyed, in GOOD GOVERNMENT, 10/77. - Trade can never be quite free without full monetary and financial freedom. - J.Z., 25.3.11.

TRADE: Trade has never been and can never be fully free without monetary and financial freedom, which includes the right to issue standardized value tokens, to use any kind of standard of value and to use any possibility for clearing. Too many Free Traders have overlooked this aspect and still do. They have also overlooked that within enterprises alternative free trade relationships have to be introduced to that of the employer-employee relationship - which, all too much, only organizes antagonism instead of common interests. - J.Z. 16.7.84. – They have also overlooked that territorialism constitutes the greatest obstacle to Free Trade in every sphere. – J.Z., 15.10.08.

TRADE: Trade with the enemy and thus make a friend out of him. – J.Z., 72. – Offer his subjects quite rightful war and peace aims, which would mean their liberation, instead of the wrongful war and peace aims of their ruling regime. Offer truths and facts to the victims of despotic regimes in “trade” for its lies and propaganda. Make long-term free trade agreements with all the governments in exile set up to represent all of those, who escaped a regime and wish for genuine self-government or self-management and also all the still captive nations and other peoples, groups, communities and societies now under despotic rule. – Exterritorial autonomy should even be offered to the remaining volunteers of a ruling despotic regime. – All its nationalized assets should be offered, in personal shares, to all those, who already escaped it and those still to be liberated from it. - J.Z., 1.8.08. - Compare PEACE PLANS 19 C.

TRADE: We don't have to fear Communism in the area of economic competition. We do almost everything so much better than they do that the sooner the fighting stops and the trading starts, the quicker we win.” - US Ambassador to the UN, Andrew Young, quoted in NEWS DIGEST INTERNATIONAL, 9/77. – If the panarchistic and the monetary freedom competition had also been practised by the West then the communist empire would have disappeared much sooner. – The arms race competition we did engage in brought us merely closer to war and impoverished both sides. - J.Z., 15.10.08.

TRANSFORMINGMONEY.BLOGSPOT.COM: Transforming Money: Free Market Money in a Pop Iconomy - - Cached - 17 Oct 2006 – Free Market Money in a Pop Iconomy. When Roy Lichtenstein first created his lithograph of the ten dollar bill, he was building a bridge ...

TREASURER: I don’t treasure any governmental and territorial treasurer, because all of them covet, steal and rob me of my all too limited income and treasures, under all kinds of false pretences. – J.Z., 18.11.93, 19.7.08. - MINISTERS OF FINANCE, TREASURY, TAX DEPARTMENT, TRIBUTE LEVIERS

TREASURER: The Treasurer puts an extra hand in your pocket.” – Reg Hall, THE SUN HERALD, 22.9.74. - TAX DEPARTMENT, TAXATION, REVENUERS

TREASURY, FREE MARKET OPERATIONS: Book Free Market Money Operations Treasury - LiquidReflection - 3 May 2011 – 2.1 Book Free Market Money Operations Treasury. 2.1.1 - The author reserves all rights to this book . External links ... - I deny that the misnamed operations of the treasury, trying its hand in currency policy, by buying or selling government securities for the government's monopolized and legal tender paper money, do have anything to do with genuine financial or monetary freedom. - J.Z., 23.7.11.

TREASURY: Fitch Rates SSgA's U.S. Government & U.S. Treasury Money Market ... - Cached - 4 May 2011 – The Myth of the Free Market - Money, Interest and Power! Order: Reorder; Duration: 16:48; Published: 2010-01-13; Uploaded: 2011-04-29 ... - MONEY MARKET, FINANCIAL & MONETARY FREEDOM, CENTRAL BANKING, CURRENCY POLICY, OPEN MARKET POLICY

TREASURY: The best government is the government which governs least.’ “The public treasury ought to be kept at all times nearly empty, so that knaves and adventurers may not be tempted to thrust their fingers into it. The people should be rich, and the government should be poor.” – William B. Greene, Address of the Internationals, in his “… Fragments”, p. 255. - GOVERNMENT, TAXATION, PUBLIC SPENDING

TREASURY: The Treasurer has no treasures to spend or to make – but only our treasures to take. – J.Z., 22.9.74. – TAXATION, PROPERTY

TRIBUTES: Taxes are tributes and nobody owes tribute to anyone. - J.Z.

TRUCK SYSTEM: Many mine owners, manufacturers, and large employers of labor practised paying their help in store orders, in order to control their trade and make the extra profit. (*) Surely, under the law, the acceptance or rejection of such orders was purely voluntary, and yet their acceptance for fear of losing their employment was general. (**) – So great did this abuse become that many States have enacted laws compelling corporations to pay their laborers, at regular intervals, in money.” – Bliss, Encyclopedia of Social Reform, New York & London, 1898, p.130. - - Under a shortage of official currency many employers had no free choice. They either paid their workers with truck shop money substitutes or would have to dismiss them and stop production. Often the only thing they could easily get was consumer goods, on credit, and with these they stocked their truck shops. If the workers had understood the cash-flow problems of their employers, they would have done something about them, improving the primitive private self-help issues of the employers and their shop foundation in the truck shop, finally producing an attractive enough local currency with shop foundation, e.g. through their own or a local consumer cooperative. But even now neither the workers nor their employers want to bother learning about monetary freedom options. They rather look for scapegoats or conspiracy theories to explain the results of monetary despotism. As a result the workers suffer from unemployment or the fear of it and the employers under sales difficulties and the threat of bankruptcy. By the way: the unemployed workers could no longer be “exploited”. If the employers could “exploit” them, by employing them, they would have done so. Monetary despotism forced them to either dismiss their workers or pay them in the own and still all too primitive emergency money. Legal prohibitions, going back centuries, prevented these monetary experiments from becoming fully developed into useful local currencies. For this both the employees and the employers deserve to be blamed. Neither had the moral and economic sense to strive for full monetary freedom and independence from the government’s monopoly money. - - While by the nature of their business they were almost always able to pay their employees in assignment upon their goods or in assignments upon a store they organized, they were not always able to pay them in governmental monopoly money whenever this was in short supply, which was the rule, rather than the exception. The truck money they could supply themselves. For the supply of the money of the realm they depended on a monopoly supplier. The historically noted currency famine crisis times were just extreme cases of deflations – or inflations (absence of sound alternative currencies) – of governmental monopoly money. (For inflations this government monopoly money had also to be legal tender. Otherwise honest and fair reckoning in pricing and wages, using sound value standards, could have been continued, with the government’s inflated money only accepted for goods and wages at its market rate, if at all. Other sound and competitively supplied currencies would have been preferred and would have driven out the inferior government money for all but tax payments.) The result of the prohibition of truck-shop means of payment and of other competing currencies was frequent and extensive unemployment. This unemployment was also enforced by the legal right of employees to be paid in official currency, even when there was a shortage of or famine in that currency. The money shortage and its consequences were not abolished by such prohibitions. - - The legal obligation of employers to supply, at regular intervals, a scarce commodity, namely government money, while they themselves were not permitted to try to supply a better currency, amounted to forcing them to engage regularly in short sales, future dealings, promising to supply a monopoly good, the coin or notes of the realm, upon whose production and distribution they had no influence, i.e. to a very risky speculation, for the supply of this scarce monopolized exchange medium. It put all of them in the position of fishermen selling fish before they are caught or of farmers who sold wheat before it was grown and safely harvested. No wonder, that in many instances they failed to obtain this scarce monopoly commodity, government money, in time or in sufficient quantities to pay their full work-force. Thus they had to dismiss at least some of them. Then they were blamed rather than the forced and exclusive currency system. What the workers could have rightly demanded would have been arrangements to make store orders more widely acceptable. A) in stores of other employers. B) In all local stores. C) In consumer cooperatives run by the workers themselves. This could have easily been done, although not legally. It could have given them, locally, almost the same purchasing power as if they had been paid in the coins or notes of the realm, if these had been available in sufficient quantities. They could also have used a sounder value standard in these alternative and competing monies, all freely market rated against their value standard – by all but their issuers. At least some of the alternative monies would have functioned well enough without being dependent upon metallic redemptionism and the runs and hoarding crises associated with it and the deflationary, inflationary and stag-flationary crises produced by monetary despotism. – These alternative currencies could easily have been made inflation- and deflation-proof, by being restrained through voluntary acceptance or refusals and free market rating or discounting for all but their issuers. The issuer must always accept his IOUs at their face value. Gold weight value reckoning, payments and clearing could have been continued indefinitely, if desired by the participants. Gold value clearing and the circulation of sound alternative currencies could have been soundly expanded according to the requirements of industry and trade, even if there had not been an additional production of rare metals. – The opinion that the employers thus made a double profit without extra effort is unfounded in the eyes of anyone knowing the labor and expenses involved in keeping a store. To overcome this unfounded suspicion the workers themselves could have organized the stores, as consumer cooperatives. With their notes they could then have discounted the employers’ bills of exchange, they got in payment from their wholesalers, for goods supplied to them, and could have used these bills in purchases from wholesalers to replenish their diminishing stocks. The wholesalers would thus have got back the real bills they had paid the producers with, in return for supplying the consumer cooperative or other stores with the goods they had received from their producers. In such cases the workers would not only have established a consumer cooperative, i.e. a shop managed by themselves, but also a kind of bank which would have kept their employer liquid enough to pay them in a useful enough and sound alternative currency of their own. Would the employers then claim to be exploited by such a bank? Finally, all the local stores could have associated to form a shop currency bank with local general shop foundation. Provided only that contrary laws could be repealed or safely ignored in a kind of peaceful monetary revolution. – What is the point in discussing this old history? It’s not old hat yet but indicates a frequently recurring problem. The same solution could be applied today to abolish unemployment, depressions, credit restrictions, stop and go policies and inflation. - - Take you pick between the inconvenience of a multiplicity of exchange media and unemployment, depressions, inflations and stagflations. – J.Z., 8/72, 27.7.08, 26.3.11. - - (*) Usually the employers did not get sufficient cash to pay wages with, or soon enough, because there was not enough monopoly money or alternative sound and competing money in circulation. – Trade unionists misinterpreted the situation. They should rather have established consumer cooperatives and then lent their goods warrants to the employer  for wage payments, getting claims to the sales prices of their goods in return. Thus acting like a sound note-issuing bank discounting real bills. To that extent the employer would have become dependent upon them and they could have determined the contents to their consumer cooperative store. - - (**) The false assumption was that the whole country was always sufficiently supplied with the “coin of the realm” and that only the maliciousness and greed of the employers prevented them from paying in these coins and also higher wages. If that supply had been sufficient to easily mediate the sale of all the production of a country, then soon all workers would have been fully employed, would have had the chance to frequently change their jobs, going to those empliters able and willing to pay them higher wages in the country’s common currency and the employers would have no sales difficulties for any wanted consumer goods and services. Free competition between employers, all fully supplied with sound exchange media, would have seen to that. - If you can, please, turn this into a short, clear and catching slogan! - J.Z., 27.7.08, 26.3.11. - MONETARY FREEDOM& ITS DEVELOPMENT, UNEMPLOYMENT, FULL EMPLOYMENT, SALES DIFFICULTIES, ALTERNATIVE & COMPETING SOUND CURRENCIES & VALUE STANDARDS

TRUSTS: Implicit throughout the antitrust system, of course, is the traditional fear of unchecked power, the demand for safeguards, for countervailing authority, for “checks and balances”. The error throughout is that of assuming that free enterprise (*) is unchecked to begin with, an error which is rooted in the failure to observe that it is bounded at all times by the objective laws of the market place, which curtail abuses far faster and far more readily than the whims of governmental authority.” - O’Neill, Ayn Rand, p.60. - - (*) Free Enterprise, Free Trade and a Free Market are not fully free under monetary and financial despotism, especially full monetary and clearing freedom, including free choice of value standards, which Ayn Rand did not favor, either. The demand for labor and for produced goods and services offered for sale was mostly tied either to an exclusive metal currency or to an exclusive governmental currency, later even to a forced paper currency. (Legal tender laws, making acceptance compulsory and introducing a forced and fictitious value to be accepted at par rather than market rated.) As a result mass unemployment and sales difficulties occurred all too often, the “cursed hunger for gold” arose and the shortages of sound paper money, which most governments did not know how to produce or had no interest to offer to the market. Alternatively, inflations and stagflations resulted, all ascribed to supposed flaws in the “free” market or in the supposed but non-existing “laissez-faire capitalism”. Governments believed that they could do better via their monetary despotism, practised by their central banks, by inflating or “regulating” their monopoly money. – J.Z., 26.7.08, 26.3.11.

TRUTH: For someone must propagate the truth in society, as opposed to what is politically expedient. If scholars and intellectuals fail to do so, if they fail to expound their convictions of what they believe the correct course to be, they are abandoning truth, and therefore abandoning their very raison d’être. …” - Murray N. Rothbard, The 100 % Gold Dollar, p 43. – Alas, precisely there he was still too far from the truths of full monetary freedom and free choice in value standards and full freedom for all kinds of clearing transactions, by whatever rightful methods, of due debts and credits. – J.Z., 7.8.08.

TRUTH: Henry George said there is a satisfaction in working for the truth that can be gained in no other way.” – Robert Clancy, GOOD GOVERNMENT, Dec. 73. – Alas, all too many work for what they hold to be the truth but what is, in reality, only another error. These cases would be greatly reduced under full experimental freedom, when we are no longer confined to almost endless and fruitless verbal battles. – For instance: Which is the best standard of value? The most rightful rapid and truth-promoting answer is: Free choice of value standards! – If there is really a best one for all people, all transactions, then this freedom is likely to discover it as soon as possible. - Which is the best kind of government or society? Answer: Free choice of governments and societies for all individuals will supply answer to that question as soon as human beings can supply it. – J.Z., 6.8.08, 26.3.11. - PANARCHISM, MONETARY FREEDOM, FREE CHOICE OF VALUE STANDARDS.

TRUTH: The philosophy of Newton and the metaphysics of Locke appeared; but, like all new truths, they were at once received with opposition and contempt. The English, it is true, studied, understood, and, consequently, admired them; it was very different on the Continent….” – Oliver Goldsmith, The Bee, p.342. – It still takes decades in our times for some important truths to cross the language barrier, even when translations have been provided. That applies e.g. to the writings of the German monetary freedom school, which appeared, at the same time, in English and French, but without significantly influencing English and French writers on the subject. Even in Germany they remained largely unknown and appreciated. – Their publication on the Internet, in English, for several years, did not suffice, either, to make them well known. The Internet is not very efficient, in this respect, either. – J.Z., 6.8.08.

TURK, JAMES & MALONEY, MIKE, James Turk & Mike Maloney: Economic Turmoil Leads to Political Turmoil - - Cached - 21 Sep 2010 – James Turk and Mike Maloney discuss the rise of dictators during tough economic times, and the importance of free market money. ...

TURMOIL, GLOBAL ECONOMIC TURMOIL: It exists only in all too many heads. What has happened and is still happening, are merely the unnatural consequences and disorders of an imposed “order”, mainly that of territorial, monetary and financial despotism, that largely prevents competition, self-help and self-responsibility. Governments are willing to do everything in these spheres except getting out of the way and allowing full self-responsibility, fully free enterprise, exchange, cooperation and competition, under which the good systems, means and methods would soon drive out the bad ones, including all those of territorial governments, unless they are preserved among statist volunteers and at their expense and risk only. – J.Z., 23.10.98, 18.7.08.

TURNOVER CREDIT: Even the largest interest differential between short term and long term deposits for investments (term deposits) will not be a sufficient incentive in all cases, until the sales problem for new and large investments – for their products and services – is sufficiently solved, so that a long-term investment cannot as easily lead to a mal-investment as it does now. Once this sales problem is solved, meaning the future customers of the products of e.g. a new factory or newly cultivated land, are sufficiently supplied with sound exchange media, all long-term investments are under considerable risk from an all too limited supply of sound currency. Once this problem is solved then any excess ready for sale goods and services could be readily converted into medium or long-term investments. But first the current turn-over credit problem for ready for sale goods, services and labor has to be solved by the monetary sound issue and clearing options that exist for them but are still under-utilized under central banking. Those who could offer millions to billions in their own kind of shop currency, based upon the huge stock of consumer goods and services that they are trying to sell, are prohibited from monetizing these stocks and this readiness themselves, soundly and technically correct and made instead dependent upon the inflated, deflated or stagflated monopoly money and limited clearing facilities offered by the national central banking system, legally imposed upon whole populations. – J.Z., n.d., & 5.10.10. - & INVESTMENT CREDIT

TURNOVER CREDIT: For an economy based on division of labour and free exchange almost everything depends primarily upon turnover credits and the supply of exchange media as well as clearing channels being quite free, i.e., competitive and sufficient. Prescribing here the use of forced and exclusive government paper money is as harmful as was the enforcement of the rare metal redemption obligation for banknotes and bills of exchange, not always avoidable through taking sufficient clearing steps in time. Obligatory metallic redemptionism introduced a chance, gambling or dealings in futures element which makes the fulfilment of contracts uncertain. The creditor’s right to demand legal tender paper money from his debtor is potentially as damaging as the right to demand gold or silver coins from him. What would happen to the economy if a new and popular religious movement suddenly demanded the payment of all wages, salaries and other debts in gold or silver coins? Could the available gold and silver stocks and coinage equipment cope with such a sudden demand? Would even all the gold and silver already mined and existing somewhere in the world, if fully coined out, be sufficient to satisfy such a demand for exchange media? - What a debtor can always supply is only assignments to his own goods and service supply potential. (Apart from the insurable risk of becoming sick, having an incapacitating accident, being burnt down etc. or of his death.) Only e.g. gold mine owners could always supply gold coins – if allowed to coin gold. The clearing options involved in mere turnovers of already produced goods and ready for sale services should be freely utilized, as was e.g. the case under the real bills doctrine, if not mixed up, unnecessarily, with the redemption doctrine. If turnover credit notes or clearing certificates could always be freely supplied, as needed, by those capable of doing so, then most inflations, deflations and stagflations could have been avoided. Nevertheless monetary and legalized despotism is among the least questioned and resisted despotism in existence. – The best potential suppliers of turnover credits, those with the most direct interest in maintaining and increasing turnovers, are the retail stores, suitably associated as issuing centres for shop currencies, backed by and redeemable in their ready for sale goods and services. Apart from fixed capital investments, transport and communication facilities, tools and machines, these institutions handle the real working capital of any country. They keep the work force alive, healthy and willing and able to work. Moreover, they do offer tools and machines for sale, too and maintenance services for them. Also some transport facilities, e.g. bicycles, motor bikes and cars. Once they become fully aware of this, their own potential and how it could make them independent of the government’s money system and the banks, which they are presently forced to use, they could either form a powerful lobby to repeal the laws of monetary despotism. Alternatively and properly timed, in a severe crisis, just before an election, they could simply ignore the contrary laws and engage in a monetary revolution, one that will be so successful in stopping inflation and ending unemployment that no politician or bureaucrat would dare to apply the corresponding laws against them. These powerful officials would then rather jump on the monetary freedom band wagon, too and repeal these laws, even retroactively. But such a revolution would have to be so well prepared that it would come to work like clockwork, within hours or days and also with its successes becoming obvious and widely published very fast. So far I heard of no association of retailers or wholesalers ever discussing this possibility of effective self-help while also and thereby ending a major economic crisis. – Rightful and effective revolutions have to start in the minds. Then they can be successful and even quite non-violent. – J.Z., 8.11.98, 28.9.08, 27.3.11, 7.8.11. - FREE BANKING, BANKING PRINCIPLE, MONETARY FREEDOM, UNEMPLOYMENT

TURNOVER CREDIT: For an economy based upon division of labor and free exchange and in the absence of sufficient cash for everybody to enable him to pay all his debts and all his daily purchases, and for entrepreneurs to be able to go on producing and paying for their current expenses, especially their weekly or monthly payroll, before their previously produced goods have reached their final consumers and been paid for by them - and also to enable to the final consumers to pay for the goods they need, i.e. to be paid by their employers, economic development showed that turnover credits are needed. (Obviously, a perfect clearing system is still missing. Moreover, and be it only to avoid some taxes, people do prefer some unrecorded cash transactions.) Turnover credits, to the extent that they could not or were not provided in rare metal coins, used to be provided by the discounting of real bills with the banknotes of note-issuing banks. These real bills and the bank notes based upon them, promised ultimate gold redemption but that was not the main factor which made them valuable. Actually, most of these banknotes were never redeemed in gold coins but simply used to pay the debts of their owners or the bills were settled by clearing. The system would have functioned well or even better if no gold redemption had ever been promised at all and only gold weight value reckoning had been generally used in the banknotes, the real bills and in the prices of the goods and services produced. For a long time the banknotes, which were thus competitively produced, wherever and whenever this was legally possible, were kept at so high denominations, quite intentionally, that wages and salaries could, mostly, not be paid with them! That was still a part of then still existing monetary despotism, assuring a perpetual deflation, one now difficult to imagine, but the facts are well recorded. Now, without a gold redemption promise and without the use of real bills, equivalent short term debts based upon produced and already sold (to wholesalers as a rule) consumer goods, could be similarly discounted with sound banknotes and all participants could, in the absence of monetary despotism, reckon and account for all their exchange in gold weight units. The gold redemption obligation was either voluntarily adopted or legislatively imposed as a concession to popular monetary thinking, that was largely confined to payments in rare metal coins. - This would be one way to revive the old method of turnover credit, without the limitations and the risks involved in metallic redemptionism for them. Whether, in free competition with other methods, especially non-cash payments and clearing transactions and current accounts, it would turn out to be the most effective or, anyhow, a still useful one would remain to be seen in practice. It is hard to impossible to predict in which way human beings will utilize their freedom options. Especially all sound clearing options should also be open to free competition. But we should never be forced to use only pure clearing methods or non-cash transactions or only cash transactions or notes that are 100% covered and redeemable in rare metals or even fractionally covered by them. The objective of metallic redemptionism can be achieved by sound value standard reckoning and pricing. Alas, especially in the sphere of turnover credits and wage and salary payments monetary despotism is strongest and so are the popular prejudices on such payments. The prior claims if wage earners to “the coin of the realm” has been replaced by their supposed right to demand payment in the government’s legal tender monopoly money. That this restricts rather than extends the rights of employees and employers and their economic opportunities is clearly seen only by a few. The sanction of the victims does still prevail in this sphere as well. And the victimizers still feel very smug about their actions and imagine that they are quite economic and the best possible ones. In fact they have allowed bad money to drive out all good alternatives to it and bad value standards to coercively but legally replace better or good ones that would have been voluntarily accepted. All this is done in the name of modern economic “science”, at least the ruling school of it. But an underground swell, questioning the wrongful and irrational assumptions and practices of monetary despotism has developed by now and sooner or later a monetary freedom revolution will occur. It might make the collapse of monetary despotism as sudden and unexpected as was the fall of the Berlin wall. – I hold that the competitive production of turnover credits in voluntary and competitive forms is one of the preconditions to achieve full employment, i.e., to reduce all unemployment to quite voluntary and not subsidized unemployment. - J.Z., 8.11.98, 27.3.11. – UNEMPLOYMENT, DEFLATION, EXCLUSIVE CURRENCIES, REDEMPTIONISM, REAL BILLS DOCTRINE, SOUND VALUE RECKONING, CLEARING, TURNOVER CREDITS




UNDERWRITING BY GOVERNMENTS: Equally important, the government should not underwrite business in any manner: no favors, subsidies, bailouts, tariffs, regulatory agencies, credits to exporters, loan guarantees, and so on. As Libertarians dismantle these interventions with all deliberate speed, the day will be hastened when all businessmen operate solely in the competitive sector, and none remain in the privileged, protected sector.” – Roger McBride, A New Dawn, p.52. – Unless they are members of a corresponding panarchy, with voluntary victims only. – It is unlikely that all people will ever subscribe only to the supposed ideal of a “limited” but still territorial government. - J.Z., 9.8.08. - GUARANTIES, SUBSIDIES, PROTECTIONISM, ASSISTANCE, PRIVILEGES, PANARCHISM, VOLUNTARISM, PANARCHISM

UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE: a device so sheltering that many employables prefer their handouts coercively taken from taxpayers to earning their own way.” – Leonard E. Read, Who’s Listening? p.45. – Unemployment is a preventable but not an insurable risk. Likewise inflation and war. – All three are man-made – to any degree, with despotic territorial laws and powers. - J.Z., 20.4.09, 28.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE: Satisfy needs through full freedom to purchase – with claims against your own labor, services and products. – And allow people to associate properly for this purpose so that their IOU’s become quite acceptable in the market as useful means of payment in a perfected clearing system, i.e. one that would make full use of even such certified obligations or indebtedness by putting them into the hands of people who could and would productively use the labor, knowledge and skills offered in these IOU’s. – It is absurd to expect all possible and desired exchanges to become achievable through any kind of monopoly money. – Do free, in every possible way, the monetary and clearing demand for able and willing labor. - J.Z., 7.8.75, 4.10.08, 28.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: A free job market requires that the effective monetary demand for labor is freed from the restrictions of monetary despotism. – J.Z., 11.9.98. - JOB MARKET, FULL EMPLOYMENT, MONETARY DEMAND FOR LABOR

UNEMPLOYMENT: A free labor market would have nothing in common with a slave market and would in no way be perceived as such. The unemployed should get off their imagined slave market blocks, on which they wait and wait all too patiently for a financial bidder for their labor to appear, bidding for them with the State's monopoly money. In their concepts and attitudes and actions they think and show themselves as being in such an undignified and unfree position. Instead they should interest, inform and train themselves in order to monetize their own labor potential, skills and services and those of all other goods and services, so that they can appear competitively and in many hands on a truly free market, bidding for all competitive labors and services and goods. In consequence of such issues all productive labors and wanted services and goods would automatically be salable - being paid in vouchers, tickets, warrants and certificates issued upon them and redeemable in them. Only the free monetization of all productive labors, services and wanted consumer goods, can get the unemployed of their slave blocks and the blocks and taboos in their minds, which keep them unemployed. In my 1990/92 visit to L.A. I have seen groups of unemployed waiting around certain street corners, for potential employers driving by and making a bid for them as occasional and temporary laborers. That was as close an example to anyone waiting on a slave block for a bid, as I have seen. I presume they expected to be paid only in the by now customary and unquestioned forced and exclusive paper dollar of the State. When they assemble, instead, at official employment offices only, their basic attitude is the same but they show then even less initiative. Others, in L.A., showed a bit more initiative, as hawkers, offering e.g. fruit for sale, on the dividing strips of the road, near traffic signals to drivers stopping at the signals. And in N.Y.C., e.g. in Broadway, one can find, for kilometers in a row, sidewalk hawkers of books and other used goodies. Much less initiative is shown by job applicants waiting patiently by the dozens or even hundreds , for each advertised vacancy, always under the assumption that there are real and able employers about and that the unemployed could not arrange for their full employment themselves.(Neither the State nor employers, with the present employer mentality, are "miracle" workers, who can provide jobs on their own with ideal currencies. Both are observably helpless and ignorant and merely prejudiced in the face of mass unemployment. They are not only the agents of and believers in monetary despotism, together with the present unemployed, but also its victims.) From the above limited initiatives to monetary freedom interest, thinking and actions there are many large steps to be taken. However, monetary freedom can begin simply among a few and can gradually but fast expand to a free local, nation-wide and even world-wide exchange network and numerous private payment and clearing communities. I will describe some such options elsewhere. Here I try only to point out the conceptual connection between monetary freedom and full employment. J.Z., 25.12.92, 31.12.92. - & SLAVE BLOCK MENTALITY

UNEMPLOYMENT: Ability to pay: Anyone would have a much better chance to pay his own way, to the limit of his ability to supply goods and services, if he were free to pay with assignments upon his own labor services and goods. By combining his own issues with a sufficient number of other issuers, he would make the combined issues widely acceptable as means of payment, at least locally, as an alternative local currency. - J.Z. 31.12.92. – Obviously, the acceptance of his own currency for his products, services or labor, would provide him with employment, for which he was already paid, when he issued his currency. In effect, he would merely clear what he has to offer to others for what they had to offer to him. There is no other inherent limit to such mutually beneficial exchanges, freely cleared or paid for with the sound exchange media of monetary freedom, than the productivity of those involved (regarding wanted and needed services, goods and labor, at market prices), expressed in sound value standards. Any money issue monopoly and exclusive and forced value standard impose artificial limits upon free exchanges. They amount in effect to artificially rationing how much can be produced and sold, and how much labor can be productively employed. – J.Z., 19.4.09. – ABILITY TO PAY, MONETARY FREEDOM, FREE BANKING

UNEMPLOYMENT: Abolition of unemployment through freedom to issue typified and standardized goods and service warrants in money denominations. – Why does Unemployment exist at all? Obviously not because there is too little work to be done or there are too many workers. For the needs and wants not only of the unemployed but also of the already employed are, in practice, unlimited and never quite satisfied. To satisfy them, at least gradually, they constitute an inexhaustible potential source of labor, which is always greater than the amount of ready for sale labor is, which the unemployed and the already employed could immediately or very soon supply. The greater the unemployment and under-employment is, the greater is the need and want for goods and services i.e., the need for productive labor being employed in providing them. The needs and wants of those, who had to sell their labor at emergency sales prices, paid in all too scarce monopoly money, to get work at all (a practice still common in under-developed countries, where, alas, their productivity in the absence of better tools and sufficient machines, is also very low), can only be gradually satisfied by making good enough exchange media available in sufficient quantities to pay, with them, the productively employed at their local market rate wages. Thereby the local sales of consumer goods and services and the “sale” of underemployed or unemployed labor, will become easier and surer. More will be produced and sold and gradually savings will built up that can be used for better tools and at least intermediate technology machines and, later, for advance production equipment. The catch-up requirements in these countries is enormous and as long as their output can be easily sold, for alternative currencies (or clearing certificates) provided by some of the participants for wages and salary payments, their unemployment and under-employment, will soon turn into over-employment and a rapid advance in living standards. The same process is also and still very useful in those countries already somewhat developed – but with their exchange media supply grossly undeveloped by their supposedly most advanced note-issuing system, namely that of their central bank. - In the obviously under-developed and also in the already somewhat developed countries the stock of ready for sale goods and services, including willing and able labor, always tends to exceed the available monopolized exchange media to pay for all of them. – J.Z., n.d. & 28.3.11. – ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT FROM RAGS TO RICHES.

UNEMPLOYMENT: About 200 000 Deutsche Mark was the average cost of a working place in Germany in 1986. – To that extent the supply of capital for efficient modern production matters greatly. With less capital invested per laborer, i.e., with less machinery, tools and infrastructure, only a greatly reduced living standard can be obtained. - The supply of both, exchange media (or clearing options) and the supply of working capital (productively invested savings) must be free and sufficient to achieve the highest productivity. Any coercive and monopolistic interference with these supplies and their usage will have negative feedback results. – Laissez-faire, laissez passer is particularly important in these spheres. – It would be interesting to see similar figures for each country and each year, in comparison with the average living standard or income achieved during that year, perhaps separated by working income and capital and enterprise income. - J.Z., 13.8.08, 7.8.11. - CAPITAL REQUIREMENT FOR MODERN LABOR

UNEMPLOYMENT: According to radio news on 29. 12. 92, there exist now ca. 19 million refugees in foreign countries and another 24 million refugees who are internally displaced. Under freedom the own acute needs and wants of these millions of unemployed and of the other unemployed in all countries, could express themselves monetarily as a demand for labor equivalent to the demand for labor in a large and productive nation. It would not be an insuperable transport problem to either bring supplies, temporary buildings and machines to these laborers or to bring these laborers to the existing factories and supplies and machines that work below their full capacity. - J.Z., 30.12.92. - The total of these unemployed comes to about twice the population of Australia. - J.Z., 28.3.11. - & REFUGEES, DISPLACED PERSONS

UNEMPLOYMENT: All compulsory licensing and registration to be confined to members of those volunteer groups that favor it. No unemployed, not engaged in any deceptions or false pretences, is to be hindered by compulsory licensing and registrations or their fees to offer his labor and services under agreeable conditions, for acceptable currencies, to satisfied customers. - J.Z. 31.12.92, 7.8.11. - COMPULSORY LICENSING, FREEDOM TO OFFER ONE’S LABOR OR SERVICES FOR ALTERNATIVE CURRENCIES

UNEMPLOYMENT: All political parties to enjoy full exterritorial autonomy to apply own work provision schemes to their own members and voters. No one and no institution is to be given any longer the chance to impose the costs and restrictions of his or its schemes upon non-members and non-voters or the voters and members of other parties, societies and communities. Full self-responsibility and the exterritorially autonomous experiments of others, all volunteers, would soon teach them what does work and what does not. I simply predict that all schemes embodying monetary and financial freedom would succeed. - The average life span of any system of monetary despotism is, usually only a few years to decades, as has recently been pointed out on facebook. Alas, out of ignorance of the monetary freedom options usually just a new and somewhat different kind of monetary despotism is then established, in analogy to the old practice of "The King is dead! Long live the King!" - Supposedly enlightened peoples are still very ignorant, prejudiced, under-informed, primitive and barbaric in all too many ways. George Bernard Shaw, somewhere, pointed out, that as a rule they uphold still more errors, myths, dogmas, prejudices, false assumptions and conclusions than their ancient ancestors did. Modern and largely State-controlled "education" sees to that. - Genuine free enterprise capitalism, as Ayn Rand pointed out in one of her books, is still "the unknown ideal". - Certain positive and libertarian features of it remained unknown even to her! - J.Z., 31.12.92, 7.8.11. - PARTIES & EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM OR PANARCHISM

UNEMPLOYMENT: All ready for sale consumer goods and services, including labor, could and should be effectively monetized by their owners and providers, in suitable associations, up to the moment when the first discount for such clearing certificates or purchasing voucher appears. Then further issues or acceptances of them will cease until that discount has disappeared again, as a result of the reflux of these certificates to their issuers. – Such money like theatre and sports tickets are easily self-regulating in their numbers and volume. - J.Z., 30.6.98.

UNEMPLOYMENT: All taxes and public fees and charges to be payable in private goods and clearing warrants at their market value, so that no one need any longer be made unemployed by enforcing tax payments in an exclusive and forced currency with which he might be insufficiently supplied. But any productive person would always be able to pay to a large extent with assignments upon his own goods and services, in as money-like a form as he could arrange, alone or in associations with others. - Ultimately, naturally, all tax slavery is to be abolished, too or reduced to its practice among exterritorially autonomous protective communities of volunteers, thus becoming essentially voluntary, too. - J.Z., 31.12.92. - MONETARY FREEDOM & TAXATION

UNEMPLOYMENT: Allow all consumer goods and services to become monetized into standardized and typified claims for them, in the usual money denominations, and allow wages and salaries, taxes and other debts to be paid in them, provided the people involved agree upon this. (*) This monetization is mainlky to be undertaken by those who have the wanted consumer goods and services ready for sale. Moreover, only they are to be obliged to accept their own money tokens or certificates always at their nominal value at any time during business hours. The value standards use in the pricing of the goods and services and in these notes and clearing certificates should also be freely agreed upon. – J.Z., 24.9.98. 27.9.08. - - Once comments or notes on this subject become too numerous they should perhaps be numbered to facilitate comments and cross references. I consider this relationship to be so important that I try again and again to express it as clearly as I can, which means, not always satisfactory even to myself. Instead of merely criticizing me, please, do better! You might succeed where Ulrich von Beckerath and I failed, in spite of in numerous attempts. I wish the whole subject and all sub-subjects were, gradually, dealt with the method of electronic “argument-mapping.” – J.Z., 27.9.08. - (*) Up to the amounts of their circulation at which they are still readily accepted at par with their nominal value. The first discount in local circulation indicates their current issuing limit. - J.Z., 28.3.11. - FULL EMPLOYMENT & MONETARY FREEDOM.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Allow all owners of ready for sale goods, services and labor to transform them into monetary demand for the goods, services and labor of others, i.e., to oblige themselves to the extent that they are able and willing to deliver in exchange what others want from them, upon return of the token money or clearing certificates issued by them and accepted by others and finally used as means of payment against the issuers. That would put an end to most monetary crises and to the unemployment and sales difficulties and bankruptcies caused by monetary despotism. – J.Z., 10.9.98.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Allow all the presently unsold but ready for sale goods and service, including the services offered by the unemployed and under-employed, to be expressed in alternative and additional monetary demand for additional employment opportunities for those already employed but want to work more or longer, as well for the still unemployed and under-employed, in form of wage and salary offers for additional productive labors, especially in the form of local shop currencies, issued by shopping centers or shop associations, that would price out their goods and services in sound value standards and use also these value standards in their shop currencies. All these potential issuers to issue their alternative currencies mainly in form of short term loans to pay additional labor with or current wages and salaries, to the extent that the employees are willing to accept such means of payment. (If they are using sound value standards, while the government’s paper money is being inflated, then such means of payment, if allowed or illegally agreed upon, might even be preferred to payment in the government’s inflated money.) These issues could thus increase and assure their sales. Naturally, thus issues must not be legal tender in general local circulation but merely towards their issuers. They must be subject to free market rating and full publicity on their issues and reflux. Their value standard must be agreeable to their users, whatever form it may take. The issuers might by contract oblige their debtors to also accept such private notes at par with their nominal value. The rest might become – one of the best chapters of monetary history. – J.Z., 13.6.98, 29.9.08, 7.8.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Allow any employer to offer and any employee to accept anything agreeable to both in payment of wages. Don't force both to deal only in a monopolistic and mostly deteriorated exchange medium or in a constitutionally or legally prescribed "value standard". (Except, naturally, within communities of volunteers, who have organized themselves under personal law or full exterritorial autonomoy.) Let exchange media, clearing avenues and value standards become as competitively supplied as knives, forks and spoons are now - and you will have no shortage of sound exchange media, clearing facilities and value standards, either, which would mean that all ready for sale goods and services and labor, that are desired by others, in exchange for their wanted goods, services and labor, could then be easily exchanged. - J.Z. file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files. Rev.: 7.8.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Allow people to be hired and paid with optional alternative means of payment that are competitively supplied. Then most involuntary mass unemployment would soon come to an end. – J.Z., 20.5.99. – The current and legally enforced monopoly money of the central bank is obviously not sufficiently supplied to mediate, as an exchange medium, the employment of the unemployed for the consumer goods and services they want and need and are willing to work for, while also producing more wanted consumer goods and services. – Some of the consumer goods and service are becoming embodied in capital assets for making production more productive. Without assured sales of the consumer goods and services the capital equipment, which helps to produce them, would become reduced in market value. Therefore, restoring sufficient turnover credits (with sound and competitively supplied alternative exchange media) is a first step or foundation for a sound economic recovery. Exchange media without legal tender cannot inflate prices expressed in sound value standards. At most they could become somewhat depreciated and thus discounted and refused. – Examine all your monetary freedom options and take them more serious than the laws that outlaw them. - J.Z., 25.9.08, 28.3.11, 7.8.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Allow people to spend their own notes, issued privately, either alone in association with others, for all their needs, wants and requirements, to the extent that they find willing acceptors for them, and their notes will inevitably return to them to be redeemed in their goods and services. Thereby the others will be provided with sales for their products, labor and services, just like the issuers will be. And both groups would become free of their dependence upon the provision of means of payment by the government’s monopoly issuer for a forced currency, the central bank. To the extent that they succeed in ignoring or breaking this monopoly they would become monetarily emancipated and fully employed as laborers, retailers, tradesmen, professionals or independent businessmen. It is absurd to confine people to those exchanges only that they can manage to achieve with the governments mismanaged and often depreciated and sometimes short supplied monopoly money. Any mere exchange medium should be free to mediate all possible and desired exchanges in its sphere, just like tickets sell seats to performances. All kinds of ticket-monies, goods warrants, purchasing vouchers and service credits, in monetary denominations, should also use freely chosen, offered or contracted for value standards and goods, services and labour should also be freely expressed in the value standard used by the issuer of such notes or clearing certificate. Just like mere clearing certificates or clearing accounts in a perfect clearing system would not establish any bottlenecks or injustices but simply clear all the mutual debts, apart from the risk factors to be covered by interest rates, which all also include an insurance premium. In this sphere we have acted as if we needed the government to tell “liquids” of whatever origin, e.g. the water in creeks, in rivers and in lakes, to go or be taken to where it is needed and as if without government guidance and regulation water flows would not occur naturally or could not be privately arranged through various irrigation, purification and water transport systems. – Really liquid and privately provided currencies will make their own way - without any government help or obstructions, providing as much in monetary services as they can, which is much more than the monopoly money of central banks can provide. - J.Z., 5.12.82, 3.10.08, 7.8.11. – Territorial statism had and still has terrible results, in this sphere as well. – J.Z., 19.4.09, 28.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Allow the dozens of millions of refugees in the world to be paid for productive work with private and cooperatively issued purchasing vouchers for goods and services, in money denominations, using standards of value of their choice, with these issues being based largely but not exclusively on goods and services which are now hard to sell. Then all of them could soon find jobs thus paid, and consequently become able to pay for their accommodation, food, etc., too. Moreover, they would then tend to become welcomed guests and helpers in a further division of labor that would tend to enrich everybody, rather than being hated as foreign competitors. The system could easily be expanded to similarly benefit all the native unemployed and underemployed, too. - J.Z. 29.12.92, 28.3.11. - & REFUGEES

UNEMPLOYMENT: Allow the unemployed to pay with their own assignments upon their own labor, to anyone willing to accept such certificates, and then to redeem them with their own productive labor by accepting them in wages and salaries paid to them. (*) In this way they could open up the labor market for themselves. Allow also all those offering ready-for sale products and service to issue goods and service vouchers that would, if given in short term loans to potential employers, allow them to exert an additional monetary demand for the labor of those of the presently unemployed who are able and willing to work and to accept such alternative money in payment for their work. Naturally, the goods and services offered as well as such notes or clearing certificates or shop foundation money should be denominated in sound value standards, not in the depreciating paper value “standards” of the government’s forced and exclusive paper money. – J.Z., 7.8.75 & 4.10.08, 28.3.11. - (*) Unless a perfect clearing system is already established such clearing notes will have a hard stand in competition with shop currencies, that are immediately covered not only with readiness to work productively but already with the products of productive labor, as are displayer for immediate sale in the shops. However, the demand for wage payment means is also huge and it can, probably, become at least partly satisfied by such notes or clearing certificates. – If employers are already satisfactorily supplied with wage payment means by shop association banks then there will simply be no unemployed left to contemplate whether he could employ himself by issuing his own clearing certificates based upon his ability and readiness to take up work and be paid in his notes. – J.Z., 0.4.09, 28.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Alternative monies: All of us, as producers and consumers, as employees or employers or self-employed, can only be fully free when we can produce or agree upon a money of our choice for all our trades with each other. Any imposed monopoly money can only cause us trouble - and fail to achieve all the exchanges we desire and which would otherwise be possible for us. J.Z. 21.12.92, 28.3.11. – MONETARY FREEDOM, FREE BANKING, FREEDOM OF NOTE ISSUE VS. MONEY ISSUE MONOPOLY OF CENTRAL BANKS

UNEMPLOYMENT: And if the wage and price structure are flexible, the free economy (*) has an insatiable demand for labor; when the market  is truly functional (*), jobs are abundant.” - Edmund Opitz, THE FREEMAN, 10/75. - (*) It is free only if the supply and demand for sound exchange media and sound value standards are also quite free. – J.Z., 29.9.08.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Any employment is just an act of exchange. As such it is dependent upon the provision of exchange media and the value standard used. Under monetary despotism the exchange media and value standards are monopolized, imposed and mismanaged and phenomena like deflation, inflation, stagflation, recessions, credit restrictions, depressions and mass unemployment do appear and persist under it. Without going to their root causes and abolishing them, i.e. without the introduction of full monetary freedom, including clearing freedom and free choice of value standards, these problems will persist and recur again and again. - J.Z., 31.12.92, 3.10.08.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Any involuntary and unsubsidized mass unemployment could be overcome tomorrow or even within hours if the owners of ready for sale goods, services and labor were free to offer to monetize them with their own shop currencies, IOUs and clearing certificates, which would assure their sales in their reflux to them and would enable them to fully pay their own way right away and even to grant short-term credits with such media, on a stable value basis, which, in their repayments to them, would assure constant sales for their goods, services and labor to them. Alas, this solution is not impossible but merely outlawed, unknown and unappreciated. It thus requires sufficient enlightenment of the victims of the existing monetary despotism, repeal of despotic monetary laws or the ignoring of them in a monetary freedom revolution. Neither the enlightenment required nor such a peaceful and rightful revolution are so far sufficiently achieved and prepared for. – J.Z., 30.7.98, 6.10.08.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Apart from the employment promoting effects of monetary freedom, a genuinely free market would assure full employment by a) realizing the right to work in presently coercively closed shops and b) the right to make individual work contracts, rather than being subjected to collective bargaining, c) repealing wage and price controls, especially minimum wages, d) abolishing compulsory licensing, e) abolishing compulsory unionism, which in many ways closes its ranks against competition, f) ending subsidies to the unemployed, granting them during the transition period rather loans than hand-outs, g) the repeal of all laws imposing an upper or lower age limit on workers, like child labor laws and compulsory pensioning-off laws, h) the repeal of laws establishing exclusive privileges to exploit natural monopolies. (Access to these, especially from among the ranks of the unemployed, could be assured by the establishment of "open cooperatives" for all these monopolies, i.e. enterprises, which would not exclude any worker or investor but would reward them only according to their input into the open enterprise.) - J.Z. file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files - & FREE MARKET, OPEN COOPERATIVES

UNEMPLOYMENT: Are machines, which can mass-produce consumer goods for the masses, be the cause of unemployment, as all too many people still believe? - That could only happen if free enterprises are prevented from mass producing, as well, the extra but also sound exchange media required to purchase all this enormous output and service supply ability. (Naturally, such exchange media must be competitive, market rated, optional, discountable and refusable and redeemable only in wanted consumer goods and services, expressed in prices expressed in stable value standards, just as such extra private exchange media should be, to be self-limiting in their quantity.) Free pricing, free wage agreements and the absence of all other governmental and anti-economic intervention and controls are presumed to have been achieved or that they could be fast achieved. - Presently, the existing massive goods production output and service capacity, largely made possible by machines and automation, can only be sold for the government’s monopoly money, which is not always sufficiently supplied or in a sound enough form. - Moreover, the goods and services that cannot be internally sold can then, likewise, not be sold in other countries, when and wherever the purchasing power of the potential producers and consumers in these countries is also limited by their monopolistic and despotic central bank of issue. - At the same time sound alternative but private clearing certificates to pay for imports and thus automatically balance them with exports, are, likewise and usually, outlawed and thus cannot be used to free international trade. Once the mass producers can also mass produce the purchasing power for their goods and services, in sound alternative monies or clearing certificates, to be earned by additional and very productively applied labor, the prejudices against machines and automation will disappear and they will be clearly seen as tools to increase one’s productivity and thus one’s standard of living and also the number of different job opportunities. - Decades ago there were already ca, 400 000 different jobs. By now there might be many more. Most of them would not exist without their special equipment and the special knowledge and skills required to apply them. If, suddenly, we were somehow deprived of all automatic production equipment, machines, powerful tools and would have to try to survive by manual labor only, with primitive and perhaps self-built tools, most of us would, probably, starve to death or work ourselves to death in the attempt to survive in this way. Machines and automated equipment are not our enemies but our allies. They do probably already vastly outnumber us – and, in spite of this, have not rendered all of us unemployed. This primitive explanation of unemployment must, therefore, be false. – J.Z., 3.2.97, 28.9.08, 28.3.11. 28.3.11. - MACHINES, AUTOMATION, EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES, POVERTY, STANDARD OF LIVING, DIS.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Are the unemployed, to some extent, themselves to blame, too, for the existence of unemployment? I can only offer a qualified "yes!" to this question. Why? They are the main victims but they do not show any real and deep and persistent interest in the cause or causes of unemployment but rather accept it as if it were a natural catastrophe. They are e.g. not interested in the right to work interpreted as the right to undertake any monetary, financial and organizational measures to provide themselves with work, without depriving anybody of a job. They show no interest in their own individual economic rights, least of all in their monetary rights and liberties. Very few of them show any interest in replacing dependent employee positions by cooperative and partnership jobs, becoming self-employed capital owners and businessmen and entrepreneurs. They do not believe in self-help in changing the established system into a self-help and self-employment system. They do not recognize the existing situation as one in which artificial, legal and constitutional barriers are put up against free exchanges of labor, goods and services, especially those of monetary despotism. They remain unaware and disinterested in conditions that do not allow them to freely exchange their labors under conditions acceptable to all contracting partners. If questioned, they rather defend and rationalize about than attack such restrictions. To that extent they do deserve their unemployment and employment difficulties. They are emancipated in many way, e.g. in religion and sexually, with regard to science and technology but monetarily they still have to become emancipated, i.e. free to vote with their own dollars in a free market. They should no longer consider the dollars of monetary despotism as their own or as the only or best possible dollars, as sufficient to solve all their difficulties. J.Z., 21.12.92, 31.12.92, 28.3.11. – RIGHT TO WORK REDEFINED

UNEMPLOYMENT: As long as exchange media and clearing methods are monopolized the sale of labor will in many cases be difficulties and in some cases impossible, at least temporarily. But this is not the same as a shortage of jobs. It is rather a shortage of sound exchange media and clearing actions. - J.Z. file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files. - J.Z., 28.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Assure sales and you assure maximum production and full employment. To assure sales, pay all suppliers, tradesmen, employees, profits, taxes, utilities etc. - with assignments upon the own goods and services, in money denominations, which only the issuer and, by contract, his debtors will have to accept at any time and at par. To the extent that such private “banknotes” are freely issued and accepted they will then, inevitably, stream back to their issuers as payments for their sales and thus provide sales and further employment opportunities. – J.Z., 9.9.98, 28.3.11. That is almost self-evident. And yet, this kind of self-help and monetary emancipation is almost never discussed by the unemployed, the employers, the retailers and the wholesalers. All their attention and hopes are merely directed to the central bank system with its monopoly for note issues and its forced currency with compulsory acceptance and forced value, and this in spite of the fact that this system has never delivered what it was supposed to deliver, namely, a stable currency and a sufficient supply of exchange media to make possible all desired exchanges. In that situation an improvement is not to be expected from the masses of ignorant and prejudiced voters, legislators or top bureaucrats but merely from full freedom for monetary and financial experiments of dissenting volunteers, trying out, quite unhindered, their alternative hypotheses, theories, principles, opinions, ideas and methods – all at their own risk and expense, leaving the others undisturbed to enjoy, all the benefits and disasters of the existing monetary and financial despotism, as long as they really want to. Thus there should be no strong opposition against this kind of experimental freedom, except from those fearing for their power and monopoly position of the successful experiments should spread by more and more volunteers joining or copying them. But should we “protect” these monopolists and power mongers? – J.Z., 27.9.08, 28.3.11. – MONETARY FREEDOM EXPERIMENTS, PANARCHISM, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, SELF-HELP OPTIONS, SALES -ASSURED ONES, FULL EMPLOYMENT

UNEMPLOYMENT: Competition and choice: The unemployed can never have too many employers bidding for their labor with too many different exchange media and value standards, based on too many real redemption funds consisting out of goods, labor and services, i.e. they cannot have too many competing currencies offered to them, as long as they remain free to refuse, discount and negotiate any such offers. - J.Z. 31.12.92, 28.3.11. – COMPETITION, MONETARY FREEDOM, WAGE PAYMENT MEANS, FREE CHOICE OF VALUE STANDARDS

UNEMPLOYMENT: Consumer sovereignty is restricted when consumers and their agents (the employers) are only allowed to ask for labor (goods and services) with the money of monetary despotism. (That condition hardly deserves to be called free enterprise, freedom of contract and freedom to exchange. – J.Z., 20.4.09.) Then mass unemployment, recessions, depressions, inflations, stagflations and mass bankruptcies must follow, inevitably, frequently and for long periods. Let all consumers, and their (unappreciated) agents, the employers, be free to choose in a free market, with their own (not the government's) dollar notes, or those among competitive private note issues which they prefer. Then they could and would soon employ every willing and able worker for the satisfaction of their wants. - Under fully free competition good monies would drive out inferiors ones. - J.Z., 21.12.92, 3.10.08, 28.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Contrary to popular opinion, unemployment cannot be due to a “surplus” of labor – because the very needs of the unemployed constitute an as yet unused market with almost unlimited sales opportunities for consumer goods and service. (It is limited only be the capability of the unemployed to give productive labor in return.) The production of these goods requires labor. Thus there is not a surplus of labor but a shortage of money, which makes it appear as if there existed a shortage of labor. Free the supply of sound money, optional, refusable, market rated, expressed in sound value standards and suitable for wage payments and the sales difficulties for labor, goods and services will disappear. – J.Z., n.d file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files. & 15.8.08, 28.3.11. – DIS.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Cooperative production versus the fixed wage and employer-employee system. Theodor Hertzka argued that only in cooperative production would the earnings be adapted to the maximum profits that are obtainable by adjusting the prices of products to market demands. Only when production would be thus transformed would there be at least one less "fixed" demand for ready cash. (See W.Roscher, Grundlagen der Nationaloekonomie, p.519.) - To that extent a cooperative way of production would be less likely to lead to a deflation than a production and exchange system based on the employer-employee relationship and monetary despotism. At least the cash requirements for wages and salaries could then be rapidly reduced to cope with a lessened cash supply (all supposing the continuance of a system of monetary despotism, of an exclusive and forced currency). Self-intensifying currency famines, or deflations, would then be less likely. (Likewise, self-intensifying inflations, in which prices, finally, race ahead of the capacity of the note-printing presses. - J.Z., 28.3.11.) The risk that the workers (in the widest sense) could not buy back their product, would be lessened. - - But there is another factor - under monetary despotism - that would tend to keep the cash supply and the non-cash means of payment below the sum required to purchase all goods and services offered. - Cautious and businesslike calculation of wages, salaries and cooperative takings from expected profits, will try to keep these expenditures (combined with the other fixed expenditures) below the amounts to be realized from sales. Thus, including the wages and takings of those trading with the manufactured goods, less might be circularized in exchange media than would be required to purchase back the products and services at retail prices. - If the cash supply or alternative exchange media or clearing certificate supply is not elastic, rapidly responding to requirements with additionally issued sound exchange media and clearing certificates or clearing accounts, but monopolized and centrally "regulated" instead, and the non-cash means of payment are still based upon this non-elastic supply of cash, i.e. when the cash put into circulation is not in close correspondence to the sum of all the retail prices of ready for sale and currently wanted goods and services but remains below that total, then workers, traders and capitalists between them could not buy back the product and services at retail prices and any sudden and wide-spread price reductions could help to set a deflationary spiral into motion.(Only under monetary despotism!) - - Bureaucratic negligence and inertia could also bring about that the cash confiscated by bureaucrats as taxes would be extraordinarily slowed down in its return to the final consumers, bringing about the risk of a currency famine. That happened in Germany just after the end of the German great inflation in November 1923. Much of the then already all too short official supply of exchange media was then hoarded, for all too long, by the authorities not rapidly spending the tax funds collected and thus causing a sharp deflation and much unemployment. Full and self-regulating monetary freedom was then and there not introduced, either, in spite of the recent past of and enormous abuse of monetary despotism. - - One thing is certain : Under the present system the money supply and the wage and salary rates - and often not even the prices – and other debt contracts - are insufficiently elastic nor are they put into a fast and automatic correspondence to the sum of the retail prices for goods and services. They will, at least sometimes, move disharmoniously and thus can and do bring about economic crises. There is more adaptation under cooperative production than in the wage system but this, on its own, cannot make up for all the other flaws involved in monetary despotism. Only under monetary and financial freedom are both, exchange media (including clearing options) and value standards also and sufficiently priced. - - Nor could wide-spread and sudden price reductions of consumer goods and services, including labour, overcome a cash shortage fast enough, under monetary despotism, because whilst fallen prices encourage buying, falling prices discourage from it. Under sales difficulties numerous price reductions might soon become generally falling prices leading to more and more cash hoarding. – J.Z., n.d. & 20.4.09. - The correct volume for each kid of competing currency or clearing account credits is indicated a.) by their local market rate against sound value standards and by their voluntary acceptance at par with their nominal value, i.e. in the absence of a local disagio or discount (below par acceptance), combined with some to many refusals to accept a local currency. - J.Z., 7.8.11. - DEFLATION, HOARDING, LIMITS FOR ISSUES, PAR VALUE, DISCOUNTS, REFUSALS TO ACCEPT A CURRENCY.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Demand for labor: Free the monetary demand for labor, services and goods, by allowing any exchange medium or non-cash payment system, any kind of clearing certificates or mutual account balancing method and any freely agreed-upon value standard - to be used for expressing, measuring and satisfying this demand - anything that is acceptable to the contracting exchange partners. This to be in addition to any other labor and sales conditions acceptable to freely contracting individuals and groups. Under full monetary and financial freedom the exchange conditions for the suppliers of goods, services and labor will be found to be much more acceptable and useful for them, their customers and employers. - J.Z., 21.12.92, 28.3.11, 7.8.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Depressions and mass unemployment are not caused by the free market but by government interference in the economy.” – Ludwig von Mises, HUMAN ACTION, 1949. – The primary interference is the money issue monopoly of central banks and legal tender power (compulsory acceptance and forced value), for its paper money. – J.Z., 19.4.09. - DEPRESSIONS & GOVERNMENT INTERFERENCE WITH THE MARKET

UNEMPLOYMENT: Economic crises make also many employers unemployed. – J.Z., 7.11.83, in a note to Ulrich von Beckerath writing to G. Holzhauer, 13.2.42. – Both groups should show much more interest in finding out cause and cure for involuntary unemployment and what they could and should do about it. – They certainly cannot rely on governments to solve any economic crisis for them. – At the very least they should stand up for full experimental freedom in this sphere among volunteers. - J.Z., 3.10.08, 7.8.11. – & EMPLOYERS MONETARY FREEDOM, SELF-HELP, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM

UNEMPLOYMENT: Employers are not really employers but merely middlemen and agents of the consumers. Consumers employ - if they are free to employ on a free market, via their consumer choices and the agents and middlemen acting on their behalf. In a fully free market they can express their demands for goods, services and labor in any exchange and clearing medium and method which they and their agents and the middlemen, the employers and the employees, as producers and consumers, have supplied themselves and are satisfied with. Thus no exchange medium or clearing method or value standard should be imposed upon them and monopolized, regulated, restricted and manipulated - independent of their individual choices. Under full monetary freedom all desired and possible and economic exchanges, including those of all labor, services and goods, can and would take place. Involuntary unemployment and sales difficulties would be ended. - J.Z. 21.12.92, 28.3.11. – CONSUMERS & EMPLOYERS, MONETARY FREEDOM

UNEMPLOYMENT: Employment: Job provision should not be run at a loss, like a private charity or at the expense of the taxpayers. All but useless and unwanted and bad jobs should and can pay for themselves via satisfied customers. Those offering only useless, unwanted, bad or overpriced labors, services and goods do deserve the consumer and employer reaction they get and must change to provide some goods, services and labor that is acceptable for others so that they would bid for them in a free market. In a truly free market jobs for all willing and able laborers, service and goods suppliers are assured when laborers and other suppliers are free to pay for all their expenses, including supplies, taxes, salaries and wages, in private and money-like assignments upon the goods and services they provide, alone or, preferably, in association with others, and when all their suppliers, including the suppliers of wages and services, are free to accept or negotiate the acceptance of these alternative means of payment or clearing. - Under fully free competition good monies would drive out flawed and bad monies. - J.Z. 21.12.92, 31.12.92, 28.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Escalation of public relief has created a real option of unemployment to many who might otherwise find employment.” – Charles A. La Dow, THE FREEMAN, 11/74. - for many? - J.Z. - UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE

UNEMPLOYMENT: Especially all attempts to provide employment should be exempted from all tax impositions. All taxes to become automatically voluntary only - among the voluntary members of protective communities that are autonomous on an exterritorial basis and are established by those who individually seceded from the present territorial States. - J.Z. 31.12.92. - & TAX EXEMPTION

UNEMPLOYMENT: Experimental freedom or freedom of action for all volunteer groups, at their own expense and risk, on the basis of exterritorial autonomy, under their own personal laws, especially for actions and experiments to abolish unemployment. - J.Z. 31.12.92. – EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM

UNEMPLOYMENT: Extensive and frequent unemployment and inflations should have been expected by freedom lovers from a system of monetary despotism that Marx and Engels demanded in their 1848 Communist Manifesto in order to destroy the bourgeois economy and introduce communism. Nevertheless, even all the governments that pretended to be anti-communistic or anti-socialistic in their outlook and actions, did adopt this communist monetary platform: central banks with a note issue monopoly and legal tender power for its notes. It gave them more power, more liquidity and made them more independent from tax revenues. They did not care about the consequences of this system to the whole economy: frequent and severe economic crises, mostly of them inflationary but sometimes also of the deflationary kind and often both combined in stagflations. They never bothered to learn about and apply or allow sound alternatives to this monetary despotism ever since. Nor did they care about the massive unemployment and impoverishment that was the result of their monetary despotism. They did not even care that, as a result, their own governments were often replaced by dictatorships or even totalitarians regimes. They became the high priests of the popular monetary religion of the people. It seems never to bother their all too faithful and loyal subjects and victims that their monetary priests and gods never delivered upon their promises. Monetary and clearing self-help measures as well as the free choice of alternative and sound value standard are, usually, furthest from the minds of most of the victims of this “system”, the unemployed and all the creditors, including wage and salary recipients. They still expect the very high priests of this monetary religion, who cause and “manage” monetary and economic crises, to be able and willing to effectively fight them and thus they do keep voting them into power. - Only panarchistic freedom to experiment among volunteers can get us out of this mess. Many of such experimenters will make mistakes but never on the colossal and territorial scale that territorial governments cause. Some of them will learn from their mistakes, not repeat them at all and try, instead, ways and means that do work. Some might even have enlightened themselves sufficiently in advance to run successful monetary experiments right away. Their system would then rapidly spread, just like very effective freeware does. But as long as territorial governments are allowed to exist they are likely to suppress the best and continue to repeat the worst possible monetary and financial experiments. Even if thereby hundreds of millions of people are made unemployed, impoverished, subjected to dictators and driven into wars. – J.Z., 19.4.98, 29.9.08. – FREE BANKING, MONETARY FREEDOM EXPERIMENTS VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM

UNEMPLOYMENT: Exterritorial autonomy for all dissenting groups: Each exterritorially autonomous group of volunteers to be at liberty to provide for its own productive employment and remaining welfare, credit and insurance arrangements, its own monetary and financial system, and to be exempted from all present territorial constitutions, laws and jurisdictions and those of all other such voluntary and exterritorially autonomous communities, in all its productive and creative activities. Based on such exterritorial autonomy the resulting freedom of action and experimentation among volunteers would soon demonstrate the fallacies and errors and prejudices involved in most of the currently popular employment schemes and the efficiencies of monetary and financial freedoms for all who make use of them, in providing jobs and sales for them. - J.Z., 14.12.92, 31.12.92. – PANARCHISM, EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY, VOLUNTARISM, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM

UNEMPLOYMENT: Firstly, since all wealth, i.e. goods and services, is created by men using their labor in conjunction with the free gifts of nature, i.e. land, the reason for not being employed can only be that labour does not have free access to land. Labour does not have access to land because of the high price of land created by speculation particularly in times of high inflation (currency debasement). – PROGRESS, Melbourne, Vic., 1/78. - As if e.g. every watchmaker, baker or computer programmer could be also employed, productively, in agriculture. The present 2 to 4 % of the population, working in this field, do already produce many agricultural products for export and also a wide-spread obesity in the population with the abundance of food they produce. Who could consume a still further increased amount of food? George-ists should ask themselves such questions. Their analysis of the problem and their solution for it is mostly wrong, at least for somewhat developed countries. It times of agricultural feudalism it would have been correct. Then serfs had no easy access to land under free market conditions. – How many hypotheses, theories and “explanations” of cause and cure for unemployment do exist? How many or how few of them are correct? Have all of them been sufficiently surveyed and discussed? - J.Z., 19.8.08. – GEORGE-ISM, SINGLE TAX NOTIONS, LAND-MONOPOLY, DIS.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Firstly, the supposedly freedom-loving liberal, democratic or republican governments uphold the communist system of central banking with its issue monopoly, legal tender power and thereby cause inflation and mass unemployment, deflation and stagflation. Then they use armed force to keep out refugees and illegal immigrants, or incarcerate them or deport them, as if they were criminals with victims, when they dare to try to compete for the all too few productive jobs remaining under monetary despotism and other economic interventions. Oh, how I admire the morality, economic knowledge, wisdom and consistency of such great “leaders”! Soon I am supposed to vote for them again. – Not that their political opponents and most other critics would be any better or that my usual informal and thus invalid vote could make a difference. – J.Z., n.d. & 23.10.07. Still no one is free to opt out from under these man-made and legalized messes. - 19.4.09. - INFLATION, IMMIGRATION RESTRICTIONS

UNEMPLOYMENT: For Australia the retail store stocks were in June 1998 estimated at over A $ 70 billion and as larger than normal. These stocks are usually turned over several times a year, in some cases, like fresh bread or milk the turnover used to be daily (now, with sterilization and preservation means they do have a longer shelf-life), fruit and vegetables within a few days, conserves would keep months to years but on the store shelves they may remain usually for much shorter periods and new cars may remain in their sale shops for months. In the average probably A $ 70 billion were then turned over several times a year. And to these wares would also have to be added the value of services daily offered for sale. To the extent that there exists still unsatisfied demand for goods and services in the economy that could be satisfied by e.g. overtime or weekend work or second jobs of those already employed, and that there are unemployed and under-employed and they do obviously still have a great and unsatisfied need for goods and services, a considerable part of these retail stocks available at any time could become monetized, into shop currencies, that could at least locally pay for more jobs and that would shortly circulate at par until they stream back into the stores to pay for the goods and services they represent, would then be cancelled or destroyed, like used tickets and be replaced by new issues as required, as long as these are accepted at par in short term loans, mainly for wages and salary payments of other employers, at least partly also for the own employees and suppliers and tradesmen. These currencies could pay for additional labor and satisfy its unsatisfied needs and demands upon its use in the shops. More goods and services would become ready for sale and would tend to turn over faster than before. The total of the ready-for-sale offers could at the same time also be increased, unless the shops were already over-stocked. Mobilized to the inherent limits of its potential (up to refusals and discounts by potential acceptors) enough of this alternative money could, perhaps, become issued and used to enable it to pay wages and salaries or for additional hundred-thousands of even millions of immigrants, refugees and deserters per year. The limits of this method have not yet been fully explored. Legally and juridically, at least in Australia, such shop currency could only be issued by shops in the payment of consumer credits. These had to be repaid, in installments, in the government’s monopoly money. In this sphere, at least a few years ago, they were issued and used extensively and may be used still. - By removing the legal barriers, they could also have been used for wage and salary payments in many instances, at least for a percentage of the wages and salaries. (In West Berlin, in my time there, some wages and salaries were for a time paid partly in Westmark and partly in Eastmark, both official and mismanaged currencies.) Sound exchange media, using sound value standards, could become so plentiful and easy to produce and keep sound, by their variety of possible issuers that they would rather chase after still available productive labor than unemployed or under-utilized labor would chase, as they often do now, after any form of available exchange media, often offered only in jobs they dislike and usually only in the flawed and coercive monopoly money of the State or its central bank of issue. – J.Z., 16.6.98, 29.9.08.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Foreign investments and foreign ownership to be unrestricted, especially in the interests of the unemployed and underemployed. No foreign bank or credit institution, especially no foreign owned note-issuing bank or clearing centre to remain outlawed or restricted. - J.Z., 31.12.92.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Free the monetary demand for labor. Don’t deflate or inflate, regulate, price or tax it away. – J.Z., 9/75.

UNEMPLOYMENT: FREEDOM SCHOOL: How to eliminate unemployment in 60 seconds | The Freedom School - - Cached - 8 Jan 2010 – Free Market Money: A stable currency that is not subject to manipulation via government printing presses and central bank credit expansion ... - UNEMPLOYMENT, FULL EMPLOYMENT, JOBS

UNEMPLOYMENT: Freedom to work isn't free and capable to achieve full employment, lastingly and assuredly, when you may not contract to be paid in alternative exchange media and value standards to the exclusive and forced paper currencies now imposed by the governments. - J.Z. 26.12.92. - RIGHT TO WORK, RIGHT TO SUPPLY ONESELF WITH WORK

UNEMPLOYMENT: Full employment: Once all the ready for sale goods and services and labor in a country can be monetized in competing private currency issues, expressing a cash or clearing demand for all existing goods, services and labor, and once sellers of goods, services and labor are free to accept, discount or refuse such payment offers, while remaining obliged only to accept the own notes and IOUs and clearing certificates at par at any time, then and only then will any sales difficulties and involuntary unemployment soon disappear. Then any desired and possible market exchanges could and would be brought about by the means of a truly free market. - J.Z. 31.12.92.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Full employment cannot be fast or lastingly achieved with a government’s monopolized paper money legalized with legal tender power, meaning compulsory acceptance and a forced value. – J.Z., 9.6.03, 18.10.07. – We would have a shortage of tooth brushes and shoes if there were monopolies for their production. – And their quality would be rather low, too and, possibly, also deteriorating. – J.Z., 19.4.09. - FULL EMPLOYMENT & MONETARY DESPOTISM

UNEMPLOYMENT: Full employment cannot be fast or lastingly achieved with a government’s legal tender paper money. – J.Z., 9.6.03, 18.10.07. – How can it be achieved? By making the production of sound exchange media, including sound clearing certificates and the use of alternative and sound value standards as free and competitive as the production of goods and the offer of services and labor. The division of labor and the exchange of its output does require the abolition of all prohibitions and monopolies for the supply of exchange media as well as clearing certificates and clearing accounts. That should be obvious but isn’t to the legislators of monetary despotism and to the vast majority of its victims. It does not make sense to allow labor, services and goods to be competitively offered – but then sold only to the extent that they can be paid in monopoly money or through clearing under all too restricted clearing, which is also largely tied down to the supply of monopoly money, although by its very nature, it should, obviously, be quite unrestricted, just like barter. – J.Z., 19.4.09, 28.3.11. – FULL EMPLOYMENT THROUGH MONETARY FREEDOM VS. MASS UNEMPLOYMENT, SALES DIFFICULTIES & BANKRUPTCIES UNDER MONETARY DESPOTISM

UNEMPLOYMENT: Full employment depends upon division of labor and free exchange being undisturbed by any monopoly or coercive interference, especially with exchange media, value standards, clearing and credit avenues, mainly those of short-term turnover credits and clearing methods, required to achieve that production and sales can go on continuously in accordance with the real needs and wants of consumers, that almost all the goods and services offered do also find their customers or that their potential customers are gainfully employed, paid at least with alternative and competitively issued sound currencies and thus enabled to purchase their individual requirements within the limitations of their earnings. One might consider goods- and service vouchers -competitively issued in money denominations by the providers of the goods and services - as “transport documents” to get the wanted goods and services to those who produce for others the other goods and services that the others want for themselves. Ultimately, in any monetary economy, goods, services and labor are exchanged for the goods, services and labor of others. Competitively issued sound exchange media do merely facilitate this process and clear the mutual debts. To arrange the same exchanges via barter transactions would be very difficult and time consuming. Thus these monetary or clearing exchanges should be as free as the barter exchanges are. We might consider them as merely suitable tools to make exchanges free and easy. No law or institution should coercively interfere with them. A free market and publicity will provide the institutions and media and methods require and sufficiently control them. Obviously, the unemployed and those, who have sales difficulties for their goods and services, need these additional exchange facilities most of all. – Alas, a perfect clearing system to make the use of any physical exchange media – paper notes, and coins quite superfluous, has not yet been established. Check accounts and credit cards are still tied to cash but are, nevertheless, already steps in that direction. - J.Z., 9.11.98, 27.89.09, 28.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Full employment does not cost money – it earns extra money instead – and it can only be achieved with sound money, competitively supplied in all spheres where it is needed, which means that the total quantity of sound exchange media will have to be increased. (Unless the same is achieved by an increase in clearing transactions. However, essentially, exchange media are also only clearing certificates or parts of clearing processes. - J.Z., 28.3.11.) As long as prices, wages and other contracts are expressed in sound value standards and simply more goods, services and labor are turned over, the extra circulation or the additional clearing settlements do not lead to inflationary price rises. On the contrary, then even some considerable price reductions can be expected. – J.Z., 20.5.84, 3.10.08, 28.3.11. – More sales mean less fixed sales cost per unit, making a price reduction possible. – J.Z., 20.4.09. - INFLATION, QUANTITY THEORY, NOT EVERY INCREASE IN THE QUANTITY OF EXCHANGE MEDIA IS INFLATIONARY.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Full employment is not impossible but merely outlawed – via legalized monetary and financial despotism. – J.Z., 29.4.98. – Naturally, only the voluntary employment of willing and able workers is meant here. – Voluntary unemployment amounts merely to leisure for those, who can afford it. - J.Z., 28.9.08, 28.3.11. – FULL EMPLOYMENT

UNEMPLOYMENT: Full employment through a really free market, including a free market for means of exchange, clearing certificates and value standards. – J.Z., n.d. & 15.8.08.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Government measures are the primary cause of unnecessary unemployment – particularly minimum wage laws and measures granting special immunities for trade unions. Eliminate these, and the unemployment rage, particularly among blacks, would drop sharply.” – Milton Friedman, An Economist Protests, p.XV. – I do not agree with the implied concept that there is something like “necessary unemployment” for people willing and able to work for market wages, paid in competitively issued exchange media and self-chosen value standards. – J.Z., 3.10.08, 28.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Government spending on unemployed merely transfers unemployment from some sectors of the economy and some groups and individual to others, either through taxation or inflation, which is also a form of taxation. It thus reduces productivity and the standard of living for all except those who bureaucratically administers this scheme, as inefficiently as they usually do. The bureaucrats involved should also be counted among the unemployed, since they are not productively employed. Involuntary unemployment cannot be reduced or abolished in this way. If the government does employ formerly unemployed or subsidizes their employment then these people will be less productively employed than other people would have been if they had not been deprived by the government via taxation or inflation of the funds for doing this. It is again a question of what is seen and what is not seen, as Bastiat would have said. – The same applies to the so-called unemployment insurance. The insurance amounts are taken away and to that extent reduce employment opportunities and create additional unemployment. If they are kept as ready cash then the circulation of exchange media is correspondingly reduced and this will tend to increase unemployment. If they are productively invested than these funds cannot be suddenly asked back, to pay masses of people who have become unemployed, for this would also create additional unemployment. Unemployment is really not an insurable risk since the government can at any time create or increase it to almost any extent in any country and sometimes has done so even to 80% unemployment. The only good insurance against unemployment consists in its prevention. Subsidizing unemployed does naturally also increase the number of those who claim unemployment benefits and reduces the willingness to work among those, who could, through working, earn only little more than they could get in unemployment benefits for not working. – As usual, even the democratic governments have created a mess in this sphere as well. Totalitarian government have “reduced unemployment” largely via conscription, forced labor, slave labor and even through mass extermination of innocent people. – Governments, with their forced and exclusive currencies do mass produce unemployment in three main ways: deflation, inflation and stagflation. – I do not deny that they “achieve” this "aim" at least partly also in numerous other ways, e.g. through compulsory licensing, quotas, wage controls, minimum wages. But the main effective factor is their monetary despotism. - J.Z., 24.9.98, 28.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Governments and legislators, get out of the way. You cannot produce anything, least of all additional productive jobs, profitable sales and productive services. Let us produce jobs and sales, by freeing our exchanges from your laws, regulations, institutions and jurisdiction, especially from your monetary despotism. - J.Z., 21.12.92, 30.12.92. - J.Z. file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files - & GOVERNMENTS

UNEMPLOYMENT: Governments can create unemployment but they cannot abolish it - except by getting out of the way. J.Z., 21.12.92. - J.Z. file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files - & GOVERNMENTS

UNEMPLOYMENT: Governments can't create jobs. They can only shift over jobs from some groups to others - while destroying many jobs in the process and making others unproductive. - J.Z. 14.12.92. - J.Z. file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files - & GOVERNMENTS

UNEMPLOYMENT: Gresham's law reversed: When good monies are not free to drive out bad monies then the bad monies force not only good monies but sellers of quality goods, labor and services out of the market. Only those exchanges will take place which can be arranged via the forced and exclusive currency of the State and the all too limited clearing and turnover credit options that remain under such a monopoly currency. - J.Z. 31.12.92, 28.3.11. – But when good money (optional money without legal tender, and a sound reflux arrangement, meaning convertibility not into gold or silver but into wanted consumer goods and services, with the money’s value standard and the goods and services prices, perhaps and by choice, expressed e.g. in gold or silver weight units), can be freely issued and accepted or discounted and refused, then the good money tends to drive the bad money out of circulation, just like good products and good services tend to drive the bad ones off the market. – J.Z., 20.4.09, 28.3.11. - & GRESHAM’S LAW

UNEMPLOYMENT: How long would it take to achieve full employment? Australian politicians now hope merely for a lower degree of unemployment than 11% within a few years. I guess one should not expect anything better while central banking remains. I assert that full employment via monetary freedom would be possible within a week - if it still would have to be discussed and would be fully discussed in the mass media. However, it could be realized within hours if this option were already known and appreciated. - J.Z., 21.12.92, 28.3.11.  - Compare the self-help successes of businessmen during the currency famine of 1893, described by John DeWitt Warner. – See: - TRANSITION PERIOD TO FULL EMPLOYMENT

UNEMPLOYMENT: How much in sound and short-term credits for employment purposes could monetary freedom mobilize, almost immediately, or, in other words, by how much could the “liquidity” situation be improved, without any risk of inflation, to finance more employment and sales and to end the internal and international depression? By as much as there exist ready for sale and also needed or wanted consumer goods and services, as far as the internal trade is concerned. The limit would be reached in practice when shop currencies have reached their saturation point and would thus no longer be accepted at par and would begin to be refused or accepted only at a discount. - As for international trade: Add up all the goods and services that are ready for sale internationally, to people, who do need or want them but are not supplied with sufficient purchasing power to acquire them. - The potential issue and reflux volume for shop currencies can be estimated, somewhat, merely through walking through any large shopping centre. Perhaps good enough statistics do exist on this, produced by the associations of retail traders. - - In the international trade, our exports could be promoted and our import needs satisfied to the extent that we would be free to pay for our imports with suitable certificates redeemable in our export goods and services. By thus appearing first as buyers overseas, we could do much to break down all the existing international trade barriers. Here, too, we could issue as much in international purchasing power as the international exchange rate for such exchange media would allow us to acquire. At its free market rate we would tend to maximize our international trade plus our advantages from it. If we overvalued our international clearing certificates, redeemable in our exports, we would find few acceptors for them. If we undervalued them, we would give part of our export values away. If we valued our exports in nominal grams of gold value units and also our export goods and services in such a value standard, then we could issue such clearing certificates as payments for our exports as long as they are accepted at par with their nominal value or close enough to it. – For some details on this read especially the writings of Prof. Edgard Milhaud and Ulrich von Beckerath.

UNEMPLOYMENT: How unfree need prices and wage rates be, how regulated labor and business, how high and penal the taxes, how numerous the monopolies (worst of all the central bank's monopoly) and how high and numerous the subsidies, in order to create and perpetuate involuntary mass unemployment? - J.Z. 21.12.92. – On this we have accumulated all too much experience and facts, for all too long, and still most of the “experts” have not drawn the right conclusions from this situation. Nor are they prepared to permit dissenters to engage in free monetary and value standard experiments among themselves. All that would be rightful and sensible in this sphere is simply outlawed and suppressed! – J.Z., 20.4.09. – PROHIBITIONS, MONETARY DESPOTISM, CENTRAL BANKING, MONEY ISSUE MONOPOLY, RESTRICTIONISM

UNEMPLOYMENT: I do not understand why people are puzzled by the phenomenon of simultaneous higher unemployment benefit and lower employment. Economic principles work: if you increase the demand for anything, the supply will grow to meet it. In your country and mine we have made it ever more attractive to be unemployed. We have increased the demand for unemployment, and the supply of unemployed has risen to meet that demand.” - Milton Friedman, From Galbraith to Economic Freedom, p.49. - At the same time we failed to increase the monetary demand for productive labor, at market wage rates, by means of additional, optional, competitive and market-rated sound currencies. - J.Z., 28.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: I would like to see a comprehensive anthology that would systematically deal with all the sense and nonsense that has so far been uttered on the subject of unemployment and has thus contributed to the ignorance and confusion on this subject in most heads. If well and clearly written, then it could become a bestseller. Perhaps it could be produced gradually and collaboratively through a website that would discuss all the ideas, opinions and facts in this sphere. As a starting point for such a discussion I recommend Ulrich von Beckerath’s second monetary freedom book: “Must Full Employment Cost Money?” – which can be found on – The electronic “argument mapping” methods developed by Paul Monk et al and described online should also be systematically applied in this discussion. – That no government was so far able to effectively cope with mass unemployment should be obvious by now. The governmental and central bank failure to cope with this problem could, once again, bring a totalitarian regime to power., one almost like that of the Nazis. - J.Z., 23.9.98, 26.9.08, 7.8.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: If automation were really causing unemployment then what could or should happen? - Philip E. Jacobsen, in THE CONNECTION 133, p.78, raised the following question: If only a small percentage of the work force could support the whole population, why should they? - Ulrich von Beckerath, in his monetary freedom books, online at raised the old legend of “Aladin’s Lamp” as an instructive example. Why, indeed, should Aladin or the owners of automated factories, bother to produce for the whole world population, rather than merely for themselves? What do the others have to offer them in return? They could all act as armies of worshippers of or personal servants of Aladin and the automated producers but Aladin and these producers might get bored with them and dismiss them. What then? - We should remember that people are biological robots or production machines, at least potentially, who do own themselves and could work for themselves. Thus these unemployed millions or even billions could then work for themselves or for each other, in division of labor, in the conventional ways, without the help of Aladin’s lamp or of the automated production equipment, perhaps even without tools or machines or only primitive ones. They could then act as if Aladin’s lamp and the automated production equipment of the others would not really exist. Which would mean that they would be over-employed, with primitive labors – until they have supplied themselves with their own and better tools, machines and also with at least some automated production equipment. Unemployment would certainly not be caused and maintained among them by Aladin’s lamp, by the machines or automated factories of others but by their own lack of initiative to engage in their self-help options, especially their monetary and financial ones for facilitating exchanges among themselves, as if they were, e.g., a foreign country's whole population. – Alas, with their current mentality they would tend to put Aladin and the automated producers under so heavy taxation, that the unemployed could then all go on the dole. – And they would feel somehow satisfied and complacent about this robbery, since they believe in welfare “rights” and in taxation of the willing and able. - J.Z., 15.8.08, 29.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: If politicians knew how to provide employment, do you think they would try to do without the votes of e.g. a million unemployed and those of their dependents? - J.Z. 21.12.92, 7.8.11. – While they do not know how to end and prevent involuntary unemployment, by their despotic territorial laws they do prevent other people from solving this and other problems themselves, by free and rightful self-help actions, based on sound monetary freedom theories and practices carefully developed in free experiments among volunteers and sufficiently described in a special reference work, e.g. a handbook or a databank on free banking or monetary freedom.. - J.Z., 28.3.11, 7.8.11. - POLITICIANS, VOTING, MONETARY DESPOTISM, CURRENCY POLICIES, MONETARY & BANKING LEGISLATION

UNEMPLOYMENT: If private people and their associations were allowed to issue sound, i.e. non-coercive paper money tokens, which are suitable to pay wages with and acceptable in the stores and which do maintain themselves in free competition with other alternative currencies, then unemployment would soon disappear and inflation would become impossible. - The task consists in sufficiently increasing the money circulation without depreciating the additionally issued exchange media or driving the general price level up. The circulation should be increased just sufficiently to so increase the goods and service exchanges that all involuntary unemployment is done away with, all productive potential is used and all sales difficulties for wanted goods are abolished. The sale of labor and goods should then take place neither at emergency sales prices nor at inflated prices but at free market prices. MONETARY FREEDOM SELF-HELP ACTIONS - J.Z. file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files

UNEMPLOYMENT: In a free market there would always be a shortage of labor. We live in a world of scarcity and there is always work to be done.” – Ron Paul. – True, but the reason for this, that he states, is insufficient. In a really free market the supply of sound exchange media and sound value standards would also be competitive, i.e. the monetary demand for labor, expressed in sound exchange media, would correspond to the turn-over capital present in form or ready for sale goods and services, which constitutes the main working capital of any country, so that the tendency would be for sound exchange media to chase productive labor, driving its prices, wages and salaries up to their market values, rather than unemployed or under-employed people chasing exchange media which are neither sound nor in sufficient supply because their issue and their value standard are monopolized and thus mismanaged, independent of the requirements of a free market. - - So far only the supply of labor is quite free, not the monetary demand for it! If the supply of sound exchange media (or clearing and non-cash payment options) is insufficient, because it is not free and sound, then there would still be much work to be done and, nevertheless, all too much involuntary unemployment and under-employment would still occur. Employers would not be free to act as employers. Entrepreneurs would not be free enough to act as entrepreneurs. Their wanted consumer products and services would not be easy enough to sell. Thus they could not hire and might have to fire at last some employees. Ready for sale goods and services would remain largely unsold and productive capital assets would remain partly idle. The hoped-for, expected and predicted automatic and sufficient adaptation of all prices and wages to a changed supply of exchange media, even a supply that has become monopolized, would not always and everywhere occur rapidly enough. - The resulting bankrupted employers and businessmen would also be a kind of unemployed people. - Exchange media are just that, media to enable and facilitate exchange. Only quite free clearing could replace them and, to some extent, it already does. - - Consider an analogy from the capital market: Just imagine that there would be only a single organization in a country, or even in the world, that would be authorized to issue shares, bonds, mortgages or capital certificates. Could we imagine that this single organization would be informed and wise enough to issue just the right total of capital certificates required to finance all capital requirements in a country or in the world? - - Or imagine that only a single organization in a country (Like the H.O. = Handels-Organization = Trade Organization in Communist East Germany) would be allowed to offer any goods or services for sale. Could we then expect their supply to be satisfactory, especially when all production is monopolized as well, in the hands of the State? - - Please, try, very patiently, to express such thought more clearly and concisely still, if you can! So much depends on this, directly or indirectly, that we do, finally, get these relationships quite right in our heads and in our exchanges. "Society is exchange" - said Bastiat. – Without free exchange we cannot have a free society. - J.Z., 13.8.08. - See especially: , - and

UNEMPLOYMENT: In a quite unrestricted and thus really free market for goods, services and labor, based upon free division of labor and specialization and full freedom to exchange its products, services and labor for the products, services and labor of others, each would have the choice between hundreds of thousands of different productive jobs, the right or opportunity to work in any of them as productively as he can be and thus earn freely issued and accepted standardized claims in convenient money denominations (actually being clearing certificates or clearing accounts as well), upon the goods, labors and services of others, a kind of ticket money or shop currency or purchasing voucher or clearing certificate, which are all competitively supplied and self-regulated in a free market for local currencies, so that they are neither over-issued nor under-issued but simply correspond to all the goods, services and labor offered ready for sale for them. Involuntary unemployment could not exist under this condition (apart from natural catastrophes, wars, civil wars or revolutionary conditions.). The current demand for labor thus expressed would even exceed the value of all the labor that people, between them, could immediately offer in exchange, on the same day, within then next week or month, in form of their own productive labor, in all somewhat developed countries, where a large stock of ready for sale goods and service options exists and their owners or providers wants to exchange them in suitable ways, for mutual benefit, utilizing in the process all the available and willing labor and all productive other capital that are offered at market prices. It is absurd to assume that really free and also informed exchanges are not profitable for their participants or that exchanges are really free when people offering useful and wanted goods, services or labor cannot freely exchange them for those of others. – To the extent that people are indebted, .e.g. through installment credits, and house-building credits, their own obligation to pay the regular installments for them could be issued by them in form of their own debt certificates, amounting to the next repayment and interest installment due soon. These, their own IOUs, the debtors could use in a perfect clearing system as their own means of payment or clearing, which they would have to accept, when due, in wage and salary payments due to them. Their creditors would get that part of their wages and salaries of the debtors (paid in whatever means of payment) that was due to them, as creditors, as the next installment repayment. The debtors would then receive back, the IOUs they had issued for their debt installment payments, in their wage or salary envelope. These IOU would then have helped to provide them – and others, with additional employment opportunities, through their limited additional circulation. Insofar they could assure and anticipate their own employment and assure their own ability to pay their debt installment, paying with part of the value of the labor still to be performed by them. – The more indebted they would be, there greater would be the monetary demand for their goods and services. Under a perfect clearing system, with the sufficient publicity required for it, their indebtedness could not go beyond their ability to work to pay it off, apart from insurable risks. – Only insufficiently informed creditors would grant them more in credits than they would be able to pay off with the earnings from their work. - At present some of the larger consumer goods, e.g. furniture, are even offered on credit, interest-free, for up to e years, always in the hope or expectation that they buyers would be enabled to earn enough of the resent monopoly money issued by central banks to pay their debts in instalments. - J.Z., n.d. & 4.10.08, 29.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: In a world which has an infinite amount of work to be done, involuntary unemployment is inconceivable – provided the market is free. Unemployment is always the result of price (wage) and other coercive controls. Automation, … has nothing whatever to do with it. Our mechanical slaves – labor-saving devices of all kinds – stem from the recognition and pursuit if higher wants than mere survival; they are the means toward such ends.” – Leonard E. Read, Deeper Than You Think, p.58. - The free prices and wages of a free market require also a competitive supply of sound exchange media and clearing options. - In other passages Read did also stand up for a competitive money supply. - J.Z., 29.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: In Germany the fallacy used to be wide-spread that two earners in a couple, husband and wife, do deprive other people of their right and opportunity to a job. One of the many false premises in this assertion is that jobs are available only in a limited quantity and should thus be fairly ‘shared’, with one job for a couple to be the limit! If that assumption were true then over history, every tenfold increase in population should have increased unemployment correspondingly. Instead, the number of employed people has increased enormously, also the variety of their jobs and of the tools, machines and automatic equipment at their disposal. – All the errors and spleens on unemployment have, probably, not yet been systematically collected and optimally refuted. - J.Z., 30.9.08, 29.3.11. The following are some of my older notes on the subject: Unemployed are or should be aware that for each of them there are many people who would gladly employ them in one way or the other - if only they would not have to pay them for their labors. They could keep them at work, sweating for 8 hours or more a day. There is no shortage of jobs that people want done. But few of these people can pay full or any wages for these labors. Thus the tacit assumption that there is not sufficient work to be done, that work opportunities are only available in a fixed quantity and that this quantity ought to be fairly rationed, that double earning ought to be outlawed while there are couples of whom both are unemployed, is wrong. Not insufficient work is there but insufficient sales for labor or insufficient means of payment to pay labor with. That is quite another matter. - - The need for goods and services is, essentially, quite unlimited. For instance, each unemployed needs and wants numerous goods and services - but has not got the purchasing power to buy them. X suppliers would only too gladly sell them these goods and services - if only they would be paid for them. The potential for producing more of these goods and services is there - but not sufficient demand supplied with purchasing power. - Almost everyone could fill out a long shopping list for goods and services he would like to buy, if only he could afford them. For most such lists would run up to thousands, if not ten-thousands of dollars per annum, to more than they have saved or expect to earn in the near future. To produce these goods and services requires labor. But that labor will also come forward only when the goods and services it would supply could, through the exchange media earned in the process, become exchanged for the goods provided and services offered by others. Both sides want things. Both sides are willing to work for them. But both sides find it difficult to get paid for the things their labor offers so that they can buy the goods and services that other offer and that they want and need. The wishes for more things are practically unlimited wishes but they can, on both sides, at best only satisfied in correspondence with their immediate and future paid work, that would allow them to pay for the wanted or needed things immediately or in installments. The natural condition should, therefore, be overwork for all people whose wants are not yet satisfied, not lack of work. One does not have to invent new goods and services in order to keep the present workers fully employed towards the satisfaction or their wishes for goods and services. Almost no one feels that he has quite enough of those presently offered. If he had, he would have no reason to complain but simply would enjoy shorter working hours and more leisure time. The latter would often cost him something, too, first to be earned through his labor or later to be paid if he gets it on credit. - - Workers in the US earn about double as much as workers in Germany do. They do not feel over-supplied with goods and services. Their wants have simply increased. That means that more must be produced for them to satisfy these wants. Nevertheless, presently (ca. 1960) ca. 2 million of them are unemployed. - In Asia and Africa the average standard of living is much lower than in Europe. In other words, their needs for goods and services are much higher than ours in Europe or of the people in the US. - Certainly, there is no shortage of jobs that needs doing in these countries. Nevertheless, millions of their people are unemployed. Consequently, unemployment is not due to lack of jobs that need to be done. - - One should also take into consideration that most American consumers are in considerable debt. This means that their current earnings were insufficient to pay immediately for the goods and services they wanted. Thus they acquired them on credit. To repay their debt, they will have to work for a considerable time and much of their earnings in the future will have to be used to pay their debts. In other words, they need to produce goods and offer services to clear their debts, since all debts can lastly only be paid in goods and services. Here, too, is a large work opportunity, for these creditors want to be paid. - - The difficulty lies not in finding work that needs doing or workers able and willing to do it but to arrange for the payment of work that needs to be done, one is willing to do and that others wished for and that ought to be done. - - The problem lies not in insufficient needs or wishes for the products or services of work but in insufficient monetary demand, for them, i.e. in insufficient needs and wants that are sufficiently supplied with purchasing power. That purchasing power can, under freedom, normally only be earned through productive work. Only needs and wants that are supplied with purchasing power can act as effective demand on the market. - If everybody could pay for his needs and wants with sound money then all unemployed would soon be employed, at market rate wages. - - Everybody's supply with means of payment ought to be restricted only by his ability and willingness in the past, present and near future to give equivalent goods and services in return - corresponding to his role in the division of labor process. Then his spending would provide income or work for others and would, at the same time, mean work for himself. People wanting to spend more would have to work more or would have to work more productively. Neither case would lead to unemployment. Only the leisure time of very productive people, who limited their wants, might be larger. - - What is limited in our system is effective monetary demand, i.e. needs and wants supplied with purchasing power. The hungry person is not hungry because there is not enough food but because he has not the money to pay for it. He has no money to pay for it because there is insufficient money to pay him for the labor he would be able and willing to give in return. - Translation of some German notes by J.Z., most likely from before 1959, on double earners, slightly changed 11/85 & 30.9.08, 29.3.11. - - J.Z. file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files – DIS., UNEMPLOYMENT THROUGH DOUBLE EARNERS? - All these statements by myself are standing invitations to others to word them much better and shorter. - J.Z., 29.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: In the Southern Highlands of NSW there existed, at least for some years, one local charity shop, if not several, started by a Roman Catholic priest, with the intention to help get unemployed youths off the streets. - If only one could get the religious people off their addiction to charity as a panacea, and to examine, instead, the legal causes of involuntary unemployment, then something worthwhile might be achieved. Imagine the Pope or the R. C. Church officially and scientifically examining cause and cure for unemployment, including the monetary freedom options. With the realization of the latter and, naturally, of the other economic rights and liberties as well, requiring e.g. the abolition of minimum wages, of the compulsory licensing system, freedom in the credit and clearing sphere, unemployment among young people, too, could be abolished within hours to days at most. – Moreover, then there would be jobs for millions of refugees and immigrants too, including deserters from the armed forces of foreign dictatorships. But who is seriously interested in such options and possibilities? – J.Z., 31.17.03, 29.3.11. - ESPECIALLY AMONG YOUTH, FREE BANKING, MONETARY FREEDOM OR CHARITY EFFORTS?

UNEMPLOYMENT: In the Spring 05 review of Laissez Faire Books of John Stossel’s, “Myths, Lies, and Nasty Behavior”: “Outsourcing Kills American Jobs: America lost 361 million jobs between 1993 and 2002.” – “Sounds terrible – until you know that, during these same years, America gained 380 million new jobs. Free trade, including outsourcing, brings the creative destruction that makes that possible.” – Such generalizations simply ignore the inflationary as well as the deflationary and stag-flationary effects of monetary despotism and assume that it could work as well as monetary freedom would. – Like many sick people they are simply in denial – because they are still alive. – Man was conditioned to put up with slavery for thousands of years and with serfdom for hundreds of years, so we should not be surprised that he is able and willing to put up, unquestioningly, with the effects of monetary despotism under a variety of delusions and this for all too many decades. – That, certainly, saves them much thinking. And yet it would need only the panarchistic freedom required for all peaceful dissenters to demonstrate - to anyone interested - with the successes among their free experiments (all only undertaken at their own risk and expense), how fast and easily involuntary mass unemployment, inflation and stagflations, recessions and depressions can be overcome by voluntary self-help steps, including especially full monetary and financial freedom measures. – J.Z., 19.4.09, 29.3.11, 7.8.11. - OUTSOURCING JOBS, EXPORTING JOBS, FREE TRADE, PROTECTIONISM, PANARCHISM, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, DIS.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Interest in the cause of unemployment: Is there even one among dozens of millions of unemployed who is willing to make the "supreme" sacrifice of some of his plentiful spare time, to read a truthful book on cause and cure of unemployment, like Ulrich von Beckerath's "Must Full Employment Cost Money?" (Reproduced in PEACE PLANS 10.) J.Z. 30.12.92. – Now online at - J.Z. file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files

UNEMPLOYMENT: Involuntary mass unemployment could be as fast abolished as could inflation and deflation as well as stagflation could be abolished – though full monetary freedom and free choice of value standards and free clearing. Through the repeal of the laws of monetary despotism or a monetary revolution this could be achieved within hours or days, provided only that public opinion is sufficiently enlightened in advance about these changes or that there are enough people who have acquired the necessary knowledge to immediately establish and successfully run monetary freedom institutions. No capital investments are required for this or expensive bank building or computer systems. Cheap printing facilities are available and as an office, initially, even a garage might do. Since no gold treasures are involved or legal tender money useful in a whole country but merely local currencies with a limited circulation area and volume, not even safes might be required for the first small banks of issue of this kind. – They would simply facilitate the free exchange of existing goods and services and achieve a higher usage rate of the already existing capital equipment and structures. – J.Z., 28.1.98, 28.9.08. - INFLATION, DEFLATION, MONETARY FREEDOM

UNEMPLOYMENT: Involuntary mass unemployment exists, as a rule, only because we have not allowed a fully free market to operate, i.e., have restricted freedom of contract, freedom of association, freedom of action, freedom of expression and information, freedom to exchange, freedom to clear, free enterprise in all spheres, free banking, freedom to issue one’s own IOU’s and token money or shop currency, freedom to choose one’s value standard, freedom to pay one’s debts with assignments to one’s own ready-for-sale goods and services, freedom to provide short term loans for regular payments to employees, (in modern forms of the classical Real Bills Doctrine discount business, which anticipated by the competitive issue of banknotes, the final sale of consumer goods already produced and sold to wholesalers), full consumer sovereignty and free enterprise competition, extended to various currencies, clearing certificates and value standards used in pricing goods, services, wages, salaries, rents, exchange media, clearing certificates, accounts and capital certificates. Notions of the sovereign and exclusive coinage privilege of absolute kings, emperors and princes do still spook in all too many heads. We still have to become monetarily emancipated, first mentally, in theory and concepts and then in practical and free exchange actions. – J.Z., 21.8.00, 7.10.08, 29.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Involuntary mass unemployment in peace time is due mainly to monetary despotism, i.e., government intervention with the exchange media, clearing avenues and value standards which prevent every possible and desired exchanges of one's labor and goods, as well as that of the labor, goods and services of others, from taking place quite freely and undisturbed. - J.Z., 13.11.85, 4.10.08, 29.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Involuntary mass unemployment in peace time is not due to over-population or free migration or masses of refugees and asylum seekers - for under such conditions people would obviously have to work longer and harder for less – if the number of possible jobs and earnings opportunities were really a limited quantity, as this kind of fallacy simply assumes. In reality, more people create more and more and also more productive work opportunities for each other. Even with the aid of productive machines, robots and automated factories they are still far from having reduced e.g. working hours to an hour a day and the working weeks to a day a week. Instead of adopting such false assumptions or conclusions, do look for the real causes that interfere with free exchanges between people. You should be familiar with at least one of them, namely taxation and with the second one, the only exchange medium that we are allowed to use and the third one, the one and only value standard for monetary exchanges that we are legally allowed to use. Ponder them and their effects, also the hundreds to thousands of other interventions with free market relationships. - J.Z., 13.11.85, 4.10.08, 29.3.11, 7.8.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Involuntary mass unemployment is not due to lack of productive capital because before and after a depression, recession, deflation, stagflation or fast inflation, there is, as a rule, not significantly more real productive capital in existence than during it. Under such conditions the existing capital is simply not freely offered or fully utilized. Nor is mass unemployment then due to too high market rated wages. Under full freedom to use capital productively and to assure the sale of its products by means of free banking or full monetary freedom, the wages could be even higher, in sound purchasing power, than they are under such crisis conditions, which are possible only under monetary despotism. Nor is a capitalist conspiracy involved, because the millions of unemployed "produced" in such crises are, obviously, not "exploited" by potential employers, because they are not employed by them at all. If any conspiracy is involved it is rather one, of the statists or state socialists, who demanded and "achieved"the establishment and maintenance of the institutions of monetary despotism, that made such conditions possible and created bankruptcies among employers, losses in their businesses, reductions in the value of their securities, reductions of the turnover in their enterprises and also a reduction of the people whom, as employers, they are supposed to exploit. The unemployed and underemployed are not the only losers in such crises. In deflations all debtors tend to lose and in inflations all creditors tend to lose. All-over in deflations creditors tend to lose as well, e.g. many are not repaid at all, and in inflations, in balance, all debtors do also tend to lose because no further credits will be granted to them on the basis of an inflated and legal tender paper currency. – Instead of looking for culprits, using only personal thinking, we should then look at the real causes, with causal thinking. Everything else is only the modern equivalent of blaming all evils on demons or on witchcraft. – J.Z., 13.11.85, 4.10.08, 29.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Involuntary mass unemployment is not due to machines and automation because they only mean increased productivity, thus higher wages and also a much greater variety of jobs becoming available. Apart from the more or less obvious economic, political and military interventions with free contracts and free market and work relationships, interferences, which do make many people temporary unemployed, as far as productive activities are concerned, e.g. most bureaucrats, who are employed in counter-productive or in monopolistic activities at the expense of taxpayers and consumers. Apart also of natural catastrophes, like epidemics, floods, severe storms, and earthquakes. Even these, while destroying, temporarily, some jobs and capital, do require, as soon as possible, even more labor and capital (pre-done labor) to make up for such damages and losses. – All the nonsense that exists on this and related subjects in most heads has, unfortunately, not yet been encyclopedically collected and refuted, although this could now be done, fast and cheaply, via digital options existing, if only a few thousand people, linked via the Internet, would bother to collaborate on this. - Instead, largely only more and more errors and spleens, in this sphere, too, are so far upheld and spread through the Internet. - J.Z., 13.11.85, 4.10.08, 29.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Interest in the cause of unemployment: Is there even one among dozens of millions of unemployed who is willing to make the "supreme" sacrifice of some of his plentiful spare time, to read a truthful book on cause and cure of unemployment, like Ulrich von Beckerath's "Must Full Employment Cost Money?" (Reproduced in PEACE PLANS 10.) J.Z. 30.12.92. – Now online at - J.Z. file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files

UNEMPLOYMENT: Involuntary mass unemployment could be as fast abolished as could inflation and deflation as well as stagflation could be abolished – through full monetary freedom and free choice of value standards and free clearing. Through the repeal of the laws of monetary despotism or a monetary revolution this could be achieved within hours or days, provided only that public opinion is sufficiently enlightened in advance about these changes or that there are enough people who have acquired the necessary knowledge to immediately establish and successfully run monetary freedom institutions. No capital investments are required for this or expensive bank building or computer systems. Cheap printing facilities are available and as an office, initially, even a garage might do. Since no gold treasures are involved or legal tender money useful in a whole country but merely local currencies with a limited circulation area and volume, not even safes might be required for the first small banks of issue of this kind. – They would simply facilitate the free exchange of existing goods and services and achieve a higher usage rate of the already existing capital equipment and structures. – J.Z., 28.1.98, 28.9.08. - INFLATION, DEFLATION, MONETARY FREEDOM

UNEMPLOYMENT: Involuntary mass unemployment exists, as a rule, only because we have not allowed a fully free market to operate, i.e., have restricted freedom of contract, freedom of association, freedom of action, freedom of expression and information, freedom to exchange, freedom to clear, free enterprise in all spheres, free banking, freedom to issue one’s own IOU’s and token money or shop currency, freedom to choose one’s value standard, freedom to pay one’s debts with assignments to one’s own ready-for-sale goods and services, freedom to provide short term loans for regular payments to employees, (in modern forms of the classical Real Bills Doctrine discount business, which anticipated, by the competitive issue of banknotes, the final sale of consumer goods already produced and sold to wholesalers), full consumer sovereignty and free enterprise competition, extended to various currencies, clearing certificates and value standards used in pricing goods, services, wages, salaries, rents, exchange media, clearing certificates, accounts and capital certificates. Notions of the sovereign and exclusive coinage privilege of absolute kings, emperors and princes do still spook in all too many heads. We still have to become monetarily emancipated, first mentally, in theory and concepts and then in practical and free exchange actions. – J.Z., 21.8.00, 7.10.08, 29.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Involuntary mass unemployment in peace time is due mainly to monetary despotism, i.e., government intervention with the exchange media, clearing avenues and value standards which prevent every possible and desired exchanges of one's labor, services and goods for the labor, goods and services of others, from taking place quite freely, comprehensively and undisturbed. - J.Z., 13.11.85, 4.10.08, 29.3.11, 7.8.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Involuntary mass unemployment in peace time is not due to over-population or free migration or masses of refugees and asylum seekers - for under such conditions people would obviously have to work longer and harder for less – if the number of possible jobs and earnings opportunities were really a limited quantity, as this kind of fallacy simply assumes. In reality, more people create more and more and also more productive work opportunities for each other. Even with the aid of productive machines, robots and automated factories they are still far from having reduced e.g. working hours to an hour a day a working weeks to a day a week. Instead of adopting such false assumptions or conclusions, do look for the real causes that interfere with free exchanges between people. You should be familiar with at least one of them, namely taxation and with the second one, namely the only exchange medium that you are allowed to use and the third one, the only value standard for monetary exchanges that you are allowed to use. Ponder them and their effects, also the hundreds to thousands of other interventions with free market relationships. - J.Z., 13.11.85, 4.10.08, 29.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Involuntary mass unemployment is not due to lack of productive capital because before and after a depression, recession, deflation, stagflation or fast inflation, there is, as a rule, not significantly more real productive capital in existence than during it. Under such conditions the existing capital is simply not freely offered or fully utilized. Nor is mass unemployment then due to too high market rated wages. Under full freedom to use capital productively and to assure the sale of its products by means of free banking or full monetary freedom, the wages could be even higher, in sound purchasing power, than they are under such crisis conditions, which are possible only under monetary despotism. Nor is a capitalist conspiracy involved, because the millions of unemployed "produced" in such crises are, obviously, not "exploited" by potential employers, because they are not employed by them at all. If any conspiracy is involved it is rather one, of the statists or state socialists, who demanded and "achieved"the establishment and maintenance of the institutions of monetary despotism, that made such conditions possible and created bankruptcies among employers, losses in their businesses, reductions in the value of their securities, reductions of the turnover in their enterprises and also a reduction of the people whom, as employers, they are supposed to exploit. The unemployed and underemployed are not the only losers in such crises. In deflations all debtors tend to lose and in inflations all creditors tend to lose. All-over in deflations creditors tend to lose as well, e.g. many are not repaid at all, and in inflations, in balance, all debtors do also tend to lose because no further credits will be granted to them on the basis of an inflated and legal tender paper currency. – Instead of looking for culprits, using only personal thinking, we should then look at the real causes, with causal thinking. Everything else is only the modern equivalent of blaming all evils on demons or on witchcraft. – J.Z., 13.11.85, 4.10.08, 29.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Involuntary mass unemployment is not due to machines and automation because they only mean increased productivity, thus higher wages and also a much greater variety of jobs becoming available. Apart from the more or less obvious economic, political and military interventions with free contracts and free market and work relationships, interferences, which do make many people temporary unemployed, as far as productive activities are concerned, e.g. most bureaucrats, who are employed in counter-productive or in monopolistic activities at the expense of taxpayers and consumers. Apart also of natural catastrophes, like epidemics, floods, severe storms, and earthquakes. Even these, while destroying, temporarily, some jobs and capital, do require, as soon as possible, even more labor and capital (pre-done labor) to make up for such damages and losses. – All the nonsense that exists on this and related subjects in most heads has, unfortunately, not yet been encyclopedically collected and refuted, although this could now be done, fast and cheaply, via digital options existing, if only a few thousand people, linked via the Internet, would bother to collaborate on this. - Instead, largely only more and more errors and spleens, in this sphere, too, are so far upheld and spread through the Internet. - J.Z., 13.11.85, 4.10.08, 29.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Involuntary unemployment is a quite unnatural and governmentally created condition. Coercive and privileged trade unions, wrongful labor laws and other forms of territorial State Socialism (all too extensively practised even in the best of the territorial democracies) arose only as a result of the imposition of exclusive exchange media and value standards, which made the sale of labor, goods and services difficult by preventing that degree of sound monetary demand for labor, goods and services, which would inevitably occur in a really free market. – J.Z., 21.8.10, 10.9.10. - EXCLUSIVE & FORCED CORRENCIES, MONEY ISSUE MONOPOLY, LEGAL TENDER LAWS, CENTRAL BANKING VS. FREE BANKING

UNEMPLOYMENT: IOUs: A man's I.O.U.s, issued by him for all his spending, and readily accepted by his suppliers under a perfect clearing system, would inevitably stream back to him in payment for any wages or other debts due to him. He could issue them to the extent that he is able to supply goods, labor or services wanted by others in the issue area or by people prepared to import them from this locality. In a system where every productive person would be free to spend to the limit of his productive potential with his own IOUs. and to the extent that they would be readily accepted and cleared, everyone could be fully employed via the mutual settlement of such debts, even if not a single gold or silver coin or governmental paper money note existed in the country or in the world. Any person free to pay his own way with his own IOUs and clearing certificates (those of his voluntary associates ), both issued as basically sound money substitutes, or, rather, as sounder money than any government could provide, would inevitably and by his own purchases with these means of exchange, bring jobs and sales to himself and to his associates. However, that is a self-help measure which is presently outlawed. Such laws are among those which ought to be repealed or massively ignored, even by those supposed to apply them. - J.Z. 31.12.92, 29.3.11. – IOU’s, FREE CLEARING & FULL EMPLOYMENT

UNEMPLOYMENT: Issue principle: Beat recessions, depressions, inflations and stagflations with your own sound money, or clearing certificates or accounts, issued by yourself, based on your own goods and services and those of your associates. - J.Z. 29.12.92, 7.8.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Issue principle of freedom of note issue: Everyone should be free to offer his labor, service and goods supply potential to willing acceptors - in certified and freely transferable form, in money denominations, using a freely agreed upon standard of value. To the extent that one succeeds in putting these into temporary circulation one will soon succeed, upon their reflux, in achieving corresponding sales of one's labor, services and goods. - J.Z. 30.12.92.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Issue principle: Beat recessions, depressions, inflations and stagflations with your own sound money, issued by yourself, based on your own goods and services and those of your associates. - J.Z. 29.12.92.

UNEMPLOYMENT: It is a widely held doctrine that wages fixed above the market level are the one and only cause of mass unemployment. While such interventions do often increase an existing unemployment they are not the only factor that causes unemployment. There are, for instance, many trade unions that have monopolized many jobs and thus achieved higher wages for themselves than the market rate of wages for their kinds of labor. But this in itself does not mean that others are unemployed but merely that others earn correspondingly less and or have to pay more for certain goods or services. Politicians and bureaucrats, public servants or civil servants, in their vast numbers, do, usually, receive salaries above the free market levels. Nevertheless, we often do not get as many unemployed as we get such people on the public payroll. Moreover the very existence of unemployment and fear of unemployment tends to depress the wages and salaries demanded by the employed – apart from the direct effects that any deflation has on such prices and on the sale of the products and services of those who are still working. The competition of unemployed for the remaining few job openings (under monetary and financial despotism) does also force their wages and salaries down. So this doctrine does certainly not contain the full truth and nothing but the truth. There are many other aspects and the following certainly do not offer a complete list: a) Unemployment in certain jobs, e.g. in agriculture and tourism, increases and decreases cyclically, e.g. seasonally, without wages and salaries being cyclically or seasonally increased above the market level. b) The doctrine ignores the influence of the degree of protectionism or free trade that is practised in various sectors of the economy. It is wrongly assumed that protectionism protects jobs and keeps wage levels high and that Free Trade endangers jobs and reduces wage and salary levels. c.) Whatever influences emigration and immigration have on the unemployment level (if any at all!) is also ignored by this assertion. d.) So is the influence of high taxes that at least to some extent destroys capital that would, otherwise, be used to employ people productively. e) Compulsory licensing does also keep some people out of some jobs. f) The monopolization of exchange media and of the value standard and restrictions imposed upon effective clearing methods do also limit exchange options for labor, service and goods providers and the opportunities for potential employers to employ more people. Until employers can be sure of the sale of what they have to offer, they cannot afford to hire more people, not even at low wage and salary levels. - - I do hold that the inflations, deflations, credit restrictions and stagflations caused by monetary despotism are the greatest factor making for involuntary unemployment. However, all contributing factors existing or believed to exist should be thoroughly examined rather than contending oneself merely with the above dogma. g) Another and very influential market is the restriction of full financial freedom to a regulated, restricted, managed all too often mismanaged capital market, leading to huge mal-investments, great losses and losses of economic development and job opportunities. – h) Convicts and soldiers are also kept out of productive employment and so are children and minors under compulsory schooling and anti-child labor laws. i) The same applies to those retired against their will because they have reached a certain age. Many of them are still able and willing to work – but not allowed to and are not counted among the unemployed. - J.Z., 11.9.97, 29.9.08, 20.4.09, 29.3.11. - DIS., CAUSE & CURE OF UNEMPLOYMENT, WAGES, MINIMUM WAGES, WAGE CONTROLS, UNIONS

UNEMPLOYMENT: It is not inherently impossible for the unemployed to produce their on livelihood in a system based on free enterprise, competition, division of labor and free exchange. They could themselves open up almost unlimited employment opportunities for themselves. They should merely see to it that they can be paid with other and sounder means of exchange than the one and only one provided by a monopolistic government. Instead of insisting that they be paid in this uniform monopoly money, which is almost never sound and almost never in sufficient supply, they should declare that they would be willing to accept other and competitively supplied exchange media that are sound and can be used in all the shops in which they usually buy their goods and services. These would best be issued by these shops and associations of such shops. Alternatively, the unemployed could even come to pay themselves with their own standardized claims, in money denominations, upon their own labor force, readiness and willingness to work productively, in form of typified clearing certificates, which they would accept at par, in payment for wages and salaries, when so employed. They would, so to speak, be able to thus spend their wages even before they are employed earned and paid – in the process of getting themselves employment. These certificates, accepted probably only at a discount, would get into the hands of their future employers and thus provide employment opportunities for them. See e.g. Ulrich von Beckerath, Berlin Program, p.19. - A single issuer of such IOUs would probably have difficulties but if such people suitably combined - and there are, in most countries, thousands to millions of them - their certificates would be widely acceptable for the need for means of wage payments is large and regular and it would be profitable and also easy for employers to pay their employees in such alternative means of exchange. The wage and salary earners could and would also be satisfied with any exchange media that do have a sufficient local shop foundation and are issued by an association of local shops. - Any private payment sphere in which there are many means of payment needed to clear all the mutual debts of it against each other can also utilize exchange media issued by its participants including even those of the still unemployed or underemployed, who could, thereby, integrate themselves in the production and exchange process. To the extent that their exchange media would be accepted, they would then have provided themselves with work. For their IOUs, in monetized form, would be returned to them in form of wage or salary payments. They have no other ultimate value and redemption option. Just like tickets have no other commercial value than their acceptance for performances. – J.Z., n.d. & 15.8.08, 29.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: It is not inherently impossible for the unemployed to produce their livelihood in a system based on division of labor and free exchange. (It is merely outlawed. - J.Z.) - Monetary and financial freedom would open up practically unlimited employment opportunities for them. They need only refuse the prescribed means of exchange or end their insistence upon them - to the extent that they do hinder the achievement of this aim or cannot be supplied in sufficient quantities - and insist, e.g. e.g. upon paying and being paid, instead, with their own assignments on the own labor in convenient and standardized certificates. Or in sound shop currencies issued by local shop associations. – MONETARY FREEDOM - J.Z. file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files. 28.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: It is not lack of job or enterprise opportunities, of capital, employers, union organization, resources, potential customers or of foreign exchange that mainly causes mass unemployment but, rather, lack of suitable exchange media to pay wages with and to achieve the sale of the goods produce and the services offered. To overcome this shortage is not impossible but merely outlawed. The sound exchange media and clearing processes that are amiss should be based exactly on the goods and services that, at present can’t be sold to people who do want or need them but who do not possess such purchasing power and are not given the chance to earn it, because their potential employers are not sufficiently supplied with them, either, because they have difficulties to sell the goods and services they offer. A vicious circle is involved that can only be broken by the supply of additional and also quite sound exchange media, using a stable value standard. - The most suitable issuers for such purchasing power and wage-payment means are the local shops and shop associations that do offer the daily wanted consumer goods and services for sale. Their local shop currency could easily become a local currency that is locally widely accepted to the limit of is issue capacity, which would show up immediately by a discount of such notes against their value standard in general circulation. Then only the issuers would still have to accept them at par, the reflux of the discounted notes would be fast and the par value of the notes remaining, temporarily, in circulation, until they, too streamed back for purchases, would be restored. Then they could and would, again and again, be replaced by new issues. Sound banknotes and clearing certificates of this kind could be supplied in sufficient quantities to avoid deflations and, seeing that they could be refused or discounted in general circulation, as market-rated and optional, instead of legal tender money, they could not cause an inflation, especially not if all prices, rents, wages etc. are expressed in sound value standards. – J.Z., 24.3.87, 15.8.08, 28.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: It is not possible to produce a healthy economy or full employment by legislation.” - John Singleton with Bob Howard, Rip van Australia, p.253. – Unless a new law would repeal all existing legal restrictions in that sphere. A new law that would repeal all laws interfering with a healthy economy and full employment would certainly be a great help. – J.Z., 4.10.08. - However, since such enlightenment will not suddenly happen in the whole population of a country, the dissenters should be free to engage in their own preferred experiments, at their own risk and expense, all trying to achieve that aim. This might require a monetary and financial revolution or the freedom for individuals and dissenters to secede. At least some would then succeed and this rather fast, because they had already explored their monetary and financial freedom options sufficiently before they were liberated or gained their freedom in this respect. From their successes their methods would tend to spread fast. - J.Z., 29.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: It would make some sense to tax unemployment but none at all to subsidize it. – J.Z., 9.7.77. – The alleviation of its symptoms does not provide a cure. Nor does it induce sufficient thinking about a cure. – J.Z., 4.10.08. – Formerly, in English colonial possessions, the administration often imposed a small head tax on the natives, to be paid in cash, which they could only earn, as a rule, when they made themselves available for labor paid in cash wages by the colonists. Otherwise many of them would have gladly continued merely with their barter and subsistence economic activities. - J.Z., n.d. - I wonder how fast economic development could and would occur if full monetary and financial freedom were introduced in a severely underdeveloped country and were fully utilized by its population. - Then new kinds of world records might be set in this respect. - J.Z., 29.3.11. - UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE, DOLE, TAXATION, MONETARY DESPOTISM, DEVELOPMENT UNDER FULL MONETARY & FINANCIAL FREEDOM.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Job offers are now conditional upon the employer being able to acquire sufficient of the forced and exclusive national paper currency to pay for the jobs he wants done and upon consumers in general being supplied with such a currency to guarantee the employer sufficient sales. To the extent that both of them are insufficiently supplied with exchange media they cannot provide jobs or consume and thus provide jobs directly or indirectly. What can one expect or should one predict when the supply of exchange media is monopolized? - J.Z. 31.12.92. - MONEY ISSUE MONOPOLY

UNEMPLOYMENT: Leonard E. Read often demanded: “Release all creative energies!” In the monetary sphere this means e.g., to allow people to sell their goods, services and labor by offering them in form of their own money notes or clearing certificates, in typified and standardized form, in convenient money denominations, transferable like the official money is, but with no one forced to accept them at all or to value them according to their nominal value – except the issuers themselves. Under this condition this kind of alternative money will usually only circulate, if at all, locally and at its nominal value, in free competition with e.g. gold- and silver coins. This kind of money has the strong tendency to be neither over-supplied nor under-supplied. It can use stable-value reckoning without the issuer possessing corresponding amounts of rare metal coins or promising to provide them in redemption. Only goods, services, labor and debt payment receipts need to be delivered for it. Their value standard and that of the goods, services and labor will be expressed in a mutually acceptable one and this is almost bound to be better than that of most governments in modern history. Governments did not provide their currency with legal tender power because they are better but because they are worse currencies than people could provide themselves with and thus they cannot stand free competition. – J.Z., 30.4.83, 3.10.08, 29.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Let “hard” and “soft” and all kinds of other money freely compete with each other for all labor, services and goods and allow all potential acceptors to either accept them at par with their nominal value standard or discount them against it or refuse them altogether. Then, quite naturally and inevitably the sound monies will drive out the unsound ones, because their potential acceptors will prefer them and reject or discount the unsound ones. – J.Z., 11.9.98. – In consequence, sound money will seek unemployed or under-employed labor to employ them productively, paid with such alternative currencies. The employed should be free to accept such alternative monies or to reject them. In the latter case they will, in many cases, remain unemployed or underemployed because central banks have not always achieved full employment and if so then only temporarily. – J.Z., 27.9.08, 29.3.11. – MONETARY FREEDOM, FREEDOM OF NOTE ISSUE, FREE BANKING

UNEMPLOYMENT: Let freely monetized consumer goods and services seek out all still unemployed or underemployed labor. These goods and services constitute the soundest cover and redemption “funds” for any currency. – J.Z., 17.1.00.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Let labor offer its services in form of all kinds of warrants and vouchers, standardized and typified and in denominations like money and so well organized and developed that they become useful like ready cash - and the sales problem for labor will be over. - - The cure for all effects of monetary shortages is a competitive supply of money, of non-coercive private means of exchange that use any value standard people find acceptable, based on the right to issue exchange media and to choose standards of value. - - Allow unlimited clearing of all claims. - - Let good money be privately produced and allow it to drive out the bad. - - It does not make sense to speak of "free pricing" when prices may be paid only with a monopolized exchange medium (or payment methods based on this medium) and using a fiat value standard instead of one that was freely chosen by both sides. - - There exists so far no free pricing, free enterprise, free competition, a free market, freedom of supply and demand - with regard to exchange media and value standards. - - Money, in order to become just a commodity and to be enabled to offer its just services to all, ought to be freely produced and "sold" for consumer goods and services. - - Free the market in every respect, e.g. let the monetary or clearing "demand" (the purchasing power) be freed of central bank restrictions and the restrictions imposed by any theoreticians who demand exclusiveness for their supposedly ideal currency. - J.Z. file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files. - J.Z., 29.3.11. - UNEMPLOYMENT, MONETARY FREEDOM VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM, FREE MARKETS, FREE PRICING, FREE EXCHANGE, MONEY, CLEARING, VALUE STANDARDS, GRESHAM’S LAW, LEGAL TENDER, FULL EMPLOYMENT.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Let privately or cooperatively produced alternative monies be freely issued and used for due payment, if found acceptable for this purpose, and also, let them be offered in short term credits, for wage and salary payments, especially to those so far unemployed or under-employed. Just like shares and bonds can be freely issued by those, who have capital values to offer. (Apart from imposed governmental restrictions in that sphere as well.) Let anyone accept or refuse to accept or discount such means of exchange, just like he is free to refuse to buy or to discount shares and bonds offered to him. Then, in the absence of any government interventions, prohibitions and controls, only the sound enough and soundest ones will survive, in a reversion of the popular form of Gresham’s law: Good money will then drive out bad money. That would happen with much greater certainty than it happens with shares and bonds. For to check the goodness of alternative currencies requires only that one brings them to the nearest store, associated with their issuing centre and see whether they are then and there readily accepted at their nominal value. For capital assets it is much more difficult for their individual owner to check out their value, apart from the reports of the stock exchanges and those found in the published statements of the companies and the reports of journalist and financial experts on such firms. This freedom would mean the provision of at least one if not several sound local currencies, all competing with other currencies for the widest local market share and all covered by redeemable in immediately available consumer goods and services. They cannot be issued at par beyond the needs and wants for such services, for then the first refusals and discounts would set in and rapidly lead to more refusals and higher discounts - if the attempt were made to issue more such notes. - Minimum safeguard for this system: Otherwise also free markets. Sufficient publicity on all the issue, circulation and reflux details of such issues. Agreement on sound or sound enough value standards. Issues only upon ready for sale and wanted consumer goods and services and only in short-term loans, promoting current turnovers, e.g. by using them to pay wages and salaries with and current other expenses, to the extent that they are acceptable for this. Seeing how much in purchasing power governments do now regularly extract in form of taxes, they should also be acceptable in payment of taxes, even if only with an agreed-upon discount, fair to both sides. Here the slowness of many bureaucracies in spending the tax revenues has to be taken into consideration. They are also not yet accustomed to deal in various currencies. However, private money exchangers will, probably, help them in that job. – J.Z., 18.4.98, 28.9.08. - INVOLUNTARY UNEMPLOYMENT BY THOSE ABLE & WILLING TO WORK

UNEMPLOYMENT: Let the owners of goods and services, which are in daily demand, provide their own exchange media and the supply of these goods and services and the demand for them will always be automatically in balance. No sales difficulties, no unemployment, as a result of this independent issue of “ticket-money”. The financing of medium- and long-term investments with such goods- and service-vouchers is a bit more involved but also quite possible, as e.g. Ulrich von Beckerath has described in detail in his three monetary freedom books. Corresponding securities will have to be bought with saved "ticket" money of this kind and will finally have to be repaid, including interest, also with this kind of “shop foundation” money. – No real problem, if one really thinks through these freedom options. – More money, a better kind of money, in sound forms, is not impossible at present but merely outlawed. – J.Z., 14.8.08, 29.3.11, 29.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Let us free all sound monetary demand for labor, services and good and involuntary unemployment will disappear. The monetary demand should no longer be confined to the monopoly money, which is also a forced currency of the government’s central bank but, instead, the suppliers of consumer goods and services and also of productive labor should be free to monetize (into optional and market-rated monies) what they have to offer, to the extent that a free market finds their monies acceptable and sound enough. The issuers of alternative currencies will find them at least locally somewhat acceptable provided only that they do immediately or soon enough redeem these, their own IOUs, clearing certificates or "bank notes", at their full nominal value, with whatever they have to offer in daily wanted consumer goods and services and in labor (to produce more such goods and services and also lasting productive capital). Thereby and through free market rating of this additional money and through refusals to accept it, no more of it can and will be issued than is required to turn over the offered goods, services and labor – but also as much as is wanted, needed and thus readily accepted at par with its nominal value. The over-issue of such money, for which its issuers must be prepared to offer immediately the promised value in goods, services and labor, would be much more difficult (close to impossible) than the over-issue of stocks, bonds, shares or other securities, for anyone could easily test the purchasing power of such money by presenting it to its issuer or any member of the issuing association, e.g. a local shopping centre or shop association. The easier sale of consumer goods thus achieved will also stimulate further production, which requires further labor. In the main, the issues will be done through short term loans to pay wages and salaries with. While jobs payable in the government’s monopoly money might remain scarce, jobs paid in this alternative and sound money should become sufficient in number to employ every involuntarily unemployed, seeing the stockpiles or ready for sale goods and the consumer service capacity that exists in all somewhat developed countries in normal times. (Times of wars, civil wars, violent revolutions and natural catastrophes excepted.). Only those insisting on being paid in the government’s monopoly money may have to remain unemployed. As soon as possible these alternative local currencies should also adopt a sounder value standard than that of the government’s paper money and the issuers should price-out their goods and services in their own and self-chosen value standard, e.g. in weight units of gold or silver. The enormous values sitting ready for sale in the shops and warehouses should be considered as being largely potential monetary demand for additional labor, to the extent that the money market, including the employees, as creditors of their employers, finds such money good enough to be acceptable at par with its value standard, i.e., to the extent that they can immediately or soon (when needed) be used to pay their way with it, at par, to the issuer, e.g. an association of local shops, offering the range of goods and services, which they need or want. All such additional money would essentially be merely exchange medias or clearing certificates to promote the exchange or turnover of ready for sale goods, services and labor, in a division of labor and free exchange process. Such a monetary and clearing emancipation is as important as any other emancipation. At least the well-stocked shopping centers (in the somewhat developed countries) – and the warehouses behind them, from which they can be fast restocked, are constituting a sound backing, cover or redemption option that is large enough to cope with any additional labor offered by e.g. of housewives, students, children, refugees and defectors, by the millions, and this within hours to days at most, without depriving anybody of his job. At most all machines will have to be used to their capacity and shift work will have to be introduced. The easier sales for this kind of money, the increased production through an increase in productive jobs and the greater division of labor that thus becomes possible, will even tend to lead to a reduction in the prices of consumer goods and this in spite of and even because of the increase in the quantity of sound exchange media, to a degree that is just enough to make any desired exchange possible. Such exchange media, not being legal tender but market rated, cannot lead to an increase in prices that are expressed in sound value standards. Only the issuers will have to accept them at par, i.e. at their nominal value. To prevent their hoarding, especially once they use a sounder value standard than that of the government’s paper money, and to preserve their function as turnover-credit money or clearing certificates, they might be given a limited lifespan only. – J.Z., 18.10.98, 26.9.08, 29.3.11

UNEMPLOYMENT: Let us track down, explore, and discuss all the ideas on cause and cure of involuntary unemployment until the soundest among them become widely enough recognized and also applied in practice. The same should be done e.g. for Inflation, Deflation, Stagflation, economic Crises, War and the anti-industrial warfare of trade Unions, Free Trade and Protectionism, Free Migration, Victim Disarmament, Territorialism, Panarchism, Personal Laws, Individual Secessionism, Abortion, Crisis Theories, Rightful Revolutions, Tyrannicide, Aging, Life-spans, – in short, for all the remaining major controversies. Alas we have so far not yet a general Ideas Archive and not even a libertarian one, or a comprehensive digitized freedom library. Even a comprehensive libertarian bibliography, encyclopedia, abstracts and review collection, as well as a comprehensive encyclopedia of refutation of popular errors, myths and prejudices is still missing, and a comprehensive index to all freedom writings. Inevitably and as a result too much ignorance and also errors and prejudices still prevail even among many of the radical libertarians. – J.Z., 29.7.96, 6.10.08, 29.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Local currencies: Private local currency issues based on locally ready for sale goods and services, would express a corresponding demand for local labor and services and goods, to the extent that they can be spent, i.e. are voluntarily accepted by people, as ready customers for their issuers' wanted goods and services, which these currencies would, in most cases, represent and would be readily redeemed in. - J.Z., 31.12.92, 29.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Machines and automation are still widely blamed for the existence of unemployment, ignoring the fact that while there are in many countries more than 100 machine-horse-powers per employees and the volume of automated production is ever growing, at the same time, the total number of employees has been greatly increased, with the increase of population. The increased population has also meant an increased need for the products of labor. And the very output of automated production constitutes also a demand for customers able and willing to pay for these products. To be able to do so, the potential customers have to be productively employed themselves, using primitive tools to advanced machines or merely maintaining and servicing automated machinery. Lastly, and indirectly, services are exchanged for services, provided that there are no obstructions fo free exchanges. Then ever increasing quantities of services can be exchanged between the workers of ever increasing populations, at least until the optimum size of populations is achieved, world-wide. We are approaching this situation, have, perhaps, exceeded it already in some developed countries, with populations now falling and in others, the underdeveloped ones, the population growth is becoming slower. But in all too many ways the free exchange of one's goods and services for goods and services of others, is still blocked. These blockages have created involuntary unemployment, sometimes on a massive scale. The nature of these blockages ought to be closely examined. Only then can they be removed. I assert that the worst blockages consist in monetary and financial despotism. Can you prove me wrong? – J.Z., 14.8.08, 29.3.11, 7.8.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Marches and demonstrations: The unemployed have demonstrated and marched on behalf of numerous causes. But have they ever really stood up for their own basic individual rights, even if only by marching and demonstrating e.g. for monetary freedom and against monetary despotism? Did they ever wear placards demanding the abolition of legal tender paper money and of the issue monopoly of the central bank? Did they ever claim their right to issue notes and to choose reliable standards of value and to refuse to accept or to discount the monopoly paper money of the State or its central bank? I do not favor marching and demonstrating as means towards self-liberation. But the unusualness of marches and demonstrations against monetary despotism and for monetary freedom would, possibly, provide them with some extra publicity. The world has seen too few monetary revolutions. They are among the few which can be quite positive and bloodless. But for such a revolution it is more important to put one's brain rather than one's feet into gear. - J.Z. 30.12.92. - J.Z. file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files, - J.Z., 28.3.11, 7.8.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Monetary despotism: Forced and exclusive currencies can, like any other monopolies, never fully, permanently and satisfactorily mediate all possible and desired exchanges of goods, labor and services, no matter how and how much they are verbally, juridically, legally or constitutionally excused and defended. Monetary despotism cannot rightfully and effectively substitute for monetary freedom, no despotic act can, for any liberty. - J.Z. 31.12.92, 29.3.11. - MONETARY DESPOTISM

UNEMPLOYMENT: Monetary freedom means that those, who have consumer-goods, consumer-services and productive labor for sale need not wait until they find a buyer for them, bringing them exchange media or clearing certificates produced by a third party (often only the government or its central bank), usually in the form of an exclusive and forced currency, which is, for these sellers also something like a “foreign exchange”, but, instead, they can issue themselves a sound kind of alternative money, one that is acceptable to them, in form of standardized and typified claims against what they have to offer. This means, that they can liquidity their currently for sale “assets”: goods, labor and services, to the extent that these are wanted by others, at market prices and thus make certain of their sales. It even means that they can get their exchange values for their own kind of money even before they have delivered, upon the return of their own alternative money, in payments due to them, whatever they have to offer in goods, services and labor, in the final redemption of these, their own IOU’s. – In short, then they can satisfy their own needs and wants – to the extent that they are willing and able to offer wanted and needed values in free exchange, mediated through their own exchange media. – Naturally, these should be sound, using an agreed upon value standard and should be legal tender only towards themselves. For all others they are refusable and subject to free market rating. However, precisely this condition will see to it that at least in local circulation their par value with their nominal value, expressed in whatever value standard is agreed upon, will be maintained. – J.Z., 17.5.83, 3.10.08, 29.3.11. – MONETARY FREEDOM

UNEMPLOYMENT: Monetary freedom means the realization of some basic rights: 1.) The right to support oneself through one's work and property. - 2.) The right to produce, trade and exchange freely and to use all modern tools and techniques for this purpose. - 3.) The right to help oneself - without wronging anyone. - 4.) The right to supply oneself with work and take all organizational, financial and monetary steps required for this purpose. - 5.) The right to do anything creatively with one's property and labor. - 6.) The right to freely make all kinds of contracts on one's labor, property, and exchanges. - - All these and other rights require, for their full realization, the practice of monetary rights which would make all unnatural sales difficulties for goods and labor disappear - while preventing or stopping inflation. - What is considered useful will always be open to doubt but what is right can be settled with reasonable ease. - - Behind all monetary and other economic individual rights lies the basic one to undertake, at the own cost and risk any measure and experiment one likes, alone or with associates, even those considered unsuitable by others, even when these others are considered as experts. - And this right is based on the right of self-ownership or individual sovereignty or the right to one's life. - J.Z. file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files - THE CURE FOR MASS UNEMPLOYMENT: MONETARY FREEDOM

UNEMPLOYMENT: Monetary freedom: No exchange media and value standards or clearing and payment systems to be prohibited for anyone or forced upon anyone. Individuals and groups to be free to adopt, exchange media freely issued by other, also to issue and use their own and to refuse or discount those of others. With competitive exchange media and value standards and clearing systems any possible and desirable and economic exchange of labor, goods and services can be easily arranged. J.Z., 31.12.92, 7.8.11. – MONETARY FREEDOM

UNEMPLOYMENT: Money shortage and unemployment: Exchange of already available goods and services (like that of the unemployed), ready for sale, should be possible and facilitated by money, as a medium of exchange. This medium is, obviously, in short supply in times of unemployment, too short to mediate all possible and desired exchanges of this type. This shortage could be overcome by the competitive supply of exchange media. But such a supply is outlawed. We have, territorially and legally enforced, a monopolistic supply of exchange media, which, in the volume of their circulations do inevitably, fluctuate between deflation and inflation, because the monopolistic exchange media are a forced currency, have forced value and forced acceptance (legal tender), i.e. they are not subject to a free market rate and optional refusal. Their supply is not measured against sound value standards and thus not limited by a discount against such standards and not expanded, freely and almost automatically, until the first small discount appears. - J.Z. 20.11.85. - J.Z. file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files – MONETARY DESPOTISM, CENTRAL NOTE-ISSUING BANKS WITH A MONEY ISSUE MONOPOLY & LEGAL TENDER POWER. - 28.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Money, especially monopoly money tends to flow especially in established channels. Even there, e.g. soldiers, public servants and welfare recipients are more likely to be paid soon and regularly than are some suppliers of goods to the government. Bureaucracy is also sometimes so inefficient that it does not pay its soldiers, public servants and welfare recipients in time. This money sits then for too long in government accounts and can thereby cause a sharper than the usual money shortage or deflation in the general economy. Other and new channels are not easily and fast established for it. Thus we get streams of official currency in some channels relatively well flowing and the associated people being comparatively well supplied with it, while in and around other channels the flow is less and more irregular, or even dried up, so that there people might be unemployed, under-employed or have great sales difficulties. When the war economy gets going, then the channels for the war industry become flushed while those for peaceful production might some extent dry up or at least become diminished. This whole aspect of monopoly money circulation may not have been sufficiently explored and described as yet. Under full monetary freedom each sphere of the economy could, quite naturally, supply itself with however many exchange media or clearing options it needs and thus the saturation point for exchange media will tend to be everywhere and all the time reached under this condition. – J.Z., 29.11.83, 3.10.08, 28.3.11. - CIRCULATION CHANNELS, MONOPOLY MONEY, COMPETITIVE ISSUES OF MONEY WHEREVER & WHENEVER NEEDED

UNEMPLOYMENT: More than 200 million people are unemployed in China today, hundreds of thousands of them farmers who migrated to urban areas in hopes of finding jobs.” - John Naisbitt, Global Paradox, 1994, p.291. – What would happen to the present political regime in China if one could reach as many or almost as many unemployed with a program how they themselves could abolish their unemployment, largely by certain monetary freedom steps, and this within hours or days? Sufficient goods-, labor- and service vouchers, in convenient monetary denominations, could be printed within hours and this would be nothing more than a revival and further development of some ancient Chinese monetary practices. They could be printed like tickets to sports-events and cinema performances and would stream back to their issuers to be redeemed in their labor, services and goods within hours, days or weeks at most. Naturally, cooperatively issued money tokens and clearing certificates of this kind would be more readily accepted and more widely useful and thus they would occur, very soon. Not only in form of the old tradition of Chinese “street money” but e.g. of shop foundation money of shop association banks of towns, cities or whole districts. Under banking freedom special discount banks for the promotion of employment and the sales of services and goods would discount individual IOU notes with their own kinds of banknotes, which would provide at least one local currency. The productive and exchange potential of all Chinese able and willing to work would be released and rewarded in a market-like way and also rapidly increased, because savings and capital accumulation would then also occur, rapidly. – (At present, according to a recent newspaper report, still half of the Chinese live off a daily income equivalent only to US $ 2! – J.Z., 19.4.09.) The major governmental restraint upon free development would be removed. Sales of wanted goods and services then becoming easy, the sweatshops arising under deflationary conditions would then soon disappear as well. – J.Z., 16.9.07. (When sound exchange media are competitively supplied then no one would be forced any longer to sell his or her labor for emergency sales prices. - J.Z., 28.3.11.) – Naturally, it would be ideal if the regime declared: From now on we reject and will not longer practise the monetary despotism that Max an Engels proposed in the Communist Manifesto, with the intention of creating economic problems, which would allow communists to come to power in the resulting chaos. But producers and sellers can, probably, be much easier persuaded to issue and accept their kind of ticket money. – If they did it on a massive scale they could ignore the present legal prohibitions and engage in a peaceful and productive monetary revolution. China’s misnamed “cultural revolution” could have easily achieved that – if that had been its aim. - J.Z., 11.10.07. - MASS UNEMPLOYMENT IN CHINA

UNEMPLOYMENT: Much of unemployment in developed countries is, probably, due to housing shortages in these countries. These are based e.g. on fair rent legislation, building restrictions, inflation risk, taxation, zoning legislation, excessive fees for property transfers, union monopolies, custom duties on imported prefabricated housing, the employer-employee relationship, location restrictions on the use of mobile homes and similar restrictions. Consequently, when due to technological changes job opportunities in some districts decline, while they are expanding in other districts, workers do often find it hard to impossible to find as comfortable and cheap accommodation in the areas where job opportunities expand. Monetary freedom could then help only by removing the inflation risk, increasing productivity and capital accumulation generally and by removing fears among unionized workers that they would become unemployed. Under full employment for all, workers would not be inclined to bar entry to their jobs. – J.Z., 4/68 & - 11/85. – - J.Z. file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files - Freedom to include value preserving clauses in all housing credits, especially mortgages, has already several times in history lead to a great building boom – provided there were not too many other obstacles. Freedom from taxes and regulations in the building industry would also greatly help. Any kind of temporary emergency housing or accommodation for additional workers should be permitted, just like it is e.g. in wartime for soldiers and civilians. Thus this obstacle to full employment could also be overcome. – J.Z., 1.10.09, 29.3.11. - & HOUSING SHORTAGE, TENTS, MOBILE HOMES, EMERGENCY HOUSING

UNEMPLOYMENT: Not as a genuine suggestion but merely as a thought experiment to indicate some of the unused potential: The unemployed themselves could work for each other, mutually producing, in a system based upon division of labor, almost all their requirements and exchanging them between themselves. Even among a group of only 1000 unemployed, not to speak of the millions, dozens or even hundreds of millions, that all too often exist, they could do so, just like most of the ancient villages were largely self-supporting. They could, theoretically, produce most of the essential goods and exchange required by them. Let us assume that they could contract for the use of otherwise not fully used production equipment to make them more productive than ancient villagers were. They have the required skills between them. But without some kind of money to facilitate the necessary exchanges between them, this, too, would not be possible. The one who produces combs cannot easily barter for a suit with someone who has a suit to offer but wants a chandelier for it. In a free monetary economy, both could get rid of their surplus - for some kind of money or clearing certificate or electronic account, reckoning in a sound value standard and also pricing their goods out with it - and would thus be able to buy whatever they need. Without means of exchange, seeing the present degree division of labor, 99% of the most skilled workers would remain unemployed. - J.Z. file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files – Consider the historical instance of the pioneers from Europe settling in North America. There were no jobs waiting for them, no factories, no businesses, not even houses. The Red Indians could only have employed them as slaves. The natives had difficulties enough to live themselves from hunting, fishing, food gathering and some agriculture. So the new immigrants were all unemployed. But they were also soon fully employed, even over-employed, just working for themselves and each other. They tried communism first and failed in this. Many died thus from starvation and sickness. Then they tried it with private property rights, and free enterprise and self-responsibility, each working for himself and each family working for itself – and freely exchanging their products and services and from that time on their economic difficulties were over – until their legislators made life difficult for them, once again. – J.Z., 20.4.09, 29.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: One million unemployed, for instance, could anticipate and, largely, assure their re-employment and already spend part of their future earnings now – simply by issuing clearing certificates on which they would declare that they would accept them in payment of wages and salaries due to them. Naturally, apart from the usual legal obstacles, they would have to find acceptors of such clearing certificates, especially in shopping centers or in clearing banks. There would also be some discounts involved in the issues of such certificates. Obviouslly, the larger the discount would be, the more incentive would a buyer of such certificates (at a considerable discount) have - to use them as wage or salary payments towards the issuer. A potential employer for the issuer might buy up his certificates at a discount and then could employ the issuer at a wage or salary rate that, from the point of the employer, would be a correspondingly reduced rate. – How many such issues would be possible and how many future paydays could be anticipated and assured in this way? That remains to be seen. Instead of individual unemployed issuing such certificates, they could form an association that would issue only one such exchange medium, which all its members would accept. The individual unemployed would then get these clearing certificates as a loan from their own issue centre and they would find such a common exchange medium would be more widely acceptable. – J.Z., 18.7.99. – Assume that the average wage would be $ 500. Then these 1 million unemployed could at least issue, between them, $ 250 million of their clearing certificates in their first weekly shopping. Even if the shops accepted them only at 10 % or 20 % discount, they would still buy between them $225 million or S 200 million in the shops. The shopkeepers could pay with them their wholesalers and these the employers (manufacturers), while the employers could use them then to hire and pay these unemployed. If the process is successful, they could repeat these issues as they perceive them to be necessary and practicable. Naturally, as issuers they would have to compete with other issuers, like e.g. the shopping centers issuing their own kind of shop currencies. – Which kind of potential issuers of such notes or clearing certificates would be the optimal ones could only be determined by free competition, after a few such experiments. While it is unlikely that they could thus anticipate their future income for a whole year, it is not impossible that they might successfully do so for a few weeks or even a few months. – Refusals to accept such notes and certificates and too large discounts would set a natural limit to them. The issuers would not want them issued at too large a discount nor would the potential intermediate acceptors find them acceptable enough when they stand at a large discount. Only for the new employers of these unemployed would large discounts be a real incentive to hire them and pay them with their own notes. - Certainly, such self-help measures should not be outlawed. – The participants do have a moral right to ignore all contrary laws. – J.Z., 25.9.08, 29.3.11. - PROVIDING EMPLOYMENT FOR ONESELF THROUGH MONETARY FREEDOM STEPS, SELF-HELP OF UNEMPLOYED

UNEMPLOYMENT: Only quite free exchangers and producers can provide for themselves full and permanent employment opportunities, although only if they are prepared to change their jobs to the extent that this would be required through economic developments and are willing to work productively, for market wages, salaries or earnings and to freely exchange their goods and services and to undertake all the organizational, monetary and financial steps required for this purpose. Obviously, the politicians and bureaucrats cannot or will not do this job for them, but, as before, rather attempt to prevent them from realizing this aim. – However, if millions are enlightened in this respect and determined to peacefully realize all their free exchange rights between them, I doubt that democratic politicians would be able to suppress such a movement. They would lose millions of votes thereby, not only in the very next election. - J.Z., 9.11.97, 28.9.08, 29.3.11. - FULL EMPLOYMENT & MONETARY FREEDOM

UNEMPLOYMENT: Only under conditions of unemployment and poverty do many people get into jobs they dislike and stay in them for all too long. – J.Z., 17.2.98. – This is one of the great personal costs of the prevailing system of monetary despotism and its harmful effects upon the degree of employment and unemployment. Fancy some people having to spend years, decades or even their whole working lives in jobs they dislike, just to support themselves and their families! – J.Z., 28.9.08. – Nevertheless, most of these unfortunates never consider how much better their jobs, their situation and their living standard could be under full monetary freedom and financial freedom instead of having to try to make a living under monetary and financial despotism. – J.Z., 20.4.09, 29.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Paid labor is an exchange between labor and assignments to labor services and products. The labor of each in a division of labour and free exchange economy does provide labor, services and goods for the others, via an exchange medium and various organizations (employers, wholesalers, retailers and issuing institutions for exchange media.). Without exchange media or other clearing facilities most present exchanges would not take place. Without some form of money or clearing most exchanges would come to a stop and most of us would be exposed to the risk of famine. When some are still supplied with some exchange media and others are not, then we have what is generally called unemployment and a depression, i.e. sales difficulties for goods, services and labor. - In other words, employment and unemployment are questions of the money supply, which should not be unsound, insufficient and monopolized but sound, sufficient and competitive. Almost no one wants to work for nothing or can afford to do so. All unemployed could get employment as unpaid slaves. Almost everyone could employ several such slaves for his convenience. But to employ them productively and competitively - that requires mass production and division of labor, consequently also mass sales. Then it becomes a question of money, of sales and purchases with money. When the potential customers are also unemployed or insufficiently supplied with purchasing power, then many of the potential producers will be unemployed. - There would be no unemployment if everybody could pay with assignments upon his own labor. Under a perfect clearing system he could do so. - Only additional and sound exchange media are needed to achieve and maintain full employment, to the extent that people are able and willing to work. Everything else that is required for production is already there, ready to be used but largely unused. That people should not price their goods and services out of their potential market is self-evident. - - J.Z. file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files. 29.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: People without work. (Volk ohne Arbeit.) - – Hans Habe, Leben fuer den Journalismus, Band 1, Reportagen und Gespraeche, Knaur, 1976, S. 40. People are not short of work but short of paid work. And they are short of the common sense required to see that under a monopoly for the issue of money not enough sound money might be issued to make any possible and desired exchange of labor and services for the products of the labor of others and of their services possible. Unemployment exists only because free exchange, including monetary freedom and free clearing, is interfered with. – J.Z., 15.9.07. – DIS., MONETARY DESPOTISM VS. MONETARY FREEDOM

UNEMPLOYMENT: Politicians can at best only supply themselves and their favorites with jobs – at the expense of everyone else. But they cannot provide any additional job opportunities – except by getting quite out of the way, with all their laws, programs, platforms and measures or by applying them, from now on, only to their remaining volunteers and at their expense and risk. It is the same as with the old age security they offer: They manage to look out, very well, after their own, at the expense of the tax-payers – but as for all the rest of us … - J.Z., 18.7.04, 22.10.07. – Alas, their victims are usually just as ignorant and prejudiced in this sphere as their misleaders are. – They wrongly assume that an exclusive and forced currency, one that stays sound, can and will always be supplied in the required quantities whenever and wherever it is needed, i.e., that it will be neither under-supplied nor over-supplied and this by the greatest monopolist in the economy, in any country, its central bank. – The contrary experience of all too many decades has not yet cured them of this myth. The “achieved” uniformity in the means of exchange and as far as the value standard is concerned, but at what price? They avoid thinking about and thoroughly discussing the subject, just like their children and pets do. Thus this wrongful and irrational abuse goes on and on, victimizing almost everybody more or less. – J.Z., 19.4.09. - FULL EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMS BY POLITICIANS, JOB PROGRAMS, CENTRAL BANKING, MONETARY FREEDOM VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM

UNEMPLOYMENT: Prices and wages to be freely determined on a free market by freedom of contract, freedom of association and freedom of exchange, including full monetary and financial freedom. All prices, wages and salaries to be subject to free negotiations, not only as to their size and duration and conditions but also with regard to the means of payment and the standard of value to be used. Monetary and financial freedom instead of monetary and financial despotism. Only then should we expect full employment to prevail, because all restrictions upon free exchanges of labor, goods and services and on the productive use of saved and invested capital would be removed. - J.Z. 31.12.92, 8.8.11. – WAGE & PRICE CONTROLS THROUGH MONETARY DESPOTISM?

UNEMPLOYMENT: Private local exchange media issues, based on goods and services of the issuer, must stream back to the issuer, like cinema, bus, railway or sports stadium tickets, to purchase the goods and services of the issuer. To the extent that they can be issued and are accepted and used in payments to their issuers, for the goods and services they do offer, they do supply the issuers with corresponding sales of their goods and services and labor. - J.Z. 31.12.92, 29.3.11. – & TICKET MONEY, MONETARY FREEDOM

UNEMPLOYMENT: Production pays for employment. Free enterprise, by maximizing production, maximizes both employment and wages. There is no other way.” – John Singleton with Bob Howard, Rip van Australia, p.253. – Only if the “production” of sound exchange media (or clearing certificates or other clearing options) is also free, i.e. when free banking or free exchange is seen as an essential part of free enterprise and free exchange and when the issue of medium and long-term capital securities is also quite free, i.e., unregulated by the government and left to a quite free market for capital certificates, for exchange media and also for value standards that people find acceptable in their spheres. – J.Z., 5.6.82, 4.10.08, 29.3.11. - PRODUCTION, PRODUCTIVITY, SALES, MONETARY FREEDOM, DIS.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Ready for sale goods, services and productive labor are ideal covers or redemption funds for private and competitive money issues. Such issuers, by thus paying their way, would inevitably sell their goods, services and labor to the same extent. - J.Z. 21.12.92. - READINESS TO ACCEPT FOUNDATION, READY FOR SALE GOODS, SERVICES & LABOR

UNEMPLOYMENT: recurrent periods of depression and unemployment … a consequence of the age-old government monopoly of the issue of money.” – F. A. Hayek, Denationalization of Money, IEA, Hobart Paper Special 70, p.14. – All inflations and stagflations, i.e., most economic crises, are also caused by it. – J.Z., 19.4.09. - MONEY ISSUE MONOPOLY, CENTRAL BANKING, LEGAL TENDER, “MANAGED” OR, RATHER “MISMANAGED” & IMPOSED VALUE STANDARDS

UNEMPLOYMENT: Release the potential monetary demand for productive labor that consists in the immense stocks of ready for sale goods and in the readiness to provide wanted consumer services in the shopping centers, super-markets, chain stores and department stores, by allowing these suppliers to monetize these assets in form of their own shop currencies with shop foundation, to the extent that they do find ready acceptors in their own employees, suppliers, services providers and that they are found acceptable by employers and employees to pay wages and salaries with and thus granted to them in short-term loans. They should also be free and have the right to price their goods, services and shop currency in self-chosen and sounder value standards than those offered in governmental paper currencies. When these potential issuers and all others as well, are finally free to bid with their own alternative currencies for all able and willing workers, then involuntary unemployment would very soon disappear in most countries, which are well stocked with ready for sale consumer goods and numerous facilities to provide wanted consumer services, like transport facilities and electricity, gas and water supplies or accommodation for rent and education facilities for hire – J.Z., 16.8.00, 7.10.08, 29.3.11. - FULL EMPLOYMENT FOR ABLE & WILLING WORKERS

UNEMPLOYMENT: Sacrifices required? Full employment need not cost the taxpayers or investors or charitable donors anything. It can and should pay for itself, immediately, when we right away and profitably mobilize the existing and ready for sale consumer goods and services by allowing their owners to use them as redemption funds for private exchange media issues. - J.Z. 21.12.92. – Work is self-supporting and need not be subsidized – under fully free exchange. – However, monopoly money does not always turn up there where it is wanted and needed most and this at the right time. In times of mass unemployment it obviously fails in its role as an exchange medium for the unemployed and for those who would have liked to be able to employ them productively and for those, who would have loved to supply them, in exchange for what they earned through their labor, in form of any kind of sound enough local currency, with the goods and services the formerly unemployed and now employed people would want. – The raw materials are there, the factories and machines are there, the transport facilities exist, the willing workers are there, the suppliers of goods and services are there, only enough and sound enough exchange media are missing! It does not require a miracle or any sacrifices but just some common sense and the absence of legal coercion and legal prohibitions, to bring all these factors together, in a free market, i.e. one which also embraces full monetary freedom, full clearing freedom, free choice of value standards and full financial freedom. – Even Franklin Roosevelt and Adolf Hitler were aware of this possibility but, in practice, both simply resorted to another inflation. With only the tools of monetary despotism one cannot fully or satisfactorily solve this problem but merely prolong it. - J.Z., 20.4.09, 29.3.11, 8.8.11. - MONETARY FREEDOM

UNEMPLOYMENT: Seeing how often love stories and human fates have been told in novels, poems and songs, it is not too much of an imposition to try to optimally express the cause and cure for unemployment and inflation repeatedly – hundreds or even thousands of times, until, finally, the best form of expression for these phenomena has been found and is generally accepted. – J.Z., 21.9.95. – Keep also in mind how preachers repeat e.g. the Christian messages from their pulpits every Sunday and also at many other occasions in-between and in how many other Christian writings, than merely the Bible, they try to advance their beliefs. (While still going on to ignore, deny, keep silent on or misinterpret what Mark Tier and George Forrai called "The Words of God You'll Never Hear in Church or Sunday School", in the subtitle to their Book "When God Speaks for Himself", Inversebooks, a division of Praxis, Ld., G.P.O. Box 9444, HongKong, 2010,, ISBN: 978-988-97769-4-7, 320 pp, one of the most useful atheist books that I know of, skilfully using the old praxis of "argumentum at hominum", i.e., using the opponents own arguments against him.) - If we can, under full religious tolerance, be patient and tolerant towards them, then we should learn to become patient towards the repetitiveness in the advocacy of certain genuine reform ideas or enlightenment attempts. - Repetitiveness of some of these SLOGANS FOR LIBERTY entries. – An attempt to excuse it. – J.Z., 26.9.08. – Instead of complaining: Express the problem and its solution better than it was done so far! – The still prevailing central banking spleen is one of the secular equivalents of the remaining God spleen, just like that the Nazi kind of "leadership" and that of the leftist Big Brother and in one general term, that of territorialism. - J.Z., 20.4.09, 8.8.11. - INFLATION, MONETARY FREEDOM, FREE BANKING, MONETARY FREEDOM

UNEMPLOYMENT: Self-help by the unemployed through their own IOUs and their free clearing: The unemployed should at least be enabled to exchange or clear the services and goods they are able and willing to produce for each other, i.e. to keep each other employed. Since neither the needs nor wants of those now employed nor their working capacity are fully utilized, the presently unemployed should also be enabled to exchange with the presently somewhat employed, i.e. to become completely integrated in the process of production and exchange. The task consists, essentially, only in exchanging more goods and services, which people would gladly produce and exchange for each other. Instead of e.g. $ 500 million worth of goods being produced and exchanged, $ 600 million worth of them would then be produced and exchanged. There is nothing inherently impossible in this. Underutilized production centers and machines, unsold raw materials and under-utilized transport facilities and sales centers are there. The genuinely unemployed are willing to work more. The presently employed are willing to work longer hours or in additional jobs. It must be possible to arrange for this additional production and these additional exchanges a) by eliminating all legal and customary obstacles to them, especially - b) by providing sufficient sound exchange media, turnover credits and clearing facilities to assure that all these desired and technically possible additional goods and services are not only produced and offered but also easily exchanged. – The ready for sale product of the able and willing to work unemployed is their labor. Their potential market: Potential employers. How can the unemployed induce these employers to employ them? They unemployed issue their own IOUs, buy with them and consume their equivalent in the shops, which use them to restock their shelves from the wholesalers and these use them to pay the employers for restocking them and the employers use them to pay additional workers, the unemployed who had issued these IOUs, with these IOUs and thereby the circle would be closed. The workers would have anticipated their wages and consumed them and thereby induced others to employ them to produce what they had consumed. The initial consumption might not be complete or the issue or reflux process could be done in stages and it could be endlessly repeated until other and better exchange media become available to the participants. The ready –for sale shop-foundation which the unemployed would offer in this case, for their shop-foundation, would be their own ready labor power, just like tradesmen and professionals might offer their service readiness and ability in this form to provide for their needs and provide jobs for themselves. - J.Z. file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files. 29.3.11, 8.8.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Self-help by the unemployed through their own IOUs and their free clearing: If we assume that unemployed and underemployed issued typified "orders" for their requirements, in money denominations, on which they declared that they are willing to accept them in payment for market wages and salaries paid to them and that these "readiness to exchange certificates" get into a free and fully developed clearing system, then there is no reason to assume that these certificates will not a) be right away acceptable to sellers of goods and services which the unemployed and underemployed need or want and - b) be brought, by clearing, to those who can productively use the services of the unemployed or underemployed - to produce the equivalent of the goods and services which they have consumed and to be paid in their IOU-orders. - - If that process were repeated over and over again, the unemployed and underemployed would, thereby, have supplied themselves with work. They would not have deprived anyone of his present work opportunities. - - A, B and C order $ 500 each, using their own IOUs for these orders, on which they declare that they are willing to redeem them at any time with their own labor services at rates determined by the market. - D, E. and F sell them a total of $ 1,500 worth of their goods and services in exchange for the IOUs of A, B, and C. - - D, E. and F then use these $ 1500 worth of IOUs to pay for the services they need and the goods they need to restock their shelves. - - G, H. and I, suppliers and wholesalers to D, E and F, accept the IOU orders (and readiness to work certificates) to pay their suppliers and manufacturers J, K and L, in order to restock their warehouses. - J, K and L, use these certificates to pay A, B. and C. for their labors, required to provide another $ 1500 worth of goods and services. Thereby this circle is closed. - There is no justification or good reason why it should ever be broken or why anybody, not involved in this free exchange, should at any stage be authorized to say: You may not exchange your goods and services in such a way but only in ways which I permit or prescribe! Full freedom to exchange and to take all steps required to promote exchange, would see to it that every unemployed willing and able to work would be employed. - Admittedly, the prejudices now misguiding us in this sphere are so strong that most people have never considered this free exchange option or are afraid of it and prejudiced against us and some would rather rob other people's money than issue their own. They can imagine robbing a bank but not opening up one of their own note-issuing bank. - - J.Z. file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files. Rev., 8.8.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Since all exchanges are essentially and lastly clearing transactions, however indirect and since there is no inherent limit on the quantity of goods and services and labor that could be exchanged by clearing, all difficulties in selling goods, services and labor (that are wanted and competitively priced) can be traced down to restrictions upon direct and indirect clearing and will disappear with these restrictions. - J.Z. 24.11.85. - J.Z. file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files - & CLEARING

UNEMPLOYMENT: Since free people, under free exchange and division of labor do work for each other, however independently otherwise and anonymously, there would never be any involuntary unemployment for them, since the needs and wants of the others for any economically supplied goods, services and labor are also practically unlimited and always larger than the ability to provide equivalent work or service values immediately. Larger consumer goods can thus often be paid off only in installments over months to years while the largest, like houses, require often decades of part of one’s work productivity returns to pay in full for them. Thus each should thus be very busy with his or her productive work or services – unless quite free exchange is somehow prevented or artificially reduced and this against the wishes of those able and willing to sell their goods, services and labor and those who want to buy them - if they were enabled to do so, indirectly, namely to buy them with their own goods, services and labor that they have ready for this purpose. Alas, they, too, are largely prevented from turning them into effective purchasing power for themselves. - - It is obvious that a perfectly working clearing system, using a sound value standard, with everyone participating in it, would be able to settle all the mutual claims existing or arising under free exchange conditions. But it is also obvious that we do not have such a perfect system as yet. We are still largely dependent upon “exchange media”. These exchange media, in all countries in the world, are produced by centralized, monopolistic and collectivistic third parties, namely the central bank of each State, which are themselves not directly involved with the production and exchange process – but legally permitted to meddle with the exchanges of all productive people in a country - through their note issue and currency policy and measures, allowing no other exchange media in the country but their own and no other value standard reckoning except their own. Thus, and also obviously, they do manage to greatly mismanage both, largely merely in the interest of the governments rather than their subjects. Instead of constantly supplying us with just sufficient quantities of sound exchange media to make all desired exchanges possible, they constantly produce either too many or not enough of them, thus causing inflations deflations or even both together, in stagflations. Their value standard keeps changing in value. Only for short periods does it remain the same. Likewise, only for short periods does their supply of exchange media more or less accidentally correspond to the requirements of an otherwise free market. – There are no market guides, no price signals, no competitive alternatives for their forced and exclusive currencies. Thus they are, quite inevitably, mismanaged. What else should we expect from a monopoly institution and a coercive meddler, like a central bank for note issues, from monetary despotism? Only full monetary freedom, meaning the competitive supply or market rated, optional and competitive exchange media, that are thus refusable and discountable and widely locally acceptable only as long as they retain their par value with their nominal value standard and also under free choice of value standards for all kinds of exchange media, goods, services, labor and other contracts, can we expect the inherent phenomena of the consequences of monetary despotism to finally disappear. To achieve that would require a monetary reform or a monetary revolution. - Such a reform is, as a rule, not to be expected from government actions, not even in democratic States – and governments usually do not engage in any kind of revolution against themselves and their own powers. Further tinkering with central banking will not get us out of its inherent difficulties and problems. The politicians will at most continue to play the ancient party and power games, with their superficial changes and all changes of government over the last century have retained the system of monetary despotism, as if it were the only possible one, a quite rightful one and even an ideal one, and this quite contrary to facts and genuine economic science. – J.Z., 28.4.00, 6.10.08, 29.3.11. – MONETARY FREEDOM & CLEARING FREEDOM VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM, FREE BANKING VS. MONOPOLISTIC CENTRAL BANKS

UNEMPLOYMENT: Some of the factors that do make for prolonged and involuntary unemployment among able workers. Most of these factors are due to government interventions: 1.) Fixing wages too high, via government or coercive unionism. (Minimum wage laws and laws fixing excessive fringe benefits.) With taxes and regulations they act as penalties upon employing anyone. - 2.) Fixing wages too low and welfare payments so high that they provide a disincentive to working for a living. - 3.) Subsidizing unemployment highly enough to make it an attractive option. - 4.) Compulsory licensing requirements. - 5.) Revolutions and civil wars. - 6.) Punitive and redistributive or excessive taxation for services & disservices. It prevents and stops some enterprises and reduces the business activities of most. - 7.) Extensive private robbery, piracy and banditry (which, in extreme cases, can induce people to produce only with primitive means for their own subsistence). - 8.) Housing subsidies and rent controls, which tie people to certain locations, even when locally there is not sufficient employment and elsewhere there is. - 9.) Unionism, compulsory and monopolistic, leads to excess costs, strikes and occupations of factories. - 10.) Protectionism that makes firms unable to compete: Export and import restrictions, like tariffs, foreign exchange controls, quotas, international trade licensing. – 11.) Unwillingness among employees and employers to learn new skills and techniques or to offer new products. Under such conditions many people are actually not able or willing to work, as they would be in and for a free market, for themselves and for others, but, to some extent, voluntarily and yet unintentionally unemployed. – (One might as well say that then these people would rather engage in unprofitable hobbies, than engage in productive work that others are willing to pay them market prices and wages for. – J.Z., 30.9.08, 8.8.11.) - 12.) Price controls, e.g. maximum prices that would render production unprofitable or minimum prices that would make products hard to impossible to sell. – 13.) An exclusive reliance upon monoculture or one or the other kind of product or service only, in spite of the usual market fluctuations. - 14.) In general terms, any coercive intervention with peaceful production and exchange. - 15.) Shortage of development capital - due e.g. to prohibitions or restrictions on foreign investments, inflation, deflation, taxation and nationalization threats, all directly or indirectly also due to monetary and financial despotism). - 16.) Monopolies. (E.g. for taxies, air lines, utilities, transport.) – 17.) Regulation to over-regulation of business. (Compare compulsory licensing, zoning laws, building restrictions etc., an almost endless list, still being added to.) - 18.) Compulsory education. - 19.) Laws against child labor. - 20.) Emigration and immigration restrictions and Alien Acts and other acts preventing minority autonomy and with it economic self-help actions and experiments of minorities. - 21.) Land monopoly. - 22.) Forced labor, including conscription (see also 18) and imprisonment. - The latter, under present conditions, renders both, prisoners and warders, largely unemployed – in a productive sense - out of fears that they might render unconvicted people unemployed if the convicts were allowed to competed for jobs on the market. - 23.) Stock exchange restrictions and restrictions on the issue and transfer of securities. - 24.) Coercive and centralized planning. (State socialism.) - 25.) Unemployment insurance and welfare hand-outs to the able. The funds wasted by them could rather be used to provide employment. The accumulation of reserves for them could create unemployment and so could the sudden calling-up of their investments and the regular burden they impose through taxes. - 26.) Interest rate regulations and policies that prevent interest rates from acting as natural regulators. - 27.) Restrictions upon foreign investments, tax penalties and confiscation or nationalization threats for them. - 28.) Nationalization and municipalization threats. Even if it were legal to engage in certain business enterprises, people would hesitate to do so as long as they are threatened by official expropriation with an insufficient indemnification or even without any. - 29.) Health legislation which makes initial outlays for new enterprises too large, by preventing pioneering conditions which constitute a natural development stage. - 30.) Zoning and building restrictions. - 31.) Environmental protection laws, imposing sometimes unnecessary or even ridiculous restrictions. - 32.) In some countries, restrictions upon employment agencies. The governmental exclusive or non-exclusive employment agencies may cost more jobs than they mediate merely by being bureaucratically run and financed. - 34.) Compulsory wage arbitration and the employer-employee relationship upon which it is based. Both introduce too much rigidity in the wage and salary structure, preventing rapid enough adaptation to changed conditions. - 35.) Forced loans and forced investments in government insecurities. (Trustee Acts.) - 36.) Compulsory "reserve deposits" with the central bank. - 37.) Stop and go policies. - 38.) Natural catastrophes like droughts, floods, earthquakes. (Under sensible insurance arrangements and monetary freedom such conditions would soon lead to over-work.) - 39.) Technological changes: Under free market conditions they can only lead, to very temporary unemployment that requires merely retraining and, possibly, relocation. - - While not denying the validity of these and other factors, it is, nevertheless, asserted here that monetary (including that of an exclusive gold coin and gold certificate currency) and financial despotism are the most important factors making for and preserving mass unemployment. They will have to be abolished and replaced by monetary and financial freedom, at least for their initial pioneers, all volunteers, and their private payment communities. After their realization and successful demonstration among the first few, they would tend to spread fast and then the importance of most of the other factors would soon be greatly reduced, since this basic reform would affect and improve almost every economic relationship. – J.Z. file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files - I wonder how many entries a complete list of this kind would have to contain! – J.Z., 30.9.08, 29.3.11, 8.8.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: SOME WRONG ASSUMPTIONS: a) that we have a free market economy now, b) that in it the number of jobs is limited or cannot be increased except at huge costs, c) that either sacrifices are required or that the limited number of existing jobs would have to be "fairly" shared out, d) that jobs must be protected from competition by immigrants, by young and old people and by un-licenced and therefore, supposedly, unqualified people, and also from competition by members of various minority groups, e) that unionists and present job holders have a prior right to hold and keep their jobs, even at wages above the market level, even while others are willing to do the same jobs (for all consumers) for less, f) that inflation, armament orders and a "pump priming" money manipulation could provide sufficient and productive jobs in the long run, g) Assumption that only central planning, control, or complete State socialism could supply sufficient jobs. (All they can supply is an unlimited number of slave labor jobs.), h) that capitalists have an interest in preserving a reserve army of unemployed, i.e. in not exploiting some laborers and in letting some of their productive labor capital rest idle, although they would have a chance to employ and, supposedly, exploit them, i) Assumption that there must inevitably be a large degree of "seasonal" and "structural" unemployment - instead of merely a fluctuation from jobs to jobs, j) that the government's deflationary and inflationary policies, wage and price controls, subsidies and trade restrictions and licensing requirements would not increase unemployment, k) that machines and automation and computerization would necessarily cause unemployment instead of merely an increased standard of living and more leisure and changes to easier jobs, l) that policies pursued in other countries could create any lasting unemployment here, m) that we are suffering either from overproduction and overpopulation - no matter how contradictory the two are, n) that at least some unemployment is beneficial, by establishing a reserve work force and that unemployment, in consequence, could become too small for the good of the economy. (Let there be unemployment for such experts!), o) that the state of unemployment must be subsidized by hand-outs called unemployment benefits, on the premise that an insurance against unemployment would be possible and that large reserves for such pay-outs and even current levies for them would not also cause unemployment, p) that unemployment has nothing to do with monetary despotism, although it involves the very exchange media required to pay wages with and to sell its products for, q) that the unemployed may not resort to self-help to supply themselves with jobs without depriving anybody of any job and, especially, that they do not have the right to undertake e.g. monetary and financial self-help measures for this purpose, r) that the authorities will and can provide any legitimate demand for sound exchange media and that any demand remaining unsatisfied at present is simply an illegitimate one, s) that the government's manipulation of its paper standard of value and its outlawry of competing sound value standards does not have any bad effects on the investment and employment situation, t) that interferences with the free market interest rates would have no harmful but only beneficial effects, u) that interferences with market prices, wages and salaries would be beneficial, v) that taxation, no matter how high, would have no harmful effects, w.) that regulations, no matter how extensive and numerous, would all be beneficial. - In a comprehensive listing possibly hundreds of such errors ought to be listed - and refuted. – J.Z., n.d. & 19.4.09. - DIS.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Take the worst of them all, the unemployment problem. Three parties with three policies, all founded on State action and all of which the public is at last beginning to doubt. - - The Spirit of Economy will remind you that there are six hundred thousand persons in this country described in the last census as ‘employers’. It would seem to anybody except a new-world monger as if employers had some slight connection with employment. - -  But what sort of effort can be reasonably ask these 600,000 employers to make when one great political party is founded on their extinction, and all parties look upon them merely as taxation fodder and use the whole force of the State to rob them of the fruits of their labour?” – Sir Ernest Benn, SPEECH, 27.1.31, in Deryck Abel, Ernest Benn, Counsel for Liberty, p.155/56. - Alas, employers just like the vast majority of employed and unemployed employees have shown not the least interest in thoroughly exploring cause and cure of unemployment and in undertaking the private initiative and self-help steps, even if that would have required illegal actions, to rapidly do away with involuntary mass unemployment, including sales difficulties and bankruptcies of employers. They do not even question monetary despotism. Far less are they thinking of monetary disobedience or even a monetary revolution. – J.Z., 3.10.08. - PARTIES, TAXATION, EMPLOYERS in U.K., EMPLOYEES, DISINTEREST IN THE PROBLEM & ITS SOLUTION,EMPLOYERS, STATE SOCIALISM, STATE INTERVENTIONISM, TAXATION

UNEMPLOYMENT: Tax foundation money: While compulsory taxes still exist, governments and their agents, the central banks, should be allowed to issue nothing but tax sound foundation money, i.e. money which they alone would have to accept at par at any time in all tax and other payments legally due to them and which would be using a sound value standard, not a fictitious, monopolistic and forced paper one. All others should become free to refuse or discount such means of exchange. Thus the public financial sphere could and would be sufficiently provided with exchange media while the rest of the market would not be coercively flooded with a depreciated and forced currency which would drive out any sound alternative currencies. All voluntary tax and contribution and insurance and mutual aid schemes and systems to be at liberty to issue their own contribution money and to be obliged to accept it at any time at par with its nominal value, while all others remain free to refuse or discount it. To avoid deflationary effects, no large payment sphere should be without its own note issue and clearing facilities. - J.Z., 31.12.92. - & TAX FOUNDATION MONEY

UNEMPLOYMENT: That the abolition and prevention of mass unemployment is not impossible is demonstrated by its temporary nature, even when it lasts several years. It does not exist before and after. - Which of the many factors named by so-called experts really does create some degree of unemployment, if any, and which of their proposed measures could stop or prevent it? - I find the ignorance on this question among the ruling politicians and among the main opposition parties quite terrifying, also their disinterest in it and that of most of the supposedly educated voters and even most of the supposed experts. Likewise, the ignorance, prejudices and disinterest among the unemployed, those fearful of unemployment and those sympathizing with the unemployed. - I cannot possibly deal with all the myths and wrong assumptions here but will try to shortly reply to some of them: Mass unemployment does not mean that there exists a massive surplus of labor. - The needs of the unemployed can be satisfied only by labor services and labor products. Likewise, the still unsatisfied needs of those employed to the limits of their capacity and their willingness to work. - To provide for these needs opens up a source for employment for the unemployed and under-employed, that is as unlimited as these needs and wants are - regarding the total amount of labor required to satisfy them. But at any time no more of these needs and wants could be satisfied than there are able and willing laborers available to satisfy them. - All that is needed is proper organization and that includes proper financing, especially of the short-term turnover credits that are required for this. - I do not propose that the unemployed should work only for their own requirements, i.e. produce and exchange only among themselves. (That can serve only as a thought example to demonstrate that their labor is still needed, at least by themselves.) - They should not only participate in division of labor, free production and free exchange among themselves but be integrated in the general processes of this type - without depriving anyone of his job opportunities. - There is no shortage of jobs to be done. Imagine that they would not have to be paid for. Most people could then employ, at least part-time, several other people. But the market system has to be involved to make these jobs profitable, not only for the ones these people work for, free of charge but also for these workers. In other words, not only does marketing and pricing have to be free but exchange media have to be provided as well to make it possible to pay these workers. And in order to be able to pay them, their products must be profitably sold for exchange media. Ideally, the exchange media provided should help in this sale. Goods and services warrants would fill this bill by being redeemed in labor, services and goods. - Like with your house and gardening work, so in the general economy. The jobs to be done far exceed your time and energy to do them. Human wants are insatiable. - Jobs are unlimited - or limited only by our working ability. I only point this out to hint at the existence of an obstacle. The question is really: How can it happen to be difficult to produce and exchange services and goods when you are free to produce and offer them? - Are we quite free to exchange them? - Inherently, the needs and wants of an unemployed could provide more jobs than he could soon pay for himself, by freely exchanging his own labor for them. Over-work is rather the natural and common threat for the self-employed person. It could also become the only “threat” for the so far unemployed or under-employed – under full monetary freedom. - Just think, for instance, how easily you could, e.g. through hire purchase, exceed your own labor income and how many people are only enabled to pay for their debts out of their over-time earnings. - Naturally, the unemployed could, through division of labor, free enterprise and free exchange, produce their own livelihood between them. But they could and should also be integrated in the general market. This integration would happen if they or their employers could directly or indirectly pay for their requirements with standardized assignments (in money denominations, using sound value standards) upon their own labor and products. They are at present not allowed to do so. All too many rightful and sensible private employment measures are prohibited via the legalized monetary despotism and monopolism of territorial States and their central banks. Self-help measures in this sphere are outlawed. Solutions are, here too, not impossible but merely illegal. - - J.Z. file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files – ABOLITION OF UNEMPLOYMENT, FULL EMPLOYMENT. - 29.3.11, 29.3.11, 8.8.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: The cause of waves of unemployment is not ‘capitalism’ but governments denying enterprise the right to produce good money.” – F. A. Hayek, “Denationalization of Money”. The government’s bad money, with its monopoly and legal tender power is legally allowed to drive out good money. – J.Z., 4.10.08. - MONETARY FREEDOM VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM, GRESHAM’S LAW

UNEMPLOYMENT: The competition for jobs is getting tougher because more and more difficulties are laid in the way of those who do or could provide jobs. The market for labor is artificially restricted in numerous ways, e.g. monetarily, financially, price-wise, and through compulsory licensing and other monopolistic and protectionist restrictions. –Not even a complete list of them, with sufficient descriptions and criticism seems to exist. It is almost as if e.g. all snake poisons and their counter-medicines had not yet been explored or all diseases and their cures. – At the same time there exists an enormous literature in favor of quack “cures”, like taxation, government spending, protectionism, price and wage controls, central banking, and territorial monopolies. But not, as yet, even a single and quite complete and recognized declaration of all individual rights and liberties. Also no archive of all solutions so far proposed. - J.Z., 26.4.81, 4.10.08. - EMPLOYERS, INVESTORS, RETAILERS, BANKERS AND CLEARING HOUSES, PRIVATE PAYMENT COMMUNITIES, TAXATION, REGULATIONS, LAWS, CONTROLS.

UNEMPLOYMENT: The effective monetary demand for labor has to be a combination of the need for labor to produce wanted goods and services and of the ability to pay for that labor, as well as the ability and willingness of the potential customers of the products and services of labor to pay for them. Now consider that monetary history has shown that the statist monetary systems, with their coercion, monopolies, centralization, interventionists and prohibitory laws were not always able to fulfill theses two requirements, to put it very moderately. While it has maximized the ability of governments to pay, at least in inflated and depreciated monopoly money of its own, thereby cheating all creditors, including all wage and salary recipients, it has not maximized the ability of their unfortunate territorial subjects to earn money and pay their way with it. On the contrary, it has often left millions of people unemployed, factories partly idle, created sales difficulties for goods and services and numerous bankruptcies, with its monopolistic, coercive and either inflationary, deflationary or stag-flationary “monetary policies”. Since in either case they lost the confidence of millions of voters, they have thereby endangered their own existence and often and quite unintentionally promoted revolutionary or terrorist movements and sometimes made possible the take-over of territorial governments by totalitarian regimes or dictatorships - which then have, all too often, involved whole countries and their populations in civil wars or international wars. But from all their wrongs and mistakes in this sphere, too, territorial governments have still not learnt sufficiently to avoid them from now on. We should not expect them to do so in the near future. Thus monetary revolutions should take place from the bottom up. However: Since monetary theory and practice is involved and they are not as popular as are e.g. sports, cars and fashions, games, music and novels, we should not expect whole populations to study them, all becoming suddenly sufficiently interested in such subjects and all also become fast and sufficiently enlightened on their monetary freedom options. But what could be achieved, while causing only minimum resistance, is full experimental freedom for all kinds of money reformers, all doing their own things only for or to themselves. Even if this were advertised only a freedom for fools to do their own things to themselves and thereby providing their fellow citizens more opportunities for laughter and ridicule. Then all the flawed monetary reform systems would soon be shown-up as such - by their failures, harming only their own voluntary members, with a kind a self-inflicted - but unintended penalty - for their voluntary participation in insufficiently thought-through and still all too flawed experiments. (Even natural scientists do often have to engage in many unsuccessful experiments before they do succeed with one. Why should this be different in the social sciences? In the long run only the successful experiments will count. But to succeed, we have first to learn from our failures, unless we are very ingenious or well enough informed to do the right thing already in our first self-help attempts.) - The relatively few successful one would then stand out and could be rapidly joined or copied by those able and willing to learn sufficient from them. Thus monetary freedom and panarchistic propaganda and actions could and should be combined to achieve success for both of them. - If at the same time there were also compiled and published an ideal declaration of all individual rights and liberties, including the monetary and panarchistic ones, this would certainly do no harm and could do some good in spreading the required enlightenment. – Revolutionary ideas have often spread quite suddenly, whether they were rightful or wrongful ones and frontiers have not been strong barriers against them either. – What would be the limit for the rapid issue of sound alternative currencies, optional and market rated (i.e., refusable and discountable – by all but the issuers)? Essentially the ability of the suppliers of wanted consumer goods and services to redeem their own notes immediately or soon with the goods and services they have to offer. To become aware of this potential just walk through any large shopping centre and contemplate their daily turnover and also consider the speed of their turnover during the next week or weeks, which would represent the presently effective monetary demand for what they have to offer. If they were free to monetize themselves more of their ready for sale goods and services, than they can presently sell for the State's monopoly money, they do, as a rule, have the stocks, sales persons and capacity as well as the interest to do so. Thus they could and should issue their own currency, at least through large associations of shop owners, department stores and shopping centers. To the extent that people have needs and wants beyond those they can already satisfy now with the government's monopoly money, which they are able to earn now, and that they are able and willing to work productively in new jobs, when they were unemployed, or harder, better or longer when already employed, to earn this additional purchasing power, sound shop currencies could be issued, to pay additional workers and the existing ones, with such currencies (provided they are willing to accept them). Thus they could increase their turnover and new production, via short-term payroll loans to employers, until all of the production and sales potential are fully reached. - Naturally, more need than that need not be produced or sold. More and artificial employment in make-work schemes would be useless. What might be achieved, finally, in this process, is higher productivity, higher wages, lower prices and lower working hours per week required to achieve the same standard of living or an increased standard of living (for those preferring the old working hours instead of more leisure time). - Moreover, under full employment, everybody would get a chance to work in the sphere of greatest interest to him and in which his knowledge and talents are of greatest use to him and to others. – Alas, if you ponder a particular quote, slogan or formula long enough it tends to turn into a short article. – By all means try to express such ideas more concisely than I can and send me the results of your thoughts or put them yourself online! - J.Z., 20.2.97, 28.9.08, 29.3.11. - FULL EMPLOYMENT FOR ALL ABLE & WILLING TO WORK, MONETARY FREEDOM, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, PANARCHISM, TOLERANCE FOR ALL KINDS OF REFORMS TOLERANTLY APPLIED AMONG VOLUNTEERS ONLY.

UNEMPLOYMENT: The employer's situation. - When an employer has none or insufficient means of payment, i.e., insufficient sales of his products or services, then he has to dismiss workers as his only means to rapidly save cash. The socialists and unionists enforced a ruling according to which workers can demand, under all circumstances, cash (formerly the “coin of the realm”, now a country-wide exclusive and forced currency) in settlement of their wage claims. Socialists and unionists have not seriously dealt with the money problem and do not know that workers could also be satisfied in other ways which, by using alternative sound wage payment means, all competitively supplied, the wages could be increased and that they could thus become safeguarded against unemployment. - The special legislation intended and passed in order to protect workers against exploitation (e.g. the anti-truck laws) has served to depress their wages and to make them unemployed. There are many such laws with similar effects. If one wanted to realize what the legislators had in mind, one ought not to obey such laws. - Afterwards they could be formally repealed. The workers have not caused this condition. But they have not cared for other and better wage payment means than are usual and enforced now and have failed to ponder the consequences of restricting the choice of means of payment by law to an exclusive and forced currency or to assignments to it. Their first step towards their monetary emancipation might have been to establish an employee's consumer coop to replace the truck shop of the employer and its scrip with shop foundation money of their own consumer coop. Then, by associating with other shops for the issue of their own local shop currency, suitable to pay their wages and salaries with, they might have become, finally, the bankers of their employers. They might even have bought them out and run the firms in one or the other form of self-management. Parties have no platform point on this. - "Freedom to issue notes that obliged only oneself and one’s associates" and "Without Legal Tender No Inflation!” should be among their slogans but they aren’t. - Old German J.Z. notes on Unemployment, translated 11/85, revised 20.1.08, 19.4.09, 29.3.11, 8.8.11. - EMPLOYERS & EMPLOYEES

UNEMPLOYMENT: The fight for the daily bread becomes harder and harder.” - – Hans Habe, Leben fuer den Journalismus, Band 1, Reportagen und Gespraeche, Knaur, 1976, S.40. - - What they really fight for is paid labor under conditions where the only permitted means to pay wages with is the monopoly money of the State. Under freedom to competitively issue sound money notes on any sufficient foundation, e.g. shop-foundation, sound money will be as plentiful as other mass produced goods and services. – Under sound currencies and sound other credit conditions there will also be no shortage of credit for capital investments needed to productively employ more people. – J.Z., 12.1.07, 15.9.07. – It is not a fight for bread but one for sufficient and sound exchange media, earned through productive labor, to buy bread with. When exchange media are monopolized and bread production price controlled then often both will be in all too short supply. – J.Z., 19.4.09, 29.3.11. POVERTY, DEPRESSION, DEFLATION, MONETARY FREEDOM, DIS.

UNEMPLOYMENT: The following does not deny that trade barriers, unionism, licensing requirements, overpricing and inflation, lack of motivation, housing shortages and presumed unemployment "insurance" arrangements can and to some extent do cause u. But it is asserted here that the main and the generally overlooked factor is the lack of monetary freedom. This factor (monetary despotism) does not only bring about unemployment, as Hayek stated in his 2 essays on the subject (Choice in Currency and Denationalization of Money) as a result of inflation, which is an inherent consequence of a monopolistic money system, but also through its inherent money and credit restrictionism. - -Monetary freedom would, indeed, prevent an economy from being saddled with inflation and its wrongs, harms and consequences, from the imposition of any government currency or private currency that is issued to excess, but it would also provide cheap and sound money, in decentralized, free and competitive issues, until all legitimate demands of the economy for exchange media and clearing means are fully satisfied. It would assure that the saturation point would be reached while preventing that it would be exceeded by many, to a large extent and for a long time. - - Private and competitive exchange media would be issued until all sales difficulties for goods and services and labor would have disappeared, all signs of involuntary unemployment and depressions would have gone, i.e. until the market would be really free and functioning. Equilibrium would be established, i.e., everybody could then clear, at market prices, all the goods and services that he has to offer (including labor) for the goods and services that he wants. - - A really free market would have to include and be based on a free market for exchange media and value standards and clearing facilities, a free market for money. It would bring about permanent boom conditions. - Monetary freedom would allow to mobilize all the ready for sale consumer goods and consumer services. It could do this, under stable value reckoning, without increasing the price level - by more than would result from the abolition of emergency sales prices and their replacement by free market prices. - It is true that many of the various monetary freedom and free banking steps proposed would, if realized, have led to inflation, for instance the proposals of Spooner, Proudhon, Tucker and others, which would have mobilized even longer term securities and capital assets as "securities" for note issues. To that extent they would make the same mistake that governments make when they monetize their governmental securities with their forced and exclusive legal tender currencies and the issuers of land bank notes, as banknotes, rather than capital securities, like mortgage letters. However, these "asset currencies" could not have been realized without and issue monopoly and legal tender for it. (According to a recent Facebook hint, the average governmental monopoly money fails within 18 years. Alas, only to be replaced by another and as wrongful and irrational governmental currency. - J.Z., 8.8.11.) In the absence of legal tender, such private issues would have become somewhat depreciated, before being generally refused, but they could not have inflated a price level and wage level that is marked out in stable value units. - - Centralized note issue does not get the notes where and when they are needed, to a sufficient extent. It does not consider as worthy of credit all those people whose credit is only locally established and known. Branch banks, subject to regulations from a centre, cannot completely make up for this inability. - Central banking is inherently as flawed as central baking and milk production for a whole large country. - J.Z. file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files - & MONETARY FREEDOM. - J.Z., 29.3.11, revised: 8.8.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: The full employment of the willing and able unemployed is mainly a task for these unemployed themselves. It is not only their right but also their duty to engage in it and to ignore or abolish in the process all laws and regulations that would obstruct them in the release of all their creative and productive energies. – J.Z., 10.7.97. To realize their right to work means that they have the right to undertake all the organizational, monetary and financial steps required for this, without infringing the rights of others to their work, property and incomes. The future still holds unlimited work opportunities for us, even with the help of the most advanced technology. We will simply work not merely with a box of or a whole garage full of special tools, but with xyz iron slaves as well, at whatever jobs mankind or we ourselves still want to get done – and these jobs seem to me to be practically unlimited, not only on Earth and in this solar system, but in the whole universe, of which we partly occupied so far only a relatively very tiny speck of matter. – J.Z., 10. 2. 97, 23.4.09. – RIGHT TO SUPPLY ONESELF WITH PRODUCTIVE WORK, SELF-HELP, WORK & JOBS ARE UNLIMITED IN QUANTITY & KINDS – UNDER FULL MONETARY & FINANCIAL FREEDOM

UNEMPLOYMENT: The importance of unemployment: Unemployment makes for war, even nuclear war, it promotes war, it makes for revolutions and renders them more terrible, it makes for inflation and prolongs it, it makes for dictatorships and helps to maintain them, it makes for communism and keeps it in power. It is one of the great fears of modern man. It is not a cure for any ill, not even for inflation. It is almost exclusively a man-made disaster, one which can only be overcome by rational actions. - "Without a job, a potential producer becomes a drag on his fellow citizens. Without a job, a man ceases to be free, self-sufficient individual and soon sinks to dependency on private charity or government handouts." - Dean Smith, Conservatism, p.147. - I would add: Unless he knows his monetary rights and realizes them by self-help measures. - J.Z. file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files

UNEMPLOYMENT: The isolated producer “equates” his supply to his demand, but the social organism equates supplies to supplies – “effective demands” to “effective demands”. So supplies will keep pace with “effective demand” just as an effect keeps pace with its cause; or, rather, just as a thing must keep pace with itself. For it is our supplies which purchase our supplies. Our real income is our output – hence we (*) always have sufficient income to purchase our output.” – Henry George Pearce, “Value, Normal and Morbid”, Sydney, Robert Dey, Son & Co, 1946, p.67/68. – Yes, provided we are quite free to exchange and know how to do so effectively, e.g. via quite free clearing, sound value standards and competitively supplied exchange media. Alas, these preconditions are not yet fulfilled, so Say’s Law does not yet apply. – Here he did not express this clearly enough or merely assumed the existence of a laissez-faire condition, as Say may have done, likewise. - Dr. H. G. Pearce, a unique George-ist, was the only Australian advocate of monetary freedom that I ever heard or read of and met quite a few times for discussions. - J.Z., 13.8.08. - (*) Mankind, under freedom, has always sufficient income to purchase its output. – J.Z. – OUTPUT AS INCOME & PURCHASING POWER FOR ONE’S REQUIREMENTS, FREE EXCHANGE, MONETARY FREEDOM

UNEMPLOYMENT: The monetary causes of unemployment during rapid inflations are mainly due to the following three factors: 1.) Prices run ahead of the note-printing presses and thus cause a relative deflation in the middle or a rapid inflation. – 2.) Wage rates do the same and for the same reason. They are, actually, prices, too. – 3.) Credits needed to continue production are no longer provided on the bases of a forced and exclusive paper currency that is rapidly inflated. Even the highest interest rates can then no longer make up for the inflation rate. At the same time, gold clauses and other value preservation clauses are usually outlawed, while the forced and exclusive as well as rapidly inflated currency remains. Then production is correspondingly run down and workers are dismissed. This is only partly offset by the fact that during an inflation goods are easier to sell, because they do not deteriorate, in most cases, as fast as the money does, provided only enough of the inflated currency is issued to keep up with the rising prices. Compare 1 & 2. – J.Z., 28.9.03, 31.10.07. - THROUGH RAPID INFLATION

UNEMPLOYMENT: The monetary demand for labor, skills, services and goods offered for sale and the payment of all other debts and the use of productive capacities is still largely tied to the possession of exchange media, including non-cash payment options and clearing options. And the non-cash payment options and the clearing options are presently still largely tied to a sufficient supply of cash currency, e.g. in the payment of wages and in cashing cheques or in cash withdrawals from bank accounts or cash teller machines, for many smaller purchases etc. And this cash supply is quite monopolized by central banks, with their exclusive and forced currency. Due to this monopolization cash is often under-supplied or, in combination with legal tender for it, over-supplied. In both cases unemployment and other sales difficulties tend to result. Even when an inflation is ended, unintended deflationary effects can result, as happened in 1924 in Germany, where about one third of the newly issued stable currency was temporarily kept out of circulation in public offices, too slow in putting it into circulation again - with further high unemployment as a result, following the high unemployment at the last stage of the galloping inflation. With regard to unemployment the exchange media provided by central banking do, apparently, not suffice to make them serve as exchange media for the unemployed and the goods and services they need or want and are ready to exchange their labor and stills for. All kinds of other factors are then usually blamed instead of the money-issue monopoly, i.e. the fact that the supply of exchange media is not competitive, with the best monies driving out the bad and inferior exchange media, as would happen in the absence of legal tender and a monopoly for money issues. – My friend and mentor, Ulrich von Beckerath, 1882-1969, used to say that whoever managed to state, convincingly and on a single page, the close connection between monetary freedom and full employment could, thereby, bring about the greatest social revolution ever. – So I keep trying, however unsuccessfully. Why don’t you? – Remember that mass unemployment can also lead to wars, violent revolutions, civil wars and terrorism, not only poverty and great losses, also for businessmen and rich people. - J.Z., 28.9.03, 31.10.07, 8.8.11. - UNEMPLOYMENT & OTHER SALES DIFFICULTIES, MONETARY DESPOTISM & MONETARY FREEDOM

UNEMPLOYMENT: The point is that in a free market no men or machines are unemployed for any length of time – it doesn’t make sense to have them idle. (*) They are idle in the first place because of distortions caused by government intervention in the market (an example particularly relevant to ”regional’ unemployment is the restriction on mobility due to the ‘locking in’ of council home tenants – what could b called ‘the new serfdom’) and they will only come permanently into play when the distortions are removed.” - Terry Arthur, 95% Is Crap, p.208. - (*) Even machines have idle times, at least for maintenance purposes and humans for sleep, leisure, rest days and holidays. – But these are wanted and needed idle times. – J.Z., 4.10.08.

UNEMPLOYMENT: The Prime Minister thinks that a little bit of unemployment is not so bad, after all. Yes, but whose? I wouldn’t mind if he were permanently unemployed! – J.Z., 9.6.74. – Add all other territorial administrators, politicians, legislators and public servants as well as public workers. Let private or cooperative and competing firms do all the jobs that people really want done, at competitive prices and subscriptions and allow the statists to continue their statist religious rituals only among their voluntary victims and exclusively at their own risk and expense. – And let groups of volunteers undertake all the experiments or measures they think would abolish unemployment among themselves. - J.Z., 4.10.08. – PANARCHISM, VOLUNTARISM

UNEMPLOYMENT: The question is not what I would do to abolish unemployment, if I were free to try to do so, but what I and others would welcome from you and other businessmen, entrepreneurs, reformers and the unemployed themselves, in self-help steps, to overcome unemployment, sales difficulties, depressions, recessions, stagflations, deflations and inflations. – No one should set himself up as a dictator in this sphere. Here, too, all creative or experimental activities among volunteers, i.e. tolerantly practised, should be welcomed and closely enough examined. - J.Z., 30.11.75, 30.9.08, 29.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: The reason why we have unemployment among willing and capable workers today is that the state has prevented the evolution of a proper monetary system. The state can have no knowledge of the volume of goods and services to be offered in exchange next month, still less next year. Yet we allow the state to decide the volume of money needed. When we resort to private enterprise and allow the banker to create the means of exchange, he carefully adapts the supply of money to the demand.” (*) - Henry Meulen, THE INDIVIDUALIST, 10/77, p.43. – (*) The required adjustment will largely be automated through introducing “free pricing” in this sphere as well. As long as new local exchange media can still be issued at par, i.e., are not refused or discounted but readily accepted at par, their issue limit has obviously not yet been exceeded. The first small discount indicates the current issue limit. When it disappears more can be issued until the next small discount does appear. Thus free issues and market rating and free refusals offer a guide, just like a barometer or a fever thermometer, to keep all issues within their natural limits and this much more effectively than happens for capital issue certificates on a free capital market. Why? Because of the immediate convertibility of notes in into wanted consumer goods and services in local shops. If still at par, the notes are sound. While not at par, the notes will widely discounted or refused by all but the issuer himself and his debtors. – J.Z., 4.10.08, 8.8.11. - MONETARY FREEDOM VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM

UNEMPLOYMENT: The recession need not be fought but ended, by stopping its causes, especially monetary despotism, which is the worst kind of economic monopoly power and interventionism. - J.Z. 15.12.92, 31.12.92. - DIS., FIGHTING DEFLATION, RECESSIONS & INFLATIONS.

UNEMPLOYMENT: The unchecked premised of most people regarding unemployment is that monopolizing exchange media and clearing facilities has nothing to do with the difficulties in exchanging labor for consumer goods and services. All kinds of other factors are widely considered but the most important and missing ingredient, namely full monetary and clearing freedom, is ignored. – J.Z., 21.11.82, 3.10.08. - MONETARY DESPOTISM

UNEMPLOYMENT: their policy of raising production costs inevitably causes stagnation and unemployment.” – Dr. Hans Sennholz, Inflation, or Gold Standard? p.14. – That is no more than an additional factor causing extra unemployment! – J.Z., 30.9.08. – The exclusive and forced currency, in which all wages and salaries have to be paid, is the main factor. – J.Z., 19.4.09. - UNIONS, WAGE CONTROLS

UNEMPLOYMENT: There are ca. 32 million unemployed in the industrialized Western nations alone. (CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR, 27.6.83.) – But can one even find 32, i.e., one in a million among them, who are seriously interested in all methods for its abolition? – J.Z., 27.7.83, 29.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: There is no shortage of capital. It is there before and after the crisis and is suffering losses during a deflation. - There is no shortage of consumer goods to supply the unemployed in exchange for their labors. - There is no shortage of machines. Many are idle or under-utilized. We have just a shortage of the facilities to profitably exchange goods and services - for the services of the unemployed, a shortage of turnover-credit in suitable means of payment. – Sound Exchange media (and clearing facilities) are needed. These are not impossible but their competitive supply is outlawed by the central banking system and the laws of monetary despotism upon which it rests. - All the existing other economic facilities are just waiting to become fully utilized. Without fully free exchange they, too, cannot be fully employed. - J.Z. file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files - CAPITAL SHORTAGE? DIS.

UNEMPLOYMENT: There is no shortage of real capital, in the form of machines, factories, raw materials etc. They are there, plentifully offered, before and after a crisis with mass unemployment. They do not suddenly disappear during it. Even at the best times they remain largely under-employed, for not all firms work 3 shifts a day. Mainly only exchange media are required. The rest is there and waiting, including productive capital. Nor is there a shortage of consumer goods waiting for customers. The shops and warehouses are almost overstocked with them. But many machines and whole factories stand largely idle, nevertheless and sellers of goods and services go bankrupt or are also unemployed as such, in large numbers. Just a shortage of suitable and sound exchange media is involved, competitively supplied and redeemable upon demand not in rare metals or capital securities but in the consumer goods and services that are daily needed, and this at their nominal face value, e.g. in grams of gold, for the goods and services also so soundly priced, instead of a fictitious, abstract and mostly greatly mismanaged paper value standard, a fiat value standard of the government. – Exchange media are required – but their free issue is outlawed. The rest are ready and waiting, including the unemployed and shop owners and the manufacturers who want to stay in business and even expand their production or services by employing more people. – J.Z., n.d., & 15.8.08.

UNEMPLOYMENT: There is really no shortage of jobs but merely an abundance of laws which render the financing the numerous existing jobs difficult to impossible. - - How could the permission to issue goods warrants, clearing bills etc. abolish unemployment? - - When every unemployed, whose labor is needed, could issue goods warrants upon his own labor power, i.e. paid his expenses with them and would then, upon payment for his labors, accept them like ready cash, then his problem of obtaining employment would be solved. - Since individuals would have difficulties in finding takers for their goods warrants, they would have to associate in such a way that the goods warrants, which they would issue in common, would be suitable for general circulation at least within a district. The most suitable association would be one between the retailers and the employers, who could then employ the unemployed, paying them in shop foundation money which the employers would have obtained from its issuers in exchange for the payment claims the employers have against their wholesale customers, for already produced and supplied goods. The shops would receive their goods warrants back as payments from the thus employed and paid people, deliver their goods for them and pay the wholesalers with them, who then could redeem their debts to the factories for goods received from them. - J.Z. file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files - - Naturally, part of these transactions would be done not with these goods warrants but by establishing corresponding credit accounts with them at the issuing centre and transferring parts of these accounts as required. The circulation would be soon concluded and the returned notes destroyed and replaced by new issues, as required. The discounting job would best be transferred to a special issue department of a local shop association, which would act like the better old private note-issuing banks did. - - All details of the issue and the reflux of such notes should be subject to full publicity – not to government inspectors who might not understand the process and its naturally requirements and possibilities at all, just like many academic “economics” even 200 years later do not yet fully understand the workings of the “Real Bills Doctrine” under voluntary acceptances, free clearing and sound value reckoning. – J.Z., 1.10.08, 39.3.11, 8.8.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT, WORKING FOR THE DOLE: This means working for the proceeds of robbery, namely taxation! And it means working on some "community project" which voluntary customers are not willing to pay for. And this robbery and wasteful activity is to be continued and subsidized while full employment options through full monetary and financial freedom remain legally suppressed, because they are supposed to be wrong and harmful. - J.Z., 19.8.01, 31.1.02. - Unemployment insurance is not a genuine insurance. - In its fund raising and spending it also causes unemployment. It leaves the main causes of unemployment untouched and merely tries to mitigate some of its obvious symptoms. - J.Z., 8.8.11. - EMERGENCY EMPLOYMENT IN PUBLIC WORKS

UNEMPLOYMENT:Those who imagine the sole cause of unemployment lies in wages being fixed too high, do ignore that labor is also legally compelled to sell itself only for the government’s forced and exclusive legal tender paper money currency. Without this intervention in the monetarily expressed demand for labor and other institutionalized disincentives for employment, e.g. compulsory licensing, building restrictions, union privileges, foreign exchange rate manipulations etc., the wages offered might even be higher for all willing to work and prepared to accept alternative means of payment, with their wages soundly expressed in some or the other and self-chosen value standard and payable with a variety of optional, market rated and refusable means of payment. This aspect of unemployment is all too rarely discussed, even after Hayek’s two essays against the nationalization of money. – J.Z., 25.9.85, 9.9.08. – FULL EMPLOYMENT, MONETARY FREEDOM VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM, COMPETITIVELY PRODUCED MONETARY DEMAND FOR LABOR, GRESHAM’S LAW, REVISED VERSION: LET GOOD MONEY DRIVE OUT THE BAD MONEY – IN THE ABSENCE OF LEGAL TENDER, MINIMUM WAGES, TOO HIGH WAGES

UNEMPLOYMENT: Throughout the Keynesian and post-Keynesian era, the inexorable laws of economics have not changed. (*) Unemployment still is, and always has been, a cost phenomenon. A worker whose employment adds valuable output and is profitable to his employer can always find a job. (**) A worker whose employment adds valuable output and is profitable to his employer can always find a job. (***) A worker whose employment inflicts losses is destined to be unemployed. (****) As long as the earth is no paradise, there is an infinite amount of work to be done. (*****) But if a worker produces only $ 2 per hour, while the government decrees a minimum wage of $2.30 an hour plus sizable fringe costs, he cannot be employed. (*** ***) For a businessman to hire him would mean capital loss and waste. In other words, any compulsion, be it by government or union, to raise labor costs above those determined by the marginal productivity of labor, creates institutional unemployment.” – Dr. Hans F. Sennholz, THE FREEMAN, July 77. – Alas, although originally also a German, Dr. Sennholz, too, remained largely, if not altogether, unaware of what I call the German school of monetary freedom, represented mainly by Ulrich von Beckerath, Professor Heinrich Rittershausen, Dr. Walter Zander, and a few others, who drafted between them the “Four Law Drafts” early during the Great Depression in Germany and wrote several books and many essays on the subject. As far as I could, I reproduced them in my still largely only micro-fiched PEACE PLANS series. – J.Z., - - (*) Monetary despotism and its laws were typical for them and their inevitable negative effects are still widely ignored! - - (**) In my time in West Berlin, up to one third of the workforce, 300, 000 of about 900 000, were unemployed. Among them were ca. 20,000 professionals. – I am certain that Sennholz’s explanation does not apply to all of them. – For instance, groups of unemployed employed themselves, by cleaning bricks from the rubble of the war ruins of Berlin and sold them for goods warrants of one of the large department stores of Berlin. All participants were satisfied. But then the authorities threw the law books against them. They had offended against about a dozen legal restrictions by their economic self-help and self-employment and payment method and were thus rendered coercively unemployed again and made dependent upon handouts at the expense of the tax-payers. Perhaps worst of all, from the point of view of the bureaucrats, was that they had no “green card” or official work permit! - Even these otherwise ignorant but thus self-employed people were aware that a means of payment problem was involved and they did solve it for themselves, and their trading partner, although not in a quite perfect method or as good as it could have been solved, and, probably, would have been solved, if their experiment would have been continued and developed. But they had solved it already initially, in a fashion that satisfied them and morally wronged and economically harmed no one. – On the contrary. They made an honest living by helping to reduce the rubble heaps and provided cheap bricks for the building industry, and this without raising cash payment demands upon the central bank or demanding “minimum wages” or using other resources than their manual labor. – They had solved the deflation problem, caused by the central banking system, for themselves. - - This all too limited view of unemployment, here expressed by Sennholz (whom I appreciate, as a libertarian, otherwise very much ), is still all too widely spread among libertarians. - It assumes that e.g. taxation, protectionism, compulsory licensing, financial and monetary despotism, and various other interventionist laws and legalized monopolies have no effect on the rate of unemployment. But just think e.g. of the compulsory schooling system that keeps young people out of jobs – while not even always succeeding in teaching them the “three R.’s” sufficiently. Think of the laws against child labor and how women and non-unionists have often and for all too long been kept out of jobs and also people above a certain age, still able and willing to work. The same is true for foreigners and refugees in many instances and stateless persons, usually denied "work permits" and, sometimes, even herded into concentration camps . - This statement by Sennholz assumes that even under an exclusive and forced currency the problem of supplying enough and sound enough exchange media - to pay all employees with and to assure the sale of all the wanted or needed goods and services offered for sale - has already been completely solved and that only deviations from wage and salary rates have any effect on the rate of employment! It assumes an adaptability of the forced and exclusive currency of the government that simply does not exist and ignores all the problems that such a currency inevitably produces. - The very simplicity of this one-factor explanation of unemployment does naturally have its attractions for libertarians, too. It saves them further thoughts and exploration of the subject. I do not deny at all that this one factor often has increased unemployment. But it did not cause all of it. Nor does the single-factor explanation of the Miseans explain all economic crises. - How can otherwise objective, scholarly and scientifically-minded people simply overlook the existence of over 140 other crisis theories that were once mentioned, many years ago, e.g. by Henry Meulen in his THE INDIVIDUALIST and at least once in the German “Zeitschrift fuer das gesamte Kreditwesen”? - Sure, most of these hypotheses or theories are flawed or quite false. But is it really certain that all of them are? - - (***) That appears to be self-evident – but it just keeps silent on so much else! - - (****) The losses due to his labor may just be due to the fact, that under the existing sales conditions his output cannot be easily or at all sold at market prices and, perhaps, not even at emergency sales prices – expressed in monopolized money tokens of the government. - - (*****) True, but could all the additional products and services be readily sold if all that work were undertaken by the hundreds of millions of unemployed or under-employed, under present conditions? Are there sufficient customers with effective monetary demand for them? Customers, who not only need or want these things but are also enabled to pay for them, with acceptable exchange media, ultimately redeemed in what they have to offer in products and services? - Certainly not in most of the severely under-developed and thus impoverished countries and not even in those which are already somewhat developed – but undeveloped, still, when it comes e.g. to a sufficient supply of sound exchange media. - - (*** ***) As a politician or a bureaucrat or in other subsidized jobs he is so employed, although not productively, but at the expense of the still employed taxpayers. – If you can manage to explain all that and more in just one or two short slogans etc., please, do so! - J.Z., 13.8.08. – The odd thing about the above view of Dr. H. S. is that he wrote a number of essays, at least in THE FREEMAN, some of which I micro-fiched, and also a good book, “Money and Freedom”, of which I fiched at least a review, not the whole book, because it is copyrighted. Is it online by now? Not even scholars like him are always consistent in their thinking. – J.Z., 18.4.09. Or, over a long span of time, they changed their views on such subjects. - J.Z., 30.3.11. - DIS., WAGES, MINIMUM WAGE LAWS, UNIONS, WAGE CONTROLS, MONETARY & FINANCIAL FREEDOM

UNEMPLOYMENT: To achieve full employment not “money” in the form of government budget expenditures or legal tender governmental paper money (with forced acceptance and a forced value) or additional private capital investments are immediately needed but, rather, money in form of competing and market rated local currencies and clearing certificates or accounts, all privately issued and accepted in payment, using sound value standards, and short term credits and clearing methods, all market rated, optional, refusable (with only their issuers having to accept them like legal tender from anyone) in combination with the already existing fixed and real capital assets and independence of the governments monopoly powers and coercion in that sphere as well as of all other kinds of legalized monopolies. – In that case the existing abundance of ready for sale consumer goods and consumer services could be easily turned into suitable and acceptable sound exchange media, clearing certificates or accounts for wage and salary payments to newly and additionally employed people and this regardless of how many there are, in normal times or times of man-made economic crises. Natural catastrophes, revolutions, civil war and war conditions are other matters that could interfere with free production and free exchange, while they last. - J.Z., 23.4.85, 4.10.08, 30.3.11. – For details see: Ulrich von Beckerath: Must Full Employment Cost Money? - (PEACE PLANS No.10.) in

UNEMPLOYMENT: Transferability and values: Free transferability maximizes exchange values. Labor will maximize its salability only once it can be freely offered in certified form, in money denominations, redeemable either in its products or in payment for its wages. Spending such certificates would lead to corresponding orders and work - when they stream back for the promised redemption in labor and goods. - J.Z. 30.12.92. - These and related points were often stressed by Ulrich von Beckerath in his talks and writings. - J.Z., 1.8.11. - & FREE TRANSFERABILITY

UNEMPLOYMENT: Transferability, free: Fully free transferability for all owned assets for their owners, including especially labor and service abilities and readiness to sell for the owners of consumer goods. At a freely agreed price, i.e. and one satisfactory to both sides, all such services are transferable, provided only the means of payment and the standard of value used in pricing out goods, services and labor and expressed in the currencies, are also mutually agreeable rather than imposed by a powerful, monopolistic and centralized third party, like a government's central bank. The transferability of everything, including labor and services, becomes greatly increased if every value can be expressed in freely transferable and standardized certificates, notes or clearing or credit accounts or in capital certificates or accounts. - J.Z. 31.12.92. - & FREE TRANSFERABILITY, MONETARY FREEDOM, FREE BANKING, ISSUE PRINCIPLE, REFLUX PRINCIPLE, DEBT FOUNDATION, READINESS TO ACCEPT FOUNDATION

UNEMPLOYMENT: Under panarchism or exterritorial autonomy for all kinds of voluntary communities anyone would be at liberty to organize and offer all public services on a subscription and fee for service basis. No territorial constitutional and legal or juridically protected monopolies in this sphere. All public services, including currencies and exchanges, courts, police and defence and penal services, would then be operated on a competitive and voluntary subscription or user pays basis or freely agreed-upon other experimental basis. Different exterritorial and autonomous protective communities of volunteers would arrange them differently under their personal laws. Then any kind of monetary and financial freedom measures could be experimented with or practised to overcome unemployment and other monetary or financial difficulties fast – among the voluntary members and only that their expense and risk. - J.Z., 31.12.92, 3.10.08, 30.3.11. - PANARCHISM, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM

UNEMPLOYMENT: Under the present conditions not every potential employer can obtain a short term loan for wage payments whenever it would be economically justified, He must also offer "securities" that are satisfactory to the privileged banks. When they, due to some credit restriction imposed by the central bank, have to refuse to discount e.g. perfectly sound commercial bills of exchange, or equivalent good short term debt certificates, then the demand for labor will be correspondingly restricted. – J.Z. file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files – With shop currencies their “cover” and redemption fund is well and publicly displayed during shopping hours. Add up the value of all these goods and services of all the shops in a country and they would come to the value of a small hill of gold. But most consumers do not want redemption into gold coins or bullion, which they cannot eat, but into the goods and services that they do need every day. They have to frequently restock their small reserves at home. – J.Z., 20.4.09. - BANKNOTES, REAL BILLS DOCTRINE, FREE BANKING, MONETARY FREEDOM VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM, CREDIT RESTRICTIONS, MONETARY DESPOTISM, SHOP CURRENCIES & THEIR COVER & REDEMPTION FUND VS. GOLD REDEMPTIONISM, SHOP CURRENCIES, SHOP FOUNDATION MONEY, 30.3.11, 8.8.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Unemployed should take the initiative: The jobless should give up pinning their hopes upon the policies and measures of politicians and union officials, of nationalists, racists and co-religionists, all practising their exclusive jobs for their boys policies. Instead, they should engage in their own self-help measures or attempts to provide jobs for themselves, especially by considering, pondering and experimenting among themselves and with others with alternative exchange media and methods for the exchange of their labors and services and goods for the labors, services and goods they want and need and would be willing and able to work for. Monetary and financial freedom ideas, programs and techniques can offer them the jobs which governments, unionists and employers cannot offer them. - J.Z., 25.12.92, 31.12.92. - SELF-HELP

UNEMPLOYMENT: Unemployment and fixed wages (as opposed to e.g. cooperative production earnings), under monetary despotism rather than monetary freedom. There may be a core of truth in Marx's contention that because the "capitalists" would retain the "surplus value", the workers would be unable to buy back their products - which could result in sales difficulties and the laying off of workers. However, not only the “capitalists” are able, and often motivated to hoard cash as much as they can. Employees do likewise, under certain conditions. To that extent both can sharpen an already existing currency shortage. - In one respect the theory is wrong: Every earned cent, earned as wages, salaries or profits, interest or dividend, or taxed away from the earners, will lastly and indirectly appear again as demand for consumer goods. Even funds invested on long terms do thus re-appear since the funds are spent by these debtors to pay e.g. laborers building a factory. - One factor here needs checking, the time element. When funds are spent for wages, they tend to reappear very soon again as demand for consumer goods. Profits, interest payments and especially taxes tend to appear only after a time interval. This time interval, on its own, could already cause stoppages in the exchange process. - - The other main element, although often neglected, is the supply of exchange media. Wages and salaries are still predominantly paid in cash, or cheques largely based on cash accounts, whilst other payments are done by compensation. All the non-cash payments, in total perhaps 10 to 20 times as large as the cash payments, carry the inherent risk of the right to demand cash instead, any time, no matter how short the supply of cash may be for the time being. - Modern competition for cash being as strong as it is, one may assume that it will lead, at least temporarily and locally to an exhaustion of the cash in circulation and also available for the purposes of paying wages, salaries, pensions, welfare payments, taxes and consumer goods. Not only private households and small businesses do often have insufficient cash for their immediate requirements and cannot always get the cash they do need on credit, under present conditions. When the available cash is thus almost fully used or hoarded and the cash supply is not rapidly expanded, when and as required, in those circles where it is needed, then it can happen that in some sphere of the economy, where its payments are, normally, settled by non-cash payments, cash is suddenly demanded and used instead of clearing or non-cash-payments. Then cash could become suddenly very short also within its normal sphere. Being already stretched to its limits, this extra cash demand could then lead to the contraction of ten to twenty times its amount in the sphere of non-cash payments – for which then, too, cash rather than non-cash settlement would be demanded. This could and often would cause difficulties (under monetary despotism, with its money issue monopoly), including a further demand for cash to keep up the payments previously settled by compensation. Thus 1000 dollars extra cash demand might lead to $ 10 000 to $ 20,000 in extra cash demand. Assume that this cash could still be scraped together, then this might again threaten 10 to 20 times this amount of transactions, normally settled by non-cash payments - that are all and fundamentally still based on the right of creditors to demand cash at any time in payment of due debts. - The effect could, under the assumed conditions, snowball very rapidly. As soon as this would be noticed, cash hoarding would increase and thus further worsen the situation. – Prices would fall, in a deflationary way, and thus lead those, who still have cash, and can afford to do so, to hoard more and longer, in the expectation of further price reductions. - When considering this risk, one should keep in mind that at least much of the wages and salaries constitute more or less fixed cash requirements, even when paid in cheques upon supposedly existing cash accounts in the banks. They are calculated and agreed-upon to remain the same for weeks, even months ahead. They cannot be easily reduced. The attempt to do so would lead to strikes, thus less production and more unemployed. Between them, the payrolls constitute an enormous and largely fixed demand for cash. This demand can be reduced, immediately, only by laying workers off and thus reducing production. That happens extensively during deflations of the usual monopoly money. - - Assuming that the extortion attempts by coercive unions is successful and that the cash stock of employers for this purpose (their cash credit with banks) is largely exhausted to pay for the latest union settlements and that the employers, thereupon, try to recover these extra expenses and losses suffered during strikes by increasing their prices. Then these goods might, indeed, become so highly priced, for the existing deflationary conditions, that they can no longer be bought back by the cash available in circulation. Then, before prices would be competitively lowered again, to correspond to the remaining cash supply, and long before workers would be prepared to accept lower wages, the above hinted-at collapse of the non-cash payment sector might have begun. With it the need for cash would be enormously multiplied whilst the supply of it (under monetary despotism) would remain, largely, the same. (Central banks respond only slowly or with delays to such requirements, and often to an insufficient degree - if they do respond at all.) Or the cash circulation would be even become reduced via hoarding. We would have a deflation. - Transcript of some notes by John Zube from the 60’ties. - J.Z. file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files - - Central banking, trade unionism, collective bargaining, strikes, the right of creditors, including employees to demand cash (formerly gold coins, now legal tender) does introduce an unjustified and harmful rigidity in the payment systems – that can lead to a part-collapse of the monetary payment system, at least under monetary despotism. - J.Z., 1.10.08, 30.3.11, 8.8.11. – FIXED WAGES, RIGHT OF CREDITORS TO DEMAND CASH, CASH & NON-CASH PAYMENTS, DEFLATION, HOARDING, UNIONISM, COOPERATIVE PRODUCTION EARNINGS MORE FLEXIBLE THAN FIXED WAGES & SALARIES

UNEMPLOYMENT: Unemployment is a monetary question. An unlimited number of jobs needs doing. People want them done in the form of the goods and services they wish for. And they wish to pay for them with their own unused or underutilized labor power. Needs and wishes are unlimited, thus the quantity of labor opportunities is unlimited also. - Over-production is impossible for all kinds of goods and services. Free market pricing sees to it that misdirected efforts become soon redirected into more useful channels. - Lost wars as well as won wars do increase the quantity of labor that is desired, the quantity of needs that desire satisfaction and the readiness to give labor in return for this satisfaction. - Machines and factories are present and await their optimal utilization whilst today they are often excessively under-utilized. - Machines are largely standing still because there are not sufficient means of payment to pay those who would like to work with them. Moreover, many consumers of the already existing and the potential products are largely un-financial - because they find themselves in the same position. – Not enough opportunities for them to earn sound exchange media for their needs and wants. Raw materials, at reasonable prices, are available - yet remain unsold. - Food stuffs and consumer articles to support workers are available in abundance - but there are not easy to sell for an exclusive currency which is in short supply. - Willing workers and work places are there. Not only those registered as unemployed should be counted as unemployed or under-employed but all others as well, who would gladly work, more than they do now, or would take up at least part-time work if they could get it for free market rated wages or earnings paid in competitively issued sound currencies, which they, not the central bank or its experts, find acceptable. - Every employed tends to employ, partly, some other persons whenever spends or invests some of his earnings for his requirements. Under freedom people provide work for each other to their mutual satisfaction. They produce for each other and exchange their products freely. Whenever they do not they either do so voluntarily or they are not free to do so. - J.Z. file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files. - Under free exchange, each, with his needs and wants, provides wanted work for the other and each does also provide for the needs and wants of others. It just amounts to free division of labor in combination with free exchange to make it possible and function well. The government largely permits division of labor but not, or not sufficiently, freedom of exchange, including all the exchange media, clearing options and sound and self-chosen value standards required for this. – J.Z., 1.10.08, 30.3.11. – MONETARY FREEDOM AGAINST INVOLUNTARY UNEMPLOYMENT

UNEMPLOYMENT: Unemployment is everywhere accompanied by sales difficulties for goods, services and labor because of a shortage of good enough or sound and plentifully and competitively supplied exchange media. Why does that shortage exist, all too often and for all too long? Because that supply is monopolized everywhere and has lead, usually, to an undersupply of sound exchange media, often while at the same time unsound ones are excessively supplied so that soon they become almost useless even as mere exchange media, not only as value standards. - Unemployment itself can be defined as a sales difficulty for labor considered as a commodity. In the underdeveloped countries as well as in the somewhat developed ones it has become an almost permanent condition. In the supposed boom times it is relatively low and in the recessions and depressions it is very high. - - Sales difficulties are merely another name for stoppages, blockages or bottlenecks in the process of exchanges, specially for the exchange of labor and of consumer goods and services. The fault lies not with the masses of involuntarily unemployed: They want to work. Nor are those to blame, who try to makea living by offering wanted or needed consumer goods and services for sale. They do want to sell and depend upon such sales but cannot get enough of them. Nor are the potential employers to blame, who want to employ as many workers as possible productively and would thereby profit more than they do now, under monetary and financial despotism and they monetary and financial difficulties and crises they do inevitably cause. – The owners of machines, workshops and raw materials do also wish to see this real capital fully rather than merely partly used. – Difficulties exist merely for the free exchange and combination of all these factors. This exchange requires exchange media, some form of money or clearing certificates or clearing methods and also sound value standards. Their supply is still monopolized and correspondingly mismanaged. Thus they cannot be freely and competitively supplied in sound forms, wherever and whenever they are needed, by those, who could, under freedom and those, who need them most. That is the main cause. Exchange is only possible to the extent that the issue monopoly institutes and their privileged clearing centers make their exchange media and services available and they are bound to obey the monopolizing laws. – Clearing, which, by its very nature, provides unlimited exchange possibilities, is legally bound to the redemption in monopolized legal tender money, which is subject to a centralized value standard-, currency- and credit- and interest-rate-policy and not the requirements of the national and the international economy. – When exchange media and clearing centers are monopolized and regulated, i.e. not subject to free competition, how can one then expect frictionless exchanges, a free market economy? One might as well expect a tied-down man to break world records in running and jumping. Nevertheless, these bonds or chains are not yet widely enough discussed and criticized, nor are all the sound alternatives to them. - J.Z. file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files. There it exists only in a German version, probably drafted by Ulrich von Beckerath and here only rapidly & imperfectly translated, with some notes inserted by me. – J.Z., 1.10.09, 31.3.11, 8.8.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Unemployment is largely a question of what an employer may legally use to pay his workers with and what the employees allow them to pay them with or insist upon that they are paid with. As soon as they come to a rightful and well informed agreement on this then many of the trouble on both sides will soon be over. – J.Z., 17.9.83. – To the extent that they can safely ignore the laws of monetary despotism. Sometimes, for a while, they got away with this. But at least the penalties in Australia are so severe, that such cases were hushed up by the participants. The real solutions in this sphere remain outlawed and the supposed experts favor this outlawry! The will not even concede to volunteers the right to undertake monetary freedom experiments at their own cost and risk! And there exists no force to uphold that basic right. – J.Z., 20.4.09, 30.3.11. – MILITIA, MONETARY REVOLUTION, FREEDOM TO EXPERIMENT

UNEMPLOYMENT: Unemployment is not a natural but an artificial condition. It can be overcome by either repealing or ignoring the legislation on money and currency. - Labor opportunities and sales of goods should not be confined to that number for which the government makes its exclusive currency available for wage payments and purchases. The issue of standardized means of exchange - the most essential of all commodities - in an economy based on the division of labor - must not be monopolized. - If only the government wouldn't go in any way between the ones who want to produce things and the ones who want to buy things, there would not be any unemployment. - J.Z. 10/74 - - "Man is economically and lastly politically free only when he has a direct influence on his supply with standardized means of exchange. Without this influence he becomes the slave of those in whose discretionary power his supply with exchange media lies, even when the constitution recognizes all other rights of men and citizens." - Ulrich von Beckerath, Berlin Program, p.16. - - Full employment: You are not free to sell or offer your labor power or exchange it for other services and goods you want. This is why you or others are unemployed or underemployed and why almost all are under-paid. You are not free in this respect because you are forced to sell your labor for one thing only - exclusive currency. This currency is in short supply because its supply is monopolized and controlled by the Central Bank. (Remember the past and current credit restrictions with their artificial unemployment and depression.) - Thus only freely competitive note-issue banking (or fully developed free clearing. - J.Z., 30.3.11.) can do away with unemployment and sales difficulties, with depressions and underdevelopment. - Are you aware that nobody is free to offer you gold or silver or sound private banknotes for your labor - that the current legislation has allowed the bad money to drive out the good money and has created a monopolistic shortage of the bad money? At least to the extent of this unjustified coercion, you will tend to be unemployed, underemployed or under-paid. - - Whenever you find difficulties in exchanging your labor for goods for cash - check on the supply of cash, who rules it, how and by what rules. You will find unjustified restrictions in this sphere. Then find out how you could help repeal or ignore these and thus make yourself monetarily independent from these suppliers. - - The most important, centralistic and monopolistic economic institution of the Australian Federal Government is its Reserve Bank. We should break its stranglehold on the economy - not by destroying it but by depriving it of its privileges and powers, by introducing free and decentralized competition against it. Thereby we could overcome the depression, unemployment and inflation it has caused. - Try exchanging without money and you will soon find out how large your dependency on the central bank and its exclusive currency has become. - - Allow any employer to offer, in payment of wages and any employee to accept anything that is agreeable to them. Do not force both to deal only in a monopolistic and also rapidly deteriorating and otherwise mismanaged exchange medium and value standard. Let's have the exchange media as competitively supplied as knives and forks are - and we will have no shortage of them, either. - - With sufficient sound exchange media, sound value reckoning, free pricing and when no job or trade is closed to anyone by any monopolies, unemployment could be done away with within hours in almost all cases - by people who understand and are free to apply the monetary freedom techniques. - - Full employment exists naturally when services can be freely exchanged for other services (some expressed in goods or labor). - Unemployment results only when someone puts some or the other hindrance in the way of preventing some or many of these voluntary exchanges. - The worst such hindrance is the monopolization of the exchange medium and the coercive manipulation of the value standard for all transactions. - From J.Z., An ABC Against Nuclear War, in PEACE PLANS16-17, with slight changes. - J.Z. file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files – THE MAIN CAUSE OF MASS UNEMPLOYMENT IS MONETARY DESPOTISM - LEADING TO A MONEY SHORTAGE MONETARY FREEDOM, 30.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Unemployment means a man cannot exchange his services for the services and goods he wants and that others want to sell to him. - To do it by barter would be too difficult. It could be done by perfect clearing - but this is not yet established. Seeing that we live in an advanced economy, based on the division of labor and free exchange and that for the free exchange of all goods and services some form of exchange medium is required, which promotes the clearing of all goods and services. Something must be wrong with the exchange medium that we are using when we find difficulties in selling our labor, goods and services at market prices. - - That something must be wrong, could be presumed already merely from the fact that the exchange medium, generally used, is a monopolized and that its use is enforced, in its acceptance as well as its fictitious, manipulated and all too often depreciated paper “value standard.” - All exclusive privileges, all coercive monopolies should be doubted. We should not expect the best possible service from them but rather the worst possible disservice, if the experience with other monopolies is any guide. - - Money is short particularly during an organized credit restriction. The additional money then required should be supplied freely - but not by the government, which only knows how to supply inflated or inflatable money or deflated and stag-flated money. No government knows how to supply additional money without causing a inflation nor has it got any short term political motives or incentives for supplying such money. Politicians are not monetary experts, either. So they tend to resort merely to force and the note printing press, i.e. to fiat money, forced currency or paper money, euphemistically and misleadingly called "legal tender money". - J.Z. file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files - MONETARY DESPOTISM, 30.3.11, 8.8.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Unemployment means that due to a shortage of exchange media it is difficult and in many cases even impossible to exchange working power into exchange media - with which to buy goods and services, usually the goods and services which others would love to be able to offer in exchange. But instead, the others sit on an unsold surplus of goods, close to bankruptcy and are, in other words, underemployed or unemployed themselves. - - Unemployment is generally accompanied by sales difficulties, i.e. by difficulties to exchange goods into exchange media. (Unemployment may also be defined as the sales difficulty for labor as a commodity.) In other words, in times of unemployment there is no shortage of goods, either. Nor is there a shortage of raw materials, factory or office space, transportation facilities etc. - A sufficient need for goods and services does exist. There is only a shortage of purchasing power to buy them with. (General over-production exists only in the imagination of some people.) - - The unemployed themselves - and not only they - do need and want many products and services and would gladly give their services in return. Their services are also wanted and needed and would be bought, if only their potential buyers had the purchasing power to acquire them. - Once the present surplus of goods is sold, the production of new goods to fill the depleted stores, would require additional workers and would thus lead to further employment. (Part of that surplus, not soaked up by people starved for consumer goods for a long time, going on a spending spree, should and could be invested on long terms and productively, to increase the standard of living in the future.) - The barrier in both cases is the same: lack of sound and competitively supplied exchange media. - - If there were sufficient exchange media (or free clearing avenues) then it would be easy to exchange one's production into goods or to sell one's goods for exchange media in order to buy other goods with. – So-called “exchange-media” of governments that are unable to fulfill this exchange function for all workers and retailers are not really exchange-media in the full meaning of that term. They have been rightly compared to “requisitioning certificates”, which somewhat indicates their inferiority, their forced currency or fiat money nature. - - Why is there any shortage of exchange media? Because the issue of banknotes and currency is monopolized instead of being left to competitive private enterprise. Competitively issued money without legal tender power could not become short-supplied and it could not be over-supplied, either, i.e., it could not be inflated. It would be issued until every sign of deflation has disappeared and would be stopped as soon as the first and temporary sign of an inflation would appear, of a saturation of the circulation with exchange media, expressed by a small discount of private notes among wholesalers and brokers, i.e. by a well publicized small fall in the free market rate of an exchange medium in general circulation. This would not relieve the issuer of his obligation to still accept his notes at par, whereupon the discounted notes would soon be used against him and thus their excess volume would rapidly disappear from the circulation and thereby also their small discount. - J.Z. file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files – SALES DIFFICULTIES, MONETARY FREEDOM. - 30.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Unemployment means that men or women cannot exchange their labor services for the services or goods they want or needs and that others do want to sell to them. To do it by barter would be too difficult. In an advanced economy we live by depending upon division of labor and free exchange which is mediated by exchange media or clearing or clearing certificates. Money, confined to a single exclusive and forced currency of the central bank is often in short supply, causing a means of exchange shortage or even currency famine, or under such a monopoly and its associated legal tender power for is exclusive paper money, it is already so inflated that it is only reluctantly, if at all, accepted in payments for work and that no one wants to invest any longer on the basis of such a rapidly depreciating money, with its all too inferior value standard and thus unemployment results for lack of sound money. Sound alternative money could be competitively supplied by many private or cooperative issuers – but this is outlawed. It does not help that most people do not know about their monetary rights and liberties and how to use them optimally in practice, with the right issue and reflux techniques, to make them keep, most of the time and at least near their issuers, their nominal value or par value with their sound value standard. Even free experimentation with monetary freedom alternatives is outlawed and thus optimal private payment systems, using sound value standards, cannot be freely developed, as they could, sometimes, even from primitive and still flawed beginning. The government, according to its record, should never be entrusted with new money issues. It has a vested interest to abuse such a power again and again and almost never managed its own issues well enough. It should be free enterprise or cooperative self-help money, on a businesslike basis. Any kind of free market money is a money of the people rather than a money of a territorial governments. – J.Z., n.d. & 15.8.08, 8.8.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Unemployment means that there is some kind of blockage preventing the exchange between labor and money and money and goods. - This block lies not with the unemployed who are willing to work for market wages and are willing to change their kind of work and their work locations. (Undoubtedly, at present many unemployed are not willing to do this. But, can the same be said e.g. of the ca. 80 million unemployed in India?) - Nor does the flaw seem to lie among the sellers of goods and services. They are willing to sell them at market prices to anyone who will offer them useful exchange media or clearing certificates or accounts. - It does not lie with the employers, either. They want to employ many people and make a profit from everyone they can manage to employ under the existing economic conditions. - It does not lie with the providers of raw materials, transport facilities, landlords etc. They all want their materials and capital productively used, sold, hired or rented. - Thus it must lie with the supply of exchange media which make it difficult to change labor into goods and services and goods into labor, other goods and services and services into other services, goods and labor. As “Sherlock Holmes” used to say in the famous novels: When you eliminate all the untrue and the impossibilities, then you finally come to the possible cause, however unlikely it may appear to be in the eyes of most. - - That mass unemployment and sales difficulties must be due to some flaws with the exchange medium should be self-evident from the very concept of an exchange medium. As already its name indicates, -it should be a suitable tool, sufficiently supplied to help to "mediate" all possible and desired exchanges and should be neutral in its effect beyond this mediating capacity. This would require that it uses a sound value standard, not a manipulated and forced paper one like that of the government’s monopoly money. - Like oil in a well run machine, it should be neither over-supplied nor under-supplied but supplied in just the right quantity and purity - and replaced whenever necessary. To supply it, one should imagine, should be a rather simple job, if one compares it e.g. with constructing a modern computer or plane. How simple it could be would only be demonstrated if there were already free competition for the supply of such media. - Naturally, to supply sufficient exchange media for everybody in a large country from a single centre, would be a difficult to impossible job. It would be as difficult to impossible as ruling all people in a country justly whilst outlawing genuine and local self-rule, as difficult to impossible as feeding all people to their satisfaction or clothing them to their satisfaction from one centre, whilst prohibiting them from supplying their own wants in this respect or buying it on a free and world-wide market. Why do we assume that this kind of centralization could work in the sphere of money? - Why do we set ourselves up as monetary despots over the exchanges of other people or advocate that some people or institutions should have such monetary powers? Only because we subscribe to some monetary myths and prejudices like: (A fragment got lost here. But in the above I have already given a few short lists of such myths and prejudices. – J.Z., 20.4.09.) - DIS.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Unemployment means there are some kind of blockages to prevent the exchange between labor and money and money and good and services. The flaw lies not with workers willing to work for market wages (their kind of profit plus expense account refund), nor with the sellers of goods and services, who are willing to sell them at market prices. Nor does it lie with the employers, who do want to employ as many people profitably as they can, producing as many goods and services at market prices, as they have a chance to sell. They do want to productively utilized their often enormous capital investment, for which they may also be highly indebted, but cannot use all of it, all the time, and employ labor around the clock on this equipment, if they cannot be sure to sell what they produce or offer in services and thus make as much profit for themselves as they can. They are certainly not employers of the unemployed and may have to lay off workers much against their will, thus reducing their production and sales, without reducing their other fixed costs. – What other factor is involved? I hold that it must mainly be the supply of enough and sound enough exchange media. - In our times exchange media are required to mediate the exchange of labor into purchasing power and to change that purchasing power into the goods and services the workers need or want. Curiously enough, the supply of exchange media is monopolized. And what does often happen under monopolies? There is an insufficient supply. Moreover, the quality of the monopoly good or service (instance Post Office) leaves much to be desired. Can such a supply be safely entrusted to a government’s central bank or to a government's monopolistic mint? All experience, not only that of centuries but even of thousands of years does speak against this assumption. Only rarely have governments been quite honest in this respect for any length of time. Usually they have abused this monopoly, privilege and power. It is high time to abolish it. – J.Z., n.d. & 14.8.08, 8.8.11. – FREE BANKING VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM, MONETARY FREEDOM

UNEMPLOYMENT: Unemployment with its injustice for the man who seeks and thirsts for employment, who begs for labour and cannot get it, and who is punished for failure he is not responsible for by the starvation of his children – that torture is something that private enterprise ought to remedy for its own sake.” – David Lloyd George, 1919. - He, too, seemed to wrongly assume that private enterprise is already free to do so and not wrongfully tied down by the despotic monetary and currency laws of territorial governments. - J.Z., n.d. & 8.8.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Unemployment, inflations, deflations, recessions, depressions, stagflation and involuntary poverty are the prices to be paid for the uniform, forced and either short-supplied or over-supplied and thus depreciated or revalued (artificially kept scarce) governmental monopoly currencies now existing in all territorial States and this even after State socialism has fallen in most States and has become largely - but not yet completely - discredited. Especially not in this sphere it is still predominant and this not only in government-run universities. For every book advocating monetary freedom or free banking and financial freedom there are, probably, at least a thousand that advocate monetary and/or financial despotism. All this kind of freedom information has not yet been sufficiently and permanently published and discussed. This has still to be done for its “Old Testaments” and its “New Testaments”. – There exists as yet no comprehensive handbook or encyclopedia on the subject. Millions do thus continue to suffer unnecessarily because such self-help information is not readily accessible to them. Millions of relatively trivial or even misleading books and encyclopedias are being published instead. And this in spite of the fact that the monetary and financial freedom information could now be very cheaply and comprehensively compiled and ordered, digitally and then very cheaply or even free of charge offered electronically, published online or on disk. – J.Z., 30.4.98, 1.1.99, 29.9.08, 30.3.11, 8.8.11. - MONETARY DESPOTISM, INFLATION, STAGFLATION, POVERTY

UNEMPLOYMENT: Voting with one's own dollars: Once the owners of goods, services and labor become free to vote on a free market with vouchers upon their own goods, services and labor for any labor offered on that market and once the unemployed and employed are free to accept any such alternative means of exchange at par or to discount or refuse them, then good issues of that type will search out any remaining unemployed or under-employed able and willing workers. These exchange media will be acceptable to them at par and will be used in employing and paying, according to their productivity. - J.Z. 31.12.92, 30.3.11. – MONETARY FREEDOM

UNEMPLOYMENT: Wage payment in alternative and optional currencies: How much of your income would you be willing to take e.g. in a shop currency of your favorite local shopping centre and in petrol, gas, electricity, railway and bus money issues? Why shouldn't you be at liberty to do so and why shouldn't these shops and companies be at liberty to make you such offers? J.Z., 31.12.92, 30.3.11. – Q., MONETARY FREEDOM

UNEMPLOYMENT: We can get rid of unemployment through free pricing, free trading and monetary freedom. – J.Z., 13.3.75, 30.7.78.

UNEMPLOYMENT: we insist that under a sensible monetary system the demand for labour would always be greater than the supply. The change to automation will probably be slow, and industry could easily absorb the redundant workers if its money supply were denationalized.” – Henry Meulen, THE INDIVIDUALIST, 8/78, p.43. – MONETARY FREEDOM VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM

UNEMPLOYMENT: We left the right track when the anti-truck rules were finalized and generally accepted in the middle of the 19th. Century. Before this, it was still sometimes possible to clear wage claims with other means of exchange than legal tender and gold or silver coins. From then on it was always held that any honest employer would possess enough ready cash or could easily get enough credit to pay wages with. But in reality he had to dismiss workers or could not afford to hire any more, when he was insufficiently supplied with these conventional and exclusive means of payment. - Instead, anything that would have been acceptable to workers in wage payments should have been considered as permissible. The work contracts should have contained corresponding clauses and, gradually, truck payments would have become so improved by competition that they would have become as convenient as ready cash payments and superior by not being subject to the deflation and inflation risk of an exclusive and forced currency. - - Employees have today only the choice to be paid in deteriorating and exclusive means of exchange or not to be employed at all, while employers are only allowed to pay their employees in such bad and forced currency or to dismiss them. - J.Z. 7.8.75, 19.11.85. - - Allow any employer to offer and any employee to accept anything agreeable to both in payment of wages. Don't force either to deal only in a monopolistic, forced and deteriorating or deflated exchange medium. Let us have the exchange media, clearing avenues and value standards as competitively supplied and chosen as knives, forks and spoons are and then we will have no shortage of them, either. - J.Z. file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files - J.Z., 30.3.11. - TRUCKSHOP PAYMENT PROHIBITIONS, OUTLAWRY OF PRIVATE EMERGENCY MONEY ISSUES

UNEMPLOYMENT: What benefit is to be had from make-work projects which are funded with wealth diverted from the productive process? Instead of being turned back to create more wealth, this money is ‘redistributed’.” – Kenneth McDonald, THE FREEMAN, Aug. 77, p.505. - No economic benefits result for the whole population but only high and unearned incomes and personal power benefits - for politicians and bureaucrats running such “programs”. – The already insufficient supply of money, because it is monopoly money, is thus further mismanaged and misdirected. - J.Z., 13.8.08.

UNEMPLOYMENT: What do you expect to happen when you allow the owners of labor and goods and the service providers to compete only for the acquisition of a monopolized State paper money, i.e., while you do prohibit sound alternative banknotes and other private suitable certificates to compete in the job of mediating all possible and desired exchanges?Monopolies do have, after all their effects, whether you like it, know it or not. – J.Z., 20.8.82, 4.10.08, 30.3.11. - MONETARY DESPOTISM, ISSUE MONOPOLY

UNEMPLOYMENT: What is unemployment? Somehow, the exchange between goods and services does not function properly, almost as if it were not greased properly. - Are exchange media or clearing certificates or clearing accounts the necessary grease or oil for frictionless exchanges? - In the abstract, there should be no unemployment: If everybody were free to offer his labor and products in exchange for those of others and everyone confined himself to producing only what others want and if monetary and clearing exchanges were fully realized and made easy and cheap, then everybody should be fully employed or out of work only if he persisted in offering goods or services which no one in his circles or in a well informed world market, would want at the prices he has to ask for to cover his costs and labor. - - Unemployment might be called a sales difficulty or sales stoppage for the commodity called labor. It is usually accompanied with sales difficulties or stoppages for other commodities and services. Together these difficulties form a depression or deflation, a crisis, nowadays politely called merely a "recession". - World-wide there are probably more unemployed now than there were during the Great Depression of the thirties. - - It happens when there are also sales stoppages for consumer goods (rotting away or gathering dust in the stores), factory facilities (remaining empty or used only at a fraction of their potential), machines (standing largely idle), raw materials (accumulating to excess and at depressed prices) and managerial talents are wasted. (Unemployment among former employers and managers.). - Potential productive capital remains also unused because additional products could not be easily sold. Banks might even have an abundance of short term means available for loans but not enough people are daring to borrow them because, in an economy starved for cash, they could easily spend this cash but they could not be certain it that it would flow back to them in time to repay these loans. Under present conditions of sales difficulties and unemployment these short term funds, for the same reason, are also not readily invested in turnover credits. Under a money shortage they might then be hoarded or used for something else than spending them on consumer goods and service, boosting retail sales and new orders. Exclusive currencies are sticky and stick in many different hands instead of fulfilling their exchange function. They can lead to high degrees of hoarding or high degrees of cash holdings, especially in politically uncertain times. - - The difficulties are not due to any mysterious disappearance of long term capital. For this real capital is, obviously, still there, before and after the mass unemployment. Or in form of investment certificates it is also still there, although at a diminished market value. - Nor is there, basically, an unwillingness to invest the remaining capital profitably. But the interest rate required to cover the depression risk of a total loss (when only the bankruptcy proceedings are booming), would often be too high to be attractive to potential borrowers who have already difficulties to sell their accumulated stocks or for lenders to them. – Moreover, once a deflation has begun, a vicious circle sets in that reduces sales further. The customers and consumers see prices not reduced and stopping at a reduced price - but continuously falling. Thus they hold back further purchases, as long as they can, in the hope for further price falls. By this very action they achieve, under the system of an exclusive and forced currency, that the prices do fall further. Only lastingly or temporarily reduced prices encourage spending. Falling prices deter buying. - - In other words, there must be some exchange and clearing difficulties for the goods and services and labor ready for sale - but still remaining unsold, even at lower prices, but still falling ones. Needs somehow fail to become transformed into monetary demand on the market, to the limit that the needy, able and willing can and wish to give services and goods in return. - - Once one becomes aware of that, one should, logically, look at the legislation that prevents sufficient clearing transactions or the production and circulation of sufficient exchange media. Something must be wrong with the existing system for exchange media and clearing facilities when those provided for this job do not do their jobs properly. - - But while stressing the monetary and clearing factor, one should never lose sight of the fact that the pricing of goods and labor should at least be made as free again as it was before World War I, when something close to a free world market did exist. - - When there is an abundance of unused and willing labor (by people wanting to be employed and “exploited” by employers, employers obviously unable to employ and “exploit’ them) and of the other factors of production and when free pricing prevails and, nevertheless, it is difficult to turn labor, services and goods into money, while it is very easy to turn money into goods, services and labor, then, obviously, only one thing is short: the exchange medium or clearing facility to pay labor and goods with. All the rest are there, just waiting to be mobilized. Then we do not have a jobs or a capital shortage but a shortage of short term exchange media and exchange-methods as are commonly used for wage payments and retail purchases and sales. - - Mass unemployment, thus understood, means a difficulty to exchange labor into exchange media - because of a shortage of exchange media. a) The unemployed want to work - for money. - b) The shop keepers want to sell - for money. - c) The employers want to employ and purchase supplies - with money and they want to sell - for money. - d) The wholesalers want to buy, with money, goods they can sell to the retailers, for money. – e) The retailers want to be able to buy from the wholesalers with money and able to sell them to the workers. – f) The workers want to be paid with money to buy with it goods in the retail shops. – g) The financiers and managers and proprietors want a return, earnings and profit - in money - and precisely money or sufficient clearing opportunities are the things they find difficult to obtain. – (Naturally, in our time “money” often means current accounts, cheques, credit cards, non-cash-transfers, electronic transfers or plain or multilateral clearing. But in the current system all are dependent upon the cash base provided by the central bank!) - - In such a situation, it has sometimes happened that even millionaires, with millions in illiquid assets, have found it difficult to raise the cash required for some of their minor cash obligations. (I heard of a case of a millionaire being unable to pay for a cup of coffee!) - The illiquid assets of workers (for each worker worth hundreds of thousands of dollars in the long run) are then also very hard to turn into cash and their main debtors, the employers, find it then difficult to impossible to raise sufficient cash or clearing certificates to pay them wages or salaries with. - - Once a problem is properly stated then it implies already its solution: MASS UNEMPLOYMENT IS THE RESULT OF A MONEY SHORTAGE! - This becomes more obvious during an intentional and official credit restriction. But a chronic money shortage exists under the present system all the time, at least to some extent, even while the government tries to counter it by inflation! - - At present, the demand for labor (need supplied with purchasing power) is not free. Just like the monetary demand of consumers for consumer goods and consumer services is restricted when in households of singles that person is unemployed or under-employed or in families with usually several members being employed one or two of them are unemployed. - It is restricted by the supply of exchange media and clearing facilities for wage payment purposes - and this supply and option is largely monopolized, centralized and directed into certain channels only - with the rest left to fend for themselves (by scrounging together monopoly money as well as they can or suffer the consequences of being unable to get sufficient of it to fulfill all their needs, wants or obligations with it), but not permitted to use suitable self-help measures, applying the "issue-principle" or the "clearing principle". Under such a system at least temporary money shortages and money shortages in some sections of the economy are quite inevitable. - - There was hardly ever a money shortage in my own sector of the economy: My public service salary had often come directly from the note printing press, in fresh, crisp notes with consecutive numbers. Others are not so lucky but only suffer under the inflation caused by this monopolistic and coercive money-input channel. (I got and spent these freshly printed notes before they drove up the prices! Insofar I was lucky.) There is also, usually, no flood of money, not even of the inflated money, in their channels. (But the interrelationship of legal tender money over-issue and inflation and of monopoly money and deflation as well as inflation and of mass-unemployment, is a special subject that ought to be discussed separately.) - I do not propose to put up indefinitely with such a money shortage (even when, in the last stage of severe inflations money is in short supply, when compared with the prices, racing ahead of it, in the expectation of further inflation) or unsatisfactory clearing facilities or to put up with primitive or only somewhat developed barter options instead of monetary transactions or fully developed clearing ones. Most of us would more or less starve if we tried primitive exchanges. Then we would not produce enough because we could not exchange our products and services easily enough. Admittedly, we would rather tend to die from over-work rather than unemployment. And much of our over-worked condition would be due to our efforts to try to obtain by barter what we need in return for whatever goods and services we happen to be able to offer to the rather limited barter market. Today a shopping effort still exists but imagine how much harder and prolonged it would be if you had to get everything you need or want through bartering what you have to offer, especially when you are e.g. a clerk or a specialized tradesman like a locksmith or watchmaker. We would then soon realize how much labor is saved by a suitable and sound exchange medium that is in sufficient supply, how important an economic tool or automation facility it provides. - - I am not satisfied with monetary arrangements that cannot be relied upon, that jump from crisis to crisis, that leave difficulties even in boom times, that do promote wars and unjust revolutions, waste my labor and endanger my property and my future. - - I desire an improved system that would make it easy for every willing and able unemployed and other seller to sell his labor, services and goods for money and for sound money at that, competitively supplied. – - J.Z. file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files - (If you can express all this or enough of it, in a short slogan, clear sentence or paragraph, please, do so! – J.Z., 30.9.08, 30.3.11, 8.8.11.)

UNEMPLOYMENT: What means unemployment? There is no shortage of needs and wants. Needs and wants, to become satisfied, do mean, as a rule, ability and willingness to labor and to acquire labor products in return. When A needs $ 1000 worth then this means that he is willing to offer $ 1000 worth of his labor for the $ 1000 worth of labor of somebody else, i.e., there is a need for $ 2000 worth of labor in total. Each person's needs supply labor opportunities not only for himself but also for his trading partner - if he is free to transform his needs into demand. Then one’s needs lead to jobs for first for others and then for oneself, i.e., to more employment and more free exchanges. The same applies largely to wants that go beyond the basic needs. Nowadays, in somewhat developed countries, most needs constitute only a fraction of the earnings and expenses of employees. - - Joblessness does not mean a shortage of jobs but a shortage of means to pay for them. It should be termed otherwise, with some expression that comes closer to "sales difficulties for useful and desired labor" - because others are in the same difficulty with their labor that would produced needed or wanted goods and services. What is really required are not more opportunities for productive labor but easy and cheap opportunities, e.g. through a sufficient supply of sound exchange media and clearing options for one’s own productive labor and its output for the productive labor or others and their output, under extensive division of labor and quite free exchange. These exchange and clearing options must be somehow supplied, either by oneself, alone or with associates, by some specialists, like note-issuing bankers, by employers, by retailers or associations of retailers or by other potential issuers or by clearing houses. And this supply or service must be free and competitive, i.e. sufficient and cheap and easy enough. - - The unemployed are without money or income because of their own sales difficulty for their labor and their potential employers have the same kind of sales difficulty for their goods and services or they would employ more labor. - Essentially, in time of unemployment some employers are also “unemployed”, i.e., bankrupt or “under-employed”, by working only at a fraction of their capacity with a skeleton staff. No class warfare is involved but a common interest. - - The employers are in this trouble because their final consumers, other workers, do not have enough means of payment, either. This happens, often, because they are under-employed or unemployed. This is another vicious and self-enforcing circle that must and can be broken. The means of payment are short - and they cannot, at present, be privately and competitively supplied in sufficient quantity because the supply of means of exchange is monopolized. Thus this monopoly must be broken. - - The State serves only to confiscate and depreciate its kind of money and direct it away from employment opportunities or profitable and productive employment opportunities to unproductive ones that destroy capital and provide no returns or insufficient returns. It is a loss maker but able to impose its losses upon others, the inflation and tax victims. And by its monopoly for the money issue it also often renders many people unemployed or bankrupt. It always reduced the incomes through the abuse of its monetary despotism, taxes and other wrongful and harmful interventions and prohibitions. - - To overcome unemployment does neither require sacrifices nor, primarily, new capital, sacrifices, subsidies or any government spending. Underutilized factories, goods stocks, machines, raw materials, transport facilities are there in abundance when unemployment is large. But it requires new and sound money tokens and clearing certificates or efficient clearing accounts. Essentially, these cost only thinking, paper, ink and printing labor. Many print shops or also working at less than their capacity during a deflation with its massive unemployment. - As Mises used to joke: It takes a government to turn two such valuable commodities like paper and ink into worthless scrap. (Quoted only from my flawed memory.) Alas, the free entrepreneurs have not been enterprising or free or thoughtful enough in this sphere to turn these two fundamental but affordable resources into something very much needed in such situation and also valuable and sound – together with whatever else they have to offer and an optional sound value standard chosen by them. Sound and rapid changes, possibly even revolutionary payment and value standard reckoning, are required to rapidly drive the bad government money out of most private and from then on free exchanges. Perhaps this would even lead to putting the territorial State altogether out of business or at least reduce it to a variety of communities of volunteers, including even those of the remaining voluntary victims of whatever kinds of statism some people still manage to believe in. - More of the governments either depreciating, stagnating or deflating governmental monopoly paper money is neither required nor should it be permitted as a forced currency against those, who would rather discount it or refuse it altogether. - - Obviously, everyone, who would be thus additionally and productively employed, producing goods and services that can be easily sold, does thereby increase the general standard of living. However, if the goods are merely efficiently produced but then merely stockpiled for lack of sales and if efficient and additional services are merely offered but not sold, then nobody is better off. They would have worked for nothing or wasted their time, raw materials and business space and would have involved some running costs. - Every employed person can, under sufficient economic freedom, support several others who are too sick, old or young etc. In other words, under freedom, it would be profitable to employ more workers, paying them in accordance with their productivity. No sacrifices are required, no love for one's neighbor but selfishness based on reason, justice and free exchange opportunities, for instance, some new, free, rational and just practices and institutions in the sphere of the provision of sound exchange media and clearing certificates and accounts and of sound and freely chosen or provided value standards. - - Out of fear of unemployment, a much lower productivity is adhered to than could be realized, just in order to "save jobs" of the old type (by preventing numerous possible and desirable improvements). We have reduced productivity as a result of calls for solidarity with the relatively unproductive! - - While e.g. Free Trade, free capital accumulation and investment, abolition of licensing, quotas, wage and price controls and of regulations would certainly help to reduce unemployment, they, on their own, would not suffice to deal with involuntary mass unemployment of crisis proportions. That could only be done away with if free market principles, free enterprise and free trade principles and practices were also applied in the sphere of money supply, clearing and value standards. How could one simply assume that the suppression of the free market in this important sphere would have no or only insignificant effects? What means freedom in this sphere? There must be freedom to issue and freedom to accept means of payment. We would also need freedom to discount and to refuse all the monies except the ones we have issued ourselves. No means of payment or value standard must be coercive and exclusive. All means of payment must be based on the clearing principle and upon some or the other sound, i.e. voluntarily accepted value standard and that standard must also be used to price out goods, services and labor. (Gold weight units would, probably, still serve best for this service - if they are used for accounting and clearing purposes only, not for reserves and redemption by the issuer. A free market in gold and private gold coinage and some gold coin circulation would be required. Debtors should be free to pay in gold but not obliged to pay in it.) - - With this freedom finally realized, mass unemployment could be rapidly overcome in most instances. (Why and how? I wish I could say that convincingly and in a few words, sentences and paragraphs only. I am almost forever trying to do so, but, obviously, I do need help in this. Will you provide it?) - - J.Z. file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files – UNEMPLOYMENT, CAUSE & CURE, MONETARY FREEDOM VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM, FREE MARKET MONEY. - 30.3.11, 8.8.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: What to do about unemployment? One standard libertarian answer is: Free pricing and free wage contracts and an honest currency. A dissenting view goes further and demands: Free pricing and wage contracts together with freely competing private currencies. I adhere to the second proposal. It embraces the first, because it would also lead to sound currencies. But it does go beyond it by not relying upon any currency as an exclusive one, not even upon the best one that is commonly known, a circulation of gold coins and 100% covered gold certificates. Competing private currencies could reckon and account and clear in gold weight units without the need to have more than a hand full of gold coins in circulation and traded at a stock exchange. – J.Z., 16.10.74 & 15.11.85. - J.Z. file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files MONETARY FREEDOM

UNEMPLOYMENT: When the owners of an animal that can earn them $ 5 to $ 5000 a year are free use it as productively, why would they leave it unused in this way? If one considers workers as “animals” economically used, i.e., employed to earn money for an employer and also a wage for themselves, one that motivates them to work productively, then why would any employer not employ these men and women? Much more than ill will or arbitrariness must be involved for them to act thus, i.e. against their own best interests. And yet the unemployed workers want to blame exclusively the employers, and satisfy themselves with this primitive and false “explanation”. Or they do generally blame what they consider to be a “capitalist system” or a “free market system” or a “laissez faire” system, without taking into consideration that there are xyz restrictions on the supply of capital and even more severe restrictions on the supply of exchange media to pay wages with and to purchase consumer goods and services with. Like the religious people expecting their “God” to be able and willing to act like a good man, so the State-educated workmen believe that the territorial Government, with its central and monopolistic note-issuing bank, is able and willing to always supply the whole country's economy with sufficient and good enough exchange media to make all desired exchanges of labor for money and then of that money for goods and services easily possible. That is almost like expecting a single national bakery to supply a whole country every day with fresh bread or a single cow-keeping enterprise to supply the whole country every day with fresh milk. – J.Z., 4.4.86, 14.8.08. (These analogies do limp by now, since bread contains preservatives and natural milk is outlawed and compulsorily replaced by pasteurized milk. - J.Z., 8.8.11.)

UNEMPLOYMENT: Why can’t willing workers not find paying work? Why can’t hungry potential consumers afford to buy food? Why can’t potential employers fully utilize all their production facilities and thus employ more people? Why can’t shops and supermarkets, abundantly stocked with goods, sell them fast and easily enough, although there are many people who would gladly buy them, if they could afford them? Why don’t investments in goods and service production often do not pay well enough to be profitable or even merely to be continued, indefinitely? Obviously not because willing workers, machines, factories, consumer goods and services and capital are in short supply. Not because wealth, capital or skills are missing. (With the exception of the missing free banking knowledge and skills.) (Here we should keep in mind that before and after a period of mass unemployment they are obviously available and during the unemployment they have not simply disappeared.) The only shortage that can always be observed in economic crises is that of sufficient sound exchange media. (During a natural catastrophe people may still have all their cash but there the goods and facilities being largely destroyed, there is too little left to buy with it.) That shortage of sound currency during economic crises should not surprise anyone as long as the supply or currency is monopolized. It is quite wrong to assume that such a monopolist would always be able and willing to supply every sphere in his empire with enough sound exchange media to make there always all exchanges between his subjects possible and easy. In that sphere most people have still to come to realize that its absolute “monarchs”, in this sphere, the high priests of the dominant monetary religion of the people, legitimized by laws and these sanctioned by the practices of majority voting for “representatives”, who voted in such laws or failed to repeal them, do have limits in what they can do for their subjects, although they seem to possess absolute power, often even are scholars, possess high standards of personal ethics and plenty of good will. Monetary despotism, as history has all too often demonstrated, is unable to always supply sufficient and sound exchange media, to make all wanted exchanges possible. Instead, its paper money is almost always either inflated, deflated or stagflated and never quite and lastingly sound, sufficient and competitive. This happens precisely because it has suppressed competition in the supply of sound exchange media, clearing certificates or accounts and of sound value standards for them and all prices, wages and other contracts. Alas, even most anarchists do not attack monetary despotism or even question it sufficiently or explore just and sound alternatives to it. Instead, some of them even imagine that modern societies and economies, depending upon division of labor and free exchange, could manage without money and clearing facilities. And their opponents do mostly believe that despotism, its uniformity, monopoly and coercion could be a just and efficient substitute for free exchange and all that is required by free exchange to function well or well enough. – J.Z., 9.11.98, 30.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Why is there so little unemployment in the public service? 1.) It has usually a monopoly. 2.) Some people are forced to buy its services even though they might not need or want them, e.g. kerbing and guttering. 3.) The means to pay for them are forcefully extracted from often unwilling taxpayers. 4.) If step 3 does not provide a sufficient income then the inflation “tax” is levied or forced loans are extorted or government “securities” are issued which, under inflation are insecurities and, essentially, are investments in tax slaves. – J.Z., 1.9.83, 3.10.08. - PUBLIC SERVICE, GOVERNMENTAL INSECURITIES, TAXATION, INFLATION

UNEMPLOYMENT: With the abolition of the money issue monopoly and legal tender for its notes, inflation, unemployment and stagflation would soon disappear. - J.Z., 29.12.92. - MONEY MONOPOLY

UNIFICATION OF EAST & WEST GERMANY: The extent of the failures of State Socialism in East and West became to a large extent covered-up by further State-socialist measures, always at the expense of the taxpayers. The currency reform that was practised for East Germany was an almost classical case of ignorance and prejudice in action. Market forces and market solutions were, once again, not allowed to operate in this sphere and the supposedly anti-communist currency reformers were unaware that they practised a Marxist proposal and institution: the despotism of a central bank, issuing a monopoly currency with legal tender power, i.e. with compulsory acceptance and a forced value. They had also forgotten everything they had ever learnt, if they ever did, about free exchange rates. – J.Z., 10/90, 14.8.08.

UNIFORMITY: A sufficient supply of sound exchange media in different forms by different issuers and acceptors is more useful than a single and thus uniform exchange medium that is almost inevitably most of the time mismanaged and leads to over-supplies or under-supplies in form of inflations and deflations and sometimes even manages to combine these two abuses into a stagflation. – Uniformity is overrated in this sphere as well. Enforced totalitarian uniformity is also quite wrong in this sphere even though it spares the misled much self-thinking. – J.Z., 25.9.08. - OF CURRENCY MONETARY DESPOTISM OR MONETARY FREEDOM? OBJECTIONS

UNIFORMITY: One can have either a uniform or a just right supply of sound and competitive means of exchange, all using one or the other sound value standard and, through market forces, being neither over-supplied nor under-supplied with currency, with the law of supply and demand and thus free pricing, regulating their issue, their reflux and, in the case of any inferior means of payment being offered, their refusal or their sufficient discount. In the absence of legal tender in general circulation – while upholding the acceptance at par obligation of the issuer, and also under free choice of value standards and freedom of contract, the sound means of exchange and sound value standards would drive out inferior means of exchange and insufficiently reliable value standards - in a reversal of the popular version of Gresham’s Law, namely that bad money would drive out good money. – J.Z., 13.8.08, - GRESHAM’S LAW, LEGAL TENDER, MONETARY FREEDOM, VALUE STANDARDS, INFLATION, DEFLATION, MONEY SUPPLY, FREE BANKING VS. CENTRAL BANKING & ITS NOTE ISSUE MONOPOLY.

UNIONS: Labor unions, it must be remembered, are not simple associations of workers. They are conspiracies against the public interest. … Through laws and court decisions, the federal government gives these organizations and their bosses a whole range of special-interest privileges. For example, unions are virtually immune from prosecution for assaults and property damage during strikes.” – Llewellyn H. Rockwell, The Scourge of Unionism, in Llewellyn H. Rockwell, ed., The Economics of Liberty, Mises Institute, 1990, p.22. - It is impossible to measure precisely how much damage unions do to the U.S. economy. But Morgan Reynold’s “unsubstantiated hunch” is that real income would rise 10 % if unions disappeared. – Ibid, p.27. - Alas, they won’t disappear while there is unemployment as a result of economic crises and these won’t disappear until full monetary freedom is established. Here, once again, unions are a major obstacle with their insistence upon payment in governmental cash, government’s exclusive currency. – J.Z., 4.10.07.

UNIONS: Laborers should not organize themselves as laborers but as entrepreneurs – even if only WITHIN the enterprises of others. - The best book I know on this subject is Hyacinthe Dubreuil: A Chance for Everybody. – J.Z., 8.8.87. – Between them they do also have, mostly, the purchasing power to buy the enterprises they work in, not, usually in cash or in bank accounts but in future earnings, making possible this payment in instalment terms, while using, initially, their own kinds of industrial bonds as means of payment for their take-over bids. These bonds they would then redeem in prearranged periodical payments, including interest payments. The trade unions, usually, do not discuss such possibilities, because they would thereby and quite obviously become superfluous. – J.Z., 13.8.08, 8.8.11. - WORK COOPERATIVES, INTERNAL CONTRACTING, GANG WORK, GROUP CONTRACTING, PRODUCTIVE COOPERATIVES, PURCHASE OF ENTERPRISES, AUTONOMOUS WORK GROUPS, UNIONS, SELF-MANAGEMENT SCHEMES

UNIONS: Legislate monopoly unionism and you institutionalize unemployment. - Rev. Edmund A. Opitz, THE FREEMAN, 5/73. - As well as anti-industrial strife. Just like the legitimization of territorial States and of monetary and financial despotism has led to international wars, civil wars and violent revolutions. - J.Z., 31.3.11. - LAWS, PRIVILEGES, TERRITORIALISM, COMPULSORY MEMBERSHIP & SUBORDINATION

UNIONS: The trade union movement was mistaken in its diagnosis of its affliction. Faced with an excess of labour supply over demand, it should have attacked the currency laws that stifled competition among employers for labour. Instead, it attacked employers, and began the hundred year's war that has cost us untold production, bitterness, and the enslavement in socialism of half the world.” - Henry Meulen, "THE INDIVIDUALIST", 12/77, p.66.

UNIONS: The unions ought to negotiate with the bosses for further pay rises.” – This seems to be still a popular opinion among unionists. – Should the unions not rather use their negotiation skills, if any, upon the consumers, for, lastly, it is the consumers who pay the wages and salaries of the employees? How could they persuade more of the consumers to pay higher prices or use more of their products or services? The employers are more or less only middlemen, representing and producing for the consumers, intent on satisfying them and thereby making a living from their products or services. - Moreover, there are also the masses of small savers, among the employees, who, indirectly, through their bank savings, some purchases of shares and other securities and through their insurance contracts do act as the financiers of their employers. Should these production enablers not also get their fair share? - Then there are some of the main beneficiaries of modern production and exchange, the unproductive, counterproductive and parasitic politicians and bureaucrats, who through taxes swallow a large percentage of all earnings and upon whose tax burden and spending practices the voters have so far very little if any say. If anyone is a genuine exploiter in the present situation, it is rather the State than the employer. The employer is also very much a victim of the State, just like the employee is through direct and indirect taxes. Are unionists negotiating for the reduction of these tribute payments and the wastage of these funds or do they demand still more costly state interventions and bureaucracies, even more in taxes, under the delusion that these would mainly be paid by the rich? - Moreover, there is the monetary despotism of the central banks, leading to deflations, inflations and stagflations with their involuntary mass unemployment. Should unionists continue to ignore this factor, too? The employers and the consumers are just as much victims of this system as are the employees. What have the unions to say on this, except demanding wage indexing using the consumer-price index, which certainly does not prevent or stop the wrongs and problems of these results of monetary despotism. – J.Z., 31.8.87, 13.8.08, 8.8.11. - DIS.

UNIONS: The workers who lost their jobs as a consequence of union policy enter the market of the free branches and cause wages to drop in these branches. The corollary of the rise in wages for organized workers is a drop in wages for unorganized workers. But if fixing of wage rates above the potential market level becomes general, workers losing their jobs cannot find employment in other branches. They remain unemployed. Unemployment emerges as a mass phenomenon prolonged year after year.” – Ludwig von Mises, Planning for Freedom, p.11. – There are other and even more important causes of unemployment. E.g., Mises assumes here that there are always sufficient exchange media supplied to sell all the produced goods and services offered for sale and to pay all wages and salaries, at least if they are at the market level. Central banks, as monopoly suppliers of means of exchange do not function well enough to make that possible. – Exchange media and clearing avenues for international trading are likewise insufficiently supplied. Sometimes, for instance, the government's exclusive and forced exchange media are extensively and uselessly hoarded by other central banks, as a supposed cover for their inflated currencies. – J.Z., 13.10.08, 31.1.11, 8.8.11.

UNIONS: There are well-intentioned men who exhort union leaders to make only moderate use of their powers. But these exhortations are in vain because their authors do not realize that the evils they want to avoid are not due to lack of moderation in the wage policies of the unions. They are the necessary outcome of the whole economic philosophy underlying union activities with regard to wage rates. It is not my task to inquire what good effects unions could possibly bring about in other fields, for instance in education, professional training, and so on. I deal only with their wage policies. The essence of these policies is to prevent the unemployed from finding jobs by underbidding union rates. This policy splits the whole potential labor force into two classes: the employed who earn wages higher than those they would have earned on an unhampered labor market, and the unemployed who do not earn anything at all.” – Ludwig von Mises, Planning for Freedom, p.12. - As if undercutting in wage claims would be the one and only way to do away with unemployment. - J.Z., 31.3.11.

UNIONS: Union demands are limited by the amount of money the employers can pay, which in turn is limited by the quantity of money the consumers have to spend. We see, then, that the chief factor in the whole affair is how much money the consumers have, which in turn is determined by how much money exists in the economy.” – Roger McBride, A New Dawn, p.24. - To assume that "money" can only be a fixed quantity is as wrong as to assume that only a fixed quantity of labor exists and only a fixed quantity of productive capital or of knowledge and skills can be achieved. - Under perfect clearing no money would be needed at all, just acceptable value standards would be sufficient. - J.Z., 31.3.11.

UNIONS: Unionists do not like individual work contracts because they deprive them of power and of the pretence that the unions could provide better wages, salaries and conditions by collective bargaining. If they were quite consistent then they would threaten employers with open warfare – in the belief that with still more force they could extort still higher wages, while in reality making their struggles still more unprofitable, for both sides, by using still more coercion and production stoppages. Will they ever understand that their labor services do also have their prices, and that the best prices they could achieve for themselves, for what they have to offer in services, are the quite free prices daily settled on a quite free market? – Moreover, will they ever take note of the fact that a quite free market would also include alternative exchange media and value standards to pay their wages and salaries with, monies acceptable to both sides and not forced on anyone at a fictitious value? Apart from indexing attempts, while using only the government’s depreciating monopoly money, they never seriously deal with the money question, although money is what they work for. According to some reports, individuals in Australia, in regular employment, on individual work contracts, got by 1995 up to A$ 20,000 p.a. more than they would have got under collective “bargaining”. Surely, the trade union functionaries do not like that kind of competition, which tends to point out how useless they are. The ABC News brought only the striker’s point of view and not a single counter-argument. It is all too often as “objective”. – J.Z., 16.11.95, 13.8.08.

UNIONS: wherever a union makes a gain by a strike or strike threat, it makes it by forcibly excluding other workers from taking the jobs that the strikers have abandoned. The union always makes its gains at the expense of these excluded workers.” – Henry Hazlitt, The Conquest of Poverty, p.133. - They do this often at the expense of members of other union, of those who are not members of any union and even at the expense of their own members. There were cases, where the forfeited wages, invested at interest, could have gained the members more than the wage increments they did received. Moreover, not all strikes succeed in achieving more than mere nominal wage increases in inflated paper money - which may only catch up to the purchasing power obtained before - or may actually remain below it. However, can one rationally talk, with the average unionist, about accepting an alternative and honest standard of value in wage agreements, and alternative means of payment, which are not legal tender and thus are not inflatable? They are not interested in the real and important rights of workers and in real and important options for improving their conditions. Like sectarians, they have their faith and stick with it - regardless of all evidence to the contrary. - J.Z. 1.3.84.

UNITY: The possibility of diversity is much more important than unity, for it means freedom, while unity is mostly merely a false pretence and requires compulsion to achieve and maintain it. The freedom required for diversity is that of individuals – to supply or choose for themselves different societal arrangements and relationships. The West-Germans government becoming united with the East Germans under one government meant a greater territorial unity for Germans and a great improvement for most East Germans but not a sufficient or complete improvement of the political conditions in East Germany and in West Germany. The irrational form of currency unification that took place, ignoring the market’s exchange rates, brought a burden to the West, an undeserved hand-out to the East, and also much voluntary and involuntary unemployment in the East. The East Germans, even when receiving mere unemployment benefits in DM were better off than they were before, while working in East Germany for Eastern Marks and were unwilling to spend these DM for the relatively shoddy goods they had produced in East Germany. Instead, they bought largely only the West German goods and thus made themselves unemployable in the East. This case should be closely studied and published as almost a text book example of how not to engage in a currency reform. Moreover, the introduction of or continuance merely of majoritarian democracy for both sides was very far from introducing sufficient liberty, although it brought equal democratic territorial laws to both sides. Territorial political unity does not represent full freedom and justice, as the Hitler Regime very well demonstrated and the Soviet Regime as well. – J.Z., 25.9.90, 12.8.08, 31.3.11.

UNIVERSITIES: Tax exemption for all student loan schemes. Value-preserving clauses to become legalized for them and interest regulations are to be abolished for them. Likewise, the money issue monopoly of the central bank and legal tender laws for its issues must be repealed. Universities should be free to issue their own education currency and accept it in payment for their courses. Special credit unions should be established, mainly by academics outside and inside the universities, with most of their investments going to the promising students as personal loans. Free competition between all kinds of universities or tertiary course offers and between certification companies for the achievement of certain degrees of competency would also be helpful. Reliance largely on alternative media like microfilm and electronic ones could greatly reduce the costs of their library services. – Much of the tertiary education could also be offered for home studies online and on discs. - At least some of the relevant links to already existing digitized courses, seminars, conferences, lectures, libraries and universities should be included here. - J.Z., 8.6.96, 2.8.11. - UNIVERSITY EDUCATION FINANCE, WITHOUT TAXATION

UNTAX: Untax everything and everyone! – J.Z., 31.12.97. – At least as far as involuntary victims are concerned. If others want to play some sado-masochistic games in this way, among themselves only, I would not object. – J.Z., 14.8.08. - Panarchism offers also options for voluntary tax slaves. - J.Z., 2.8.11.

US AGAINST THEM: This book specifically rejects the short-term, irrational “us-against-them” philosophy. As long as people, in pursuit of freedom and well-being, see themselves as laborers versus businessmen, blacks versus whites, environmentalists versus polluters, or liberals vs. conservatives, to list but a few examples, the destructive cycle will not only continue, but get worse.” – Ringer, Restoring the American Dream, p.26. – Panarchies for all the diverse groups, so that they can no longer blame each other but merely themselves for their failures. – J.Z., 11.8.08. – What would happen to the present financial crisis if all the freedom lovers were free to accept full monetary and financial freedom for their own affairs while statist interventionism and “service charges” or tributes would be confined to the remaining faithful statists? – J.Z., 26.10.08. - PANARCHISM, TERRITORIALISM, VOLUNTARISM, TOLERANCE, CLASS WARFARE

USURY: By their laws against usury they have increased usury.” – Henry Thomas Buckle, History of Civilization in England, VIII. – And by their laws against free banking. – J.Z., 11.8.08.

USURY: The reason given for usury laws is that they protect the poor from the extortions of the rich. But this reason is a false one – for there is no more extortion in loaning capital to the best bidder, than in selling a horse, or renting a house to the best bidder. The true and fair price of capital, as of everything else, is that price which it will bring in fair and open market. …” - Lysander Spooner, Poverty … Economical Propositions, p. 12. - But this implies that the supply of capital is already free. It is not free, due e.g. to restrictions of the capital market, through taxes and the results of monetary despotism, which interfere with the supply and use of capital e.g. during inflations, deflations and stagflations. Governments even pursue an interest-rate policy! – J.Z., 11.8.08. – “Interest rate policy” is an especially wrongful and harmful kind of price control and was and is a large factor in the current financial crisis. – Much of the housing in the USA was built through Building and Loan Associations, which paid very high interest to their savers and charged high interest for their loans. Thus those who saved up half the building costs got their home practically interest-free. What they had first gained in interest they had then to pay in interest once they got their loan. - J.Z., 26.10.08. – Those, who had a strong economic incentive, e.g. through high rents, to get their loan immediately, even at the high interest due upon it, got it immediately. Others, with low incomes and low rents, could wait until, with high interest rates earned, they had got the whole building costs saved up. Anyhow, without building and zoning restrictions etc. even the poor could put up some kind of shack or even tent only, or get a used caravan to live in temporarily. – Housing shortages and homeless people are systematically, although unintentionally, produced by governmental “policies”. - J.Z. - INTEREST, HOUSING

USURY: Usury is the high price people pay voluntarily whenever and wherever capital or cash are short. – J.Z., 5/73.

USURY: Usury’ is now, thanks first to Aristotle and still more to his medieval successors, such a bad word that we may at first fail to realize to what he is objecting. It is not only to those very high rates of fixed interest which would nowadays be condemned as usurious. Nor even is it only to all fixed interest as such; which, as we shall soon see, was the prime target of those medieval successors. No, Aristotle’s objection here is to any money return upon any money investment. It is, he thinks, against nature for money to breed money. (*) - - The moment Aristotle’s point is appreciated, it becomes quite clear that both his objection and his supporting reason are superstitious and muddled. For a sum of money is the convertible equivalent of any of the goods or collections of goods which it might buy. There can, therefore, be nothing obnoxiously unnatural about receiving a money return upon an investment in money, unless it would be equally obnoxious and unnatural to ask for some return either in money or in kind for the use of the goods themselves.” – Anthony Flew, The Politics of Procrustes, p. 152. - -(*) But, e.g., money in form of cattle, goats, sheep or pigs does breed more such capital and so does capital in form of tools or machines productively used. – J.Z., 14.8.08.

USURY: Whatever says that usury is sinful – has no money, that you may freely believe.” – Luther, Allerlei kurze Sprueche. – (“We sagt, dass Wucher Suende sei, der hat kein Geld, das glaube frei.”) Why does he not have any money or not enough? He is also of the opinion that others should make money cheaply available to him, although it is scarce. Moreover, he is disinclined to ponder why money, redeemable in wanted goods and services, should be in short supply, while goods and services can be produced and offered in almost unlimited quantities – provided there are ready buyers for them. After all, money is just that, a convenient means of exchange or mere tool. It could even be completely replaced by clearing or the mutual setting off of debts and credits. For each debt there is a corresponding credit. Naturally, only immediately or very soon due debts and credits can be thus offset. Why aren’t these tools competitively supplied, by those having goods and services to offer, using a sound value standard in denominating their money issues and in pricing their goods and services? It is easier to complain about the consequences of the money monopoly and that of governmentally licenced clearing centres than to ponder than to ponder the abolition of their monopoly and the result of this abolition. – J.Z., 14.8.08, 8.8.11. – Q., MONETARY FREEDOM VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM.

UTILITARIANISM: Could the greatest happiness for the largest number justify cannibalism towards the few? – J.Z., 10.9.88. – Perhaps only if we sacrificed our great mis-leaders – by eating them. – But I think it to be much more civilized and peaceful to secede from them and their establishments. It would also be right and relatively easy to redistribute the public assets that they hold in our names - and mismanage also all too much - among their former and their present subjects, - J.Z., 14.8.08. – At least in Australia this could, probably, still make every Australian a millionaire - in capital assets, formerly wrongfully and irrationally entrusted to politicians and bureaucrats. - J.Z., 8.8.11. - JOKES, DIS., INDIVIDUAL SECESSIONISM, EXPROPRIATION OF THE POLITICIANS & BUREAUCRATS OF WHAT THEY WRONGLY HOLD & MISMANAGE IN OUR NAME. (PEACE PLANS 19c.)




V FOR VOLUNTARY: File:VforVoluntary normal.svg - Wikimedia Commons - - Cached - 20 Jun 2011 – So it's a reference to free market money, and by extension the free market and capitalism. Black is a reference to anarchy. ...

V FOR VOLUNTARY: wiki: The Symbol - - Cached - 17 Jun 2011 – So it's a reference to free market money, and by extension the free market and capitalism. Black is a reference to anarchy. ...

VALUE STANDARD: It has all the advantages of the classical gold standard and none of its drawbacks. Under it the quantity of exchange media or the turnover on the clearing accounts can be increased according to the requirements of trade, without interfering with sound value standard reckoning and inflating the exchange media or clearing certificates or accounts, wages, prices, rents, etc. To that extent this gold standard is vastly superior to the gold cover and gold redemption standard. – It clearly distinguishes between means of payment and value standard and subjects the means of payment to refusals, discounting or market rating and full publicity, precisely thereby, preserving their value and maintaining sound value reckoning. Most of the “gold-bugs” somehow still manage to overlook that. – J.Z., 26.3.09. 1.4.11. - GOLD WEIGHT CLEARING & ACCOUNTING STANDARD

VALUE STANDARD: It ought by now of course to be generally understood that the value of a currency redeemable in gold (or in another currency) is not derived from the value of that gold, but merely kept at the same value through the automatic regulation of its quantity.” – Hayek, Denationalization of Money, p. 82. – A currency that is not redeemable in gold coins, by its issuer upon demand by the note holder, but merely accepted as if it were a corresponding gold coin, or gold weight, for goods and services also marked out in gold coin units, is not only determined by its own quantity but also by the total quantity of goods and services, marked in gold weight prices, into which it can be readily and soon “redeemed”. So its own quantity, as well as the quantity of goods and services (its shop foundation), both expressed e.g. in gold weight units as value standards, should not be determined by the quantity of gold coins and in gold redeemable certificates, that can be and are supplied. Such a currency would not be depreciated if kept within its “shop foundation”. Optional acceptance, market rating and sound value standard reckoning, e.g. in gold weight units, would see to that. It would also tend to be crisis-free – just like the supply of tooth brushes and combs, as long is no one is under any legal obligation to supply gold or has a legal right to demand payment in gold! - It is not the total quantity of a currency that determines its value but its relationship to the quantity and quality and the total of all the subjective values of all the goods and services that it can be readily used to pay for, at its full nominal value, and this at prices also marked in the same value standard, whatever value standard may have been chosen for the exchange media and all kinds of prices and contracts. Thus, when there are more exchange opportunities into goods and services made available, at the same prices, or at a higher sum of all prices, especially for all those goods and services that are in daily demand, then, also correspondingly more exchange media can be made available, without, thereby, depreciating them. The goods and service sides of trades could then be kept automatically in balance with the supply of competitively issued and freely accepted exchange media and freely chosen value standards. The issue limits for any one of such competing currencies would is only reached when, on a free market for them, the first discounts and refusals are encountered, made by people who, usually, understand little, if anything, of the quantity theory of money. For instance, if electricity-, gas- or railway money is offered to them in larger quantities than they themselves can use in the near future, then they will already hesitate to accept it, beyond their own and foreseeable needs for them, because they will expect to have transaction costs when they try to pay others with such currencies. They can be certain only of the usability of such non-legal tender currencies to the extent of their personal use of them. Who, for instance, would readily accept a large quantity of postage stamps instead of, say, $ 100 or even $ 1,000 in cash? - In the absence of legal tender in general circulation only the issuers of optional and market rated monies would always be obliged to accept them at par with their nominal value, at least within the period of their clearly stated validity or circulation period. (If such a period is clearly expressed on a sound paper money token, then, afterwards, if at all, it might only be accepted at a discount or only for certain goods or services.) – With competitively issued and only voluntarily accepted gold-clearing or gold accounting certificates, an unlimited quantity of goods and services could be turned over or freely exchanged, at stable gold weight value prices, all only under the usual market price fluctuations from the goods and service side, not from the money side, even if there were hardly any gold coins in circulation. – Then no one would be dependent upon his supply with gold coins. Then no one could demand them in payment or would be obliged to offer them in redemption for his notes. The only exchanges of gold for currencies and currencies for gold would then take place on free gold markets. - At least to that extent Hayek’s statement would have to be qualified or explained, I believe. Under that condition, too, the total quantity of alternative currencies, of this kind, would be limited, automatically, even without gold redemptionism. - J.Z., 16.8.08, 8.8.11. - QUANTITY THEORY, DIS., GOLD STANDARDS, GOLD REDEMPTIONISM, GOLD-VALUE CLEARING, ACCOUNTING & PRICING WITHOUT GOLD REDEMPTIONISM

VALUE STANDARD: Once a stable value standard is adopted, or several different ones, in different payment communities, and freedom to issue, accept, refuse or discount alternative exchange media is introduced, what happens then to a) the inflated currency and b) the deflated currency? - - a) The inflated currency will then be accepted, if at all, in general circulation, only at its remaining market value against a sound value standard. Only the issuer will still have to accept it at its nominal value, e.g. in the payment of taxes still determined in the old paper “value standard”. Thus it will largely disappear from general circulation or become reduced in volume to the amount warranted by its remaining tax foundation. b) The formerly deflated monopoly currency, now and finally exposed to free competition from other exchange media, will no longer have a rarity value which allows it to purchase goods, services and labor at emergency sales prices. It will no longer be hoarded beyond normal cash keeping. It will have only it ordinary purchasing power, dependent upon it foundation, its reflux arrangements and its evaluation in general circulation against sound value standards in which goods, services and labor are priced and sound alternative exchange media. In its own payment and clearing sphere it can then be issued up to the amounts required in it. Its free market rating will show whether it is still under-issued or over-issued and thus as a rule it will be issued in a way that it tends to stay at par with its nominal value, i.e., it will merely tend to fill its own niche, doing no more and no less. – J.Z., 3.10.05, 25.10.07. - STABLE & UNSTABLE ONES VALUE STANDARDS, FREELY CHOSEN VS. IMPOSED ONES

VALUE STANDARD: The best value standard for individuals and their business partners is that which they have freely agreed upon, under free choice of value standards, all of them in free competition with each other, daily publicized. The subjective value theory applies to value standards, too. Thus at most a particular value standard may reach the largest market share. – Value standards, too, must be free market rated. Only the issuers themselves, and by contract their debtors, must always accept their money or clearing certificate issues at their nominal or par value. – Other remain free to discount or refuse them and their value standard. No value standard should be legally or juridically imposed upon anyone. - J.Z., 12.3. & 9.4.05. - - Free market monies (exchange media and clearing certificates or accounts) should become mobilized versus legal tender (forced and exclusive) currencies. Only their issuers would have always to accept them and this at par. – J.Z., 12.3.05, 8.8.11. - MONETARY FREEDOM, FREE BANKING

VALUE STANDARD: The rupee becomes valued at four hundredth of a second open search on the World Feed, beating out the $ US, in 2035.” - Greg Bear, Slant, p.177. – CURRENCY, FREE CHOICE OF VALUE STANDARDS.

VALUE STANDARD: Under freely agreed-upon value standards, whether they are e.g. gold redemption or gold clearing standards or any abstract value units or indexes, all used only by the volunteers of voluntary communities for various payment, clearing and financial systems, capital proprietors, debtors and creditors, the inflation as well as the deflation and stagflation problems would soon be solved, involuntary unemployment would soon disappear and much more capital would become available under mutually satisfactory conditions than is at present. The sound or sounder value standards would soon drive out most of the unsound or not so good ones. That would, naturally, require the repeal of or the ignoring of legal tender laws and central bank privileges. Such a kind of laissez-faire free enterprise, capitalism, free market and free exchange has never anywhere existed quite undisturbed and sufficiently informed on its own potential and developed and spread accordingly. As a result it would even have become at least gradually quite popular. – J.Z., n.d., 6.10.08. - FREE CHOICE OF VALUE STANDARDS, INFLATION, PRICE LEVEL, FINANCIAL FREEDOM, CAPITALISM, FREE ENTERPRISE, FREE EXCHANGE, FREE TRADING, MONETARY FREEDOM

VALUE STANDARDS: Freedom of contract for value standards. – Ulrich von Beckerath, Berlin Program – FREE CHOICE OF VALUE STANDARDS

VALUE STANDARDS: I recommend John Kenneth Galbraith’s new book, ‘Money’. Among other things, Galbraith points out that the colony of Virginia used a pound of tobacco as its monetary standard for over 150 years – a longer period of time than we had the gold standard in America.” – Thomas Greco, Money and Debt: A Solution to the Global Crisis, 1989, 1990, page 68. - Are there no differences in the quality of tobacco? – Or as many as there are for instance for grapes, potatoes, apples and rice? - J.Z., 26.8.10

VALUE STANDARDS: If you want a bag of beans or a Kilowatt-hour as a standard of value in all your dealings – you should be free to so use it. – J.Z., 23.2.75, 16.8.08. - FREE CHOICE OF VALUE STANDARDS

VALUE STANDARDS: The world has stable measuring standards for almost everything except the value standard, which is, in every country, almost always manipulated and, mostly, depreciated by the government and its central banking system. This has happened and still happens in spite of the fact that central banking was introduced as, supposedly, justified and necessary to establish a stable currency and to protect the currency. The central banks of governments have become the only institutions able and willing to depreciate the value standard of whole countries and populations, all in the short term interest of the government and under the pretence that the central banks would be independent of them. These abuses, now having lasted already for about a century, in their modern  form, and ever repeated (just like price controls were even over 4,000 years, one failed State paper money system simply being replaced by another one, just like one dishonest and misleading great leader or average politician just being replaced by another one), can only be ended by ending the note issue monopoly and other powers of the territorial central banks, their monopolistically imposed value standards, the legal tender legislation giving compulsory acceptance and a forced value to their notes and also all other regulating, controlling and supervising powers, all quite wrongfully granted to them by legislation. Free choice of value standards, exchange media, clearing avenues and fully free credit and capital markets should be introduced everywhere, as most important and genuine economic human rights and liberties, for all those, who appreciate them already. From their successes among their volunteers, they would spread, to become, finally, practised almost generally. Central banking, in all its features should become confined to its remaining voluntary victims. – J.Z., 21.1.10, 27.10.10. - CURRENCY UNITS, INFLATION RISK, CENTRAL BANKING, MONOPOLY MONEY, MONETARY & FINANCIAL FREEDOM, FREE CHOICE OF VALUE STANDARDS, CURRENCY POLICY

VALUE: It is property rights and their transferability and competition that establish and maintain values in an economic sense. The “values” of monopolies and privileges are all artificially established by legislation, regulations or brute power and territorially imposed, to uphold their disservices in an all too unfree “market.”- J.Z., 23.4.10, 27.10.10. - PRICES, TRANSFERABILITY, FREE MARKETS, DESPOTIC LEGISLATION, MONOPOLIES, PRIVILEGES

VALUE: Let each buyer or seller be guided by his own scale of values.” – Leonard E. Read, Having My Way, Buy American, p.103. – Unfortunately, he is also largely guided or misguided by his supply of governmental monopoly money, with its fictitious and manipulated paper value standard. – J.Z., 15.8.08. - SUBJECTIVE VALUE THEORY, CONSUMERS, PRODUCERS, PRICES, CHARGES, FEES, WAGES, PROTECTIONISM, FREE MARKET, FREE CONTRACTS, CHOICE, ALTERNATIVES, COMPETITION

VALUE: Value itself is not an objective quantity like weight or length, it is subjective. Each person, in each situation, values each thing differently. One might go so far as to say that ‘value’ should be used only as a verb, not as a noun. – Thomas Greco, Money and Debt: A Solution to the Global Crisis, 1989, 1990, page 36. – However, the value of a certain weight of a particular commodity, e.g. gold, or mixture of commodities, can have a certain and relatively stable value and can thus be used as a value standard, good enough for most purposes and least subject to manipulations, at least for all those, who freely choose it for themselves and their transactions. - J.Z., n.d.

VALUES: When people have strong values, they can survive hard economic times.  When they have dissolute values, they can't even survive prosperity.” - Harry Henderson - - - If their strong values included monetary and financial freedom and other economic liberties, then they would hardly experience any hard economic times. For then involuntary mass unemployment, depressions, inflations and stagflations could be overcome almost instantly. If their values included individual sovereignty, individual secessionism and exterritorially autonomous volunteer communities, then they could gain the minority autonomy, freedom of action and experimental freedom required to rapidly find out and demonstrate the best solutions to the remaining political, economic and social problems, all at their own expense and risk. – J.Z., n.d.

VENTURE CAPITAL: Massachusetts has a bigger venture capital industry than all of Europe combined. Venture capitalists are very important people in this day and age, and not just as a source of money. The best of them provide real expertise for start-up companies. They see a lot of them and they understand the stages through which companies have to go in order to develop, and they can help carry tem through, which is often as important as seed money.” - Thomas Friedman, The Lexus and the Olive Tree, p.369, Harper Collins Publishers, ISBN 0 00 655139 4.

VEOH.COM: Watch Videos Online | The Myth of the Free Market - Money ...- A video to send to those who think the free market produced all the recent economic catastrophes... ...and happy new year to all my listeners and ...

VERTORO.BLOGSPOT.COM/: Free Market Money. - Free Market Money - - Cached - Free market money is about market alternatives to government fiat fraud. .... One of my friends in the free market money industry has formed a company in ...

VERTORO.COM: Vertoro Know - - Cached Decline of the dollar - the rise of gold: Free market money tutorials and ... Digital gold - also known as "free market money" - is an alternative to ... - They are, certainly, not the ONLY sound alternatives. - However, to each his own! - J.Z., 23.7.11.

VICTIMIZATION: You will remain victims as long as you continue to believe in and practise monetary and financial despotism rather than monetary and financial freedom territorial impositions rather than exterritorial individual choices. . – Mere fragments of genuine individual rights and liberties are not good enough, especially when they are almost swamped by unjustified mere claims and dogmas. – J.Z., 22.2.03, 21.10.07, 21.4.09. - & MONETARY & FINANCIAL FREEDOM, VS. MONETARY & FINANCIAL DESPOTISM, TERRITORIALISM RATHER THAN EXTERRITORIALISM OR PANARCHISM, INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS & LIBERTIES, VICTIM DISARMAMENT, GUN CONTROL LAWS

VICTIMS: The victims often do not know that they are victims. – J.Z., 29.3.76, 16.8.08. – Free after a comment heard on the radio, 23.9.76. – For a while people do not even notice that they are victimized by inflation. And later they are only rarely aware what causes their victimization by inflation - what makes it possible (e.g. the money issue monopoly and legal tender power for its national paper money), and what would prevent this victimization. Likewise, as unemployed people, they are aware that they are victimized but they are not aware of why this was possible. Why they can no longer freely exchange their able and willing labor for the money they need. – Very few are aware that they are victimized e.g. by monetary despotism or territorialism. Even after centuries of the legal sanctioning of the postal monopoly few people felt clearly enough victimized by it to demand the abolition of the postal monopoly. Likewise, not enough of the victims of copyright and of patent laws have so far demanded the abolition of these laws and pondered how writers and inventors could be rewarded otherwise, quite rightfully. – J.Z., 16.8.08.SANCTION OF THE VICTIMS.

VIDDLER.COM: - The Myth of the Free Market - Money, Interest and ... -  - Cached - 16 Jan 2010 – The Myth of the Free Market - Money, Interest and Power! - See my short comment under FREEDOM RADIO. - J.Z.

VIDEO TELLY TUBE: free markets Videos-Tellytube Archive - Saying that free market money threatens capitalism is completely absurd! Free market money threatens our phoney fiat "too big to fail" bailed-out casino ... - ALSO: VIDEOS: - dirham Videos - - Cached - Saying that free market money threatens capitalism is completely absurd! Free market money threatens our phony fiat "too big to fail" bailed-out casino ...

VIDEOS FOR FREE MARKET MONEY: More videos for "free market money" »

VIEIRA, EDWIN, Jr., Are Monetary and Banking Crises Inevitable inEdwin Vieira, Jr. -- Are Monetary & Banking Crises Inevitable in ... - Cached - 17 Mar 2005 – ... and the whole subject of political versus free-market money was exhaustively examined by Ludwig von Mises, in his treatise The Theory of ...

VOLUNTARISM: Advocates of e.g. central banking, taxation, taxation, all kinds of politicians and bureaucrats, should always be entrusted only with as little power and money as possible, which requires that all their actions, revenues and forced currencies should become confined to their voluntary victims. – J.Z., 7.9.05, 12.9.10. - EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY, PANARCHISM, POWER

VOLUNTARY EXCHANGES ONLY, Voluntary Exchanges Only: July 2011 - - Cached - 15 Jul 2011 – So it's a reference to free market money, and by extension the free market and capitalism. Black is a reference to anarchy. ...

VOLUNTARY-EXCHANGES-ONLY. BLOGSPOT.COM: Voluntary Exchanges Only: the free market & government - - Cached - 12 Jul 2011 – So it's a reference to free market money, and by extension the free market and capitalism. Black is a reference to anarchy. ...

VOLUNTARY TAXATION: 12 % is all the Baptists want. I think that’s all the federal government should get.” – Walt Williams, 1990. – From those limited government advocates who do follow his line of reasoning in this. – Voluntary taxationists should be free to tax themselves more highly or even less, if at all. – J.Z., 18.8.08. – FLAT RATE TAXATION, TAX CEILINGS

VOLUNTARY TAXATION: A few years go when some of us began to preach voluntary taxation, as the only effectual means of recovering the gradually disappearing independence of the individual, and of placing governments in their true position of agents, and not, as they are today, of autocrats and masters of the nation, and as the plainest and most direct means of making the recognition of the principle of individual liberty supreme in our natural life.” – Auberon Herbert, Mr. Spencer and the Great Machine, p.70, probably in the Mack edition of his essays.

VOLUNTARY TAXATION: A fully developed and discussed model for voluntary taxation (fees and subscription for competitively supplied services) as well as for a rightful and nation-wide tax strike and for the abolition of all subsidies based upon taxation, must precede the abolition of compulsory taxation. – J.Z., 20.4.89. Taxation has still all too much credibility and sanction by its victims in public opinion. – J.Z., 18.8.08.

VOLUNTARY TAXATION: A Google search for "voluntary taxation" brought 24,600 results. Alas, on my own I can hardly check out as many hints for worthwhile texts on this subject. - J.Z., 29.6.11.

VOLUNTARY TAXATION: A service nobody is willing to pay for (in any way) is not worth having.” – J.Z., 27.5.81. – CIVIL SERVICE, PUBLIC SERVICE, WELFARE STATE

VOLUNTARY TAXATION: Allow all taxpayers to opt out of all taxation-benefit schemes, as they may opt out of insurance- , credit- and church systems and other risky activities, like certain jobs or sports. – J.Z., 19.9.88.

VOLUNTARY TAXATION: Angela and Bill sat in their living room with the TV on, although they weren’t paying much attention to it. An interminable ad for the Department of Defence was showing, all rousing music and jet fighters in appealingly symmetrical formation. The latest privatization legislation meant that each taxpayer would specify the precise allocation of his or her income tax between government departments, who in turn were free to spend as much of their revenue as they wished on advertising aimed at attracting more funds. Defence was doing well. Social Security was laying off staff.” – Greg Egan, Axiomatic, p.43. – But for the clause on advertising this would be a promising first step. – J.Z., 12.9.07.

VOLUNTARY TAXATION: establish the principle of voluntary financial contributions to government instead of taxes.” – David Wiek, ANARCHY 8.

VOLUNTARY TAXATION: Failure to pay one’s taxes was not to be treated as a crime. They took the position that while governments would still retain a monopoly of control over the army, the courts, and the police, in a given geographic area, no could be forced to support such an …” - Carl Watner, A Voluntary Political Government, p.34. – Non-tax-payers, like un-financial memes of private organizations, should merely lose their membership and claim to membership services. – J.Z., 25.6.92. – Whatever financing and spending activities they should then arrange for among themselves would be quite up to them. – J.Z., 18.8.08. - PANARCHISM

VOLUNTARY TAXATION: For example a petition circulated in London in 1647, demanding that “tithes and all other enforced maintenance may be for ever abolished and nothing in the place thereof imposed, but that all ministers may be paid only by those who voluntarily chose them and contract with them for their labors.” – By substituting “taxes” for “tithes” and “government officials” for “ministers” we realize how close these early religious dissenters were to espousing the ideas of a truly voluntary State. People such as Lane and Spencer merely carried out these arguments to their logical conclusion.” – Carl Watner, in commenting on the letters of Charles Lane, in “A Voluntary Political Government”, p.33. - CHILD-MAINTENANCE?

VOLUNTARY TAXATION: Government should be allowed to price itself out of the market. – J.Z., 28.5.84. - Alas, that will happen only once such a market is first established. - J.Z., 2.4.11. - It becomes established through introducing individual sovereignty, meaning individual secessionism and the extention of the right to associate to governmental or non-governmental societies of volunteers, on the basis of full exterritorial autonomy or personal law. - J.Z., 8.8.11.

VOLUNTARY TAXATION: I am personally convinced that a society of mutual aid, without coercive institutions, could exist and thrive. Cooperation would replace enforced taxation, for instance. To those who say that people would not cooperate in supporting government such as we now have, I say, “Exactly!” They would not.” – Karl Hess: Dear America. - COOPERATION, VOLUNTARY, MUTUAL AID

VOLUNTARY TAXATION: I go so far to assert that there will be real citizens only once all compulsory taxation is abolished and replaced by donations to the general community. – Peter Sloterdijk, quoted by Uwe Timm, in espero, September 2009, S.3. (Ich gehe soweit zu behaupte, dass es wirkliche Staatsbürger erst geben kann, wenn alle erzwungenen Steuern abgeschafft und durch Spenden an das Gemeinwesen ersetzt sind….)

VOLUNTARY TAXATION: I submit that the vast majority, if not all, of government functions, could be performed on a fee-for-service basis, so that no tax would be necessary to subsidize that function.” - JAG, Aug. 26, 1978. - SUBSCRIPTIONS, TAXATION, SUBSIDIES, GOVERNMENT, USER PAYS, RATHER THAN RATIONED "FREE" SERVICES

VOLUNTARY TAXATION: I want the decisive individual vote on all my taxes – if any – and on how they are to be spent. I don’t trust any politician or bureaucrat with such decision-making. – J.Z., 4.10.98.

VOLUNTARY TAXATION: If an individual elects not to contribute to a particular service of the community, he is then, of course, not entitled to its benefits." - Jerome Tuccille, Radical Libertarianism, p.50,

VOLUNTARY TAXATION: If one would appreciate the extent to which the principle of violence is in effect, let him imagine the subsidies and the “social gains” that would be paid for, and the services of the state that could be rendered, if all of these were put on a shelf, as in a grocery store, and bought only as the citizens of these United States would buy them – voluntarily. (*) With the disappearance of the myth that someone else is footing the bill, which this serve-yourself plan would assure, what a whale of a difference there would be in the scope and cost of government!” – Leonard E. Read, Instead of Violence, p. 22/23. - (*) They do this already, to some extent, through numerous and sometimes huge foundations, who, between them, dispose annually of billions. Alas, these donations are, to some extent, promoted only through tax concessions granted for such donations. – J.Z., 18.8.08.

VOLUNTARY TAXATION: In A Letter to Cleveland, Spooner’s argument against the tariff, begun in A New Banking System (1873), are expanded. Spooner maintained all taxes were illegal. A government should received only voluntary contributions, all else is robbery.” – From Charles Chively’s introduction to Lysander Spooner, Works I, p.5. – Nevertheless, all the arguments for and project for voluntary taxation have not yet been pulled together and discussed in an anthology. Now this could and should be done cheaply and fast online or at least on a disk. That might be much more helpful than all the complaints or jokes about taxation and all the risky and costly tax evasion schemes. The insufficient publication and discussion of the voluntary alternatives has kept taxation in the public mind as something as unavoidable as e.g. war and death are supposed to be. – J.Z., 18.8.08. - It is a positive sign of the times that, in a Google search for voluntary taxation, on 8.7.10, I got over 3 million results. Today I got 10 600 000 results if I left the quotation marks out and 24,600 results if I put it in quotation marks. Alas, I haven't got the time and energy to browse through as many references. I would take a large team to find all the worthwhile sites in as many references and then to publish only thesem, together, with all the required comments, perhaps best on a disk. - The time might be ripe for such an effort. - A growth by 7 million results in less than 9 months! - J.Z., 2.4.11. - Revised, without checking present search result numbers, J.Z., 8.8.11.

VOLUNTARY TAXATION: In all of our private lives and spending we do already voluntarily "tax" ourselves to pay for all the goods and services that we want or need, from whatever is left after direct and indirect taxation of our earnings, income or savings - but only for the goods and services that we really want or need. This common practice, already taken for granted, has merely to be expanded to all the "public" "services" now "financed" by the compulsory taxation system, which ought to be done away with as a great wrong andm predominantly, waste. Only thus can consumer sovereignty and free enterprise competition to satisfy consumers, be fully realized. The third-party compulsory intervention by territorial States should be done away with in the money, clearing, credit and insurance spheres as well. At the very least, individuals and dissenting groups should become free to drop out from it, to arrange their own affairs as they please, under full exterritorial autonomy. No one and no institution has the right to any part of the income and property of others unless this is based upon freely agreed individual contracts. - Compulsory taxes are imposed tributes, theft or robbery, crimes with involuntary victims, regardless of the Robbing Hoodlism "spending" any territorial government might engage in with this loot or plunder. - J.Z., 6.5.11.

VOLUNTARY TAXATION: Just because we are supposed to be somewhat represented still does not turn compulsory voting, State membership, schooling, military service, taxes, elections, etc., etc. into their voluntary alternatives, e.g. cosmopolitan ones, exterritorial autonomy ones for voluntary communities, societies or panarchies and into peacefully competing and just ones – J.Z., 25.7.97, 188.08. - REPRESENTATION, GOVERNMENT, PANARCHISM, VOTING, MILITIA, CONSENT, POLITICS AS USUAL, STATES, TERRITORIALISM, WARFARE STATES, COMPULSION

VOLUNTARY TAXATION: Let Each Support His Own, Without Forcing Others.” – R. K. Foley, Jr., in THE FREEMAN, 9/78, heading on p. 519. – Support your own favorite projects and "public institutions", societies and communities yourself, as far as you can or want to. – J.Z., 18.8.08, 2.4.11. – MYOB.

VOLUNTARY TAXATION: Let only those who vote for a politician or a party or a government pay for the salaries involved and the expenditures they favor. – J.Z., 74, 18.8.08. - PANARCHISM

VOLUNTARY TAXATION: Let those who want government - pay for it. - J.Z., 30.3.85. Deny all government services and subordination to those who do not pay for them. Do not force any government services and disservices upon any peaceful dissenters, who would rather do their own things. - J.Z., 2.4.11.

VOLUNTARY TAXATION: Libertarians ought to practise some voluntary taxation among themselves, e.g. to establish a libertarian world library, at least on microfilm and to expand it into a world library – within which their material could be easier sold. The same applies to the audio and video tape libraries and computerized information services, abstracts, indexes, bibliographies, review compilations and special handbooks etc. – By now a special freedom library could be offered cheaply on a single DVD or a few of them, but certainly on a single cheap external HD of 1 TB, which has the capacity to offer the equivalent of over 3 million books or the equivalent number of pages, if that many were ever filled with pro-freedom writings. – Even the international libertarian organizations have, to my knowledge, never as yet appealed to all their members to either help finance or themselves to built up such a common freedom library. Why not? - J.Z., 15.5.84, 18.8.08.

VOLUNTARY TAXATION: Men are dunces', he declared, ‘for giving their support to any laws or government other than those they can give their complete support to.’ - Reichert, Partisans of Freedom, p.135, on Lysander Spooner.

VOLUNTARY TAXATION: no freeman should be subject to any tax to which he has not given his own consent.” – John Adams, 1765. – How clearly and how revolutionary! And how much misunderstood this truth is still today! - Have the founding fathers been sufficiently honored for such comments? – J.Z., 3.11.76, 18.8.08.

VOLUNTARY TAXATION: People would pay for what they desire.” – SIL slogan (Society for Individual Liberty)

VOLUNTARY TAXATION: Ron Paul demanded the abolition of the IRS. (Internal Revenue Service.). – Uwe Mischke, in espero, September 2009, S.6. - COMPULSORY TAXATION

VOLUNTARY TAXATION: Since all the functions of government can be provided competively and voluntarily, there remains no pretense for any form of taxation at all.” - Carl Watner, commenting on the letters of Charles Lane, in “A Voluntary Political Government”, p.37, on letters III & IV.

VOLUNTARY TAXATION: Spooner is here laying down a necessary condition for legitimate government: it must be voluntarily financed. He is asserting, not that no government is legitimate, but that no government that is financed by extortion is legitimate." - Fred D. Miller, in "Reason", 5/76.

VOLUNTARY TAXATION: Spooner maintained all taxes were illegal. A government should receive only voluntary contributions; all else is robbery." – Lysander Spooner, according to Charles Shively, Spooner, Works I, 5. (A Letter to Grover Cleveland.)

VOLUNTARY TAXATION: Taxation as a public robbery is only legalized by politicians and bureaucrats. Their victims were rarely ever asked about the kind and height of taxes. They were never asked, to my knowledge, about all taxes and their total. These "debts" or tributes are unilaterally imposed upon them without their individual consent or clear mandate, and this by their supposed representative and great leaders and protectors! Under voluntary taxation governmental budgets would shrink greatly and fast and many people would be enabled to buy, with the savings in taxes, in a free market, only the kind of goods and services they do really and individually want, and this at market prices from competing suppliers. – The first steps towards voluntary taxation have still to be undertaken or officially “permitted”. It would also mean an end to all legalized monopolies and their monopoly charges. - That there is a groundswell in favor of it is indicated by the number of references that e.g. Google offers upon a search under “voluntary taxation”. - J.Z., 4.3.10, 8.8.11.

VOLUNTARY TAXATION: Taxes are not to be laid on the people, but by their consent in person or by deputation.” – James Otis, “The Right of the British Colonies Asserted and Proved”, 1764. – Quoted in Seldes. - By "voluntary and individual deputation” is the interpretation of the Panarchists. - J.Z., 3.11.76, 18.8.08. - What if neither personal consent nor representative consent is granted by the individual taxpayer? How could one leave this question unanswered for so long? – Particularly when most taxpayers remained so ignorant that they still believe that most taxes are paid by the rich rather than by themselves. – Only under territorialism could all the abuses of taxation and all those financed through taxation be continued for so long. – Under panarchism and its voluntary membership taxation would soon become limited by the willingness or unwillingness of tax-payers or voluntary contributors to finance the schemes of politicians and bureaucrats. - J.Z., 18.8.08. – PANARCHISM, CONSENT, INDIVIDUAL SOVEREIGNTY, VOLUNTARISM

VOLUNTARY TAXATION: That no government, so called, can reasonably be trusted, or reasonably be supposed to have honest purposes in view, any longer than it depends wholly upon voluntary support.” - Lysander Spooner. – How much more evidence for this do we need before we do seriously consider and try to realize rightful alternatives, in our own communities of volunteers? – J.Z., 21.4.09. – PANARCHISM, TERRITORIALISM, NATIONS, STATES, GOVERNMENTS, COMPULSORY TAXATION, VOLUNTARISM, TRUST, HONESTY

VOLUNTARY TAXATION: The introduction of voluntary taxation could very well come to introduce voluntarism in every sphere. – J.Z., 30.3.95, 18.8.08. - PANARCHISM

VOLUNTARY TAXATION: The leading voluntary taxationists, such as Herbert and his associate J. Greevz Fisher, argued that no one should be forced to pay their taxes (a point that Alcott, Lane and Thoreau had already made).” - Carl Watner, commenting on the letters of Charles Lane, in “A Voluntary Political Government”, p.34.

VOLUNTARY TAXATION: The only efficient and just solution is to allow individuals and groups of individuals to form their own voluntary associations, providing there is no force, fraud or coercion in the market." - PROGRESS PARTY PLATFORM

VOLUNTARY TAXATION: The Pay-What-You-Want Tax Plan”, John Zeigler, "REASON", August 73. - The pay for what you want …? -J.Z.

VOLUNTARY TAXATION: The public service wisdom and interest of the individual taxpayer will be truly represented only once he is free to subscribe to any freely competing providers of such services – or to none of them. – J.Z., 12.1.95. – REPRESENTATION, DEMOCRACY, SELF-GOVERNMENT, SELF-DETERMINATION

VOLUNTARY TAXATION: The pure libertarian’s solution to this dilemma, of course, is to make taxation and government control voluntary and to recognize the right of every individual to self-rule; i.e., if anyone does not wish to subscribe to government “protection”, he should be left alone to fend for himself. Morally speaking, what right does “the majority” have to force him to come under government rule? If democratic government is truly “by consent of the governed”, then it would seem that anyone wishing not to be governed should be allowed to go his own way.” – Ringer, Restoring the American Dream, p.327.

VOLUNTARY TAXATION: The role of political governments would shrink greatly if taxpayers rather than tax-eaters determined government revenues. – Pyrrho, THE CONNECTION 121, p.46.

VOLUNTARY TAXATION: there are things government just doesn't have to do and things that could be done on a fee-for-service basis.” - SOUTHERN LIBERTARIAN MESSENGER, Winter 75/76. - Are there any services that require any territorial government or that cannot be done cheaper and better privately and cooperatively, among volunteers? - Too many libertarians do not go far enough with their ideas and proposals. - They have set too narrow limits to their imagination. - J.Z., 2.2.02. – There are numerous references to voluntary taxation online. The best statements of all of them need still to be extracted and alphabetically combined. – Everyone, on his own, should not have to laboriously search for it. To my knowledge no anthology or all voluntary taxation schemes and how to introduce them does so far exist. - Don’t expect me to do all such jobs for you. - J.Z., 21.4.09. - FEES FOR SERVICES, PAY AS YOU GO, SUBSCRIPTIONS TO WANTED SERVICES, VOLUNTARISM, LET BENEFICIARIES PAY, USER-PAYS-PRINCIPLE, COMPETITIVE SUPPLIES AND PRICING, FREE ENTERPRISE FOR PUBLIC SERVICES

VOLUNTARY TAXATION: Those in favor of taxes should only be free to tax themselves and to negotiate user-pays charges for competitively supplied services they have to offer to others. – J.Z., 20.4.93. - They should not be free to levy monopoly charges for them. – Under free competition for all kinds of public service genuine market prices for them could soon be discovered. They cannot be discovered e.g. for postal services, while the postal monopoly is upheld. – J.Z., 18.8.08.

VOLUNTARY TAXATION: Threat extinction requires a radical redesign of social institutions - - notably eliminating the privilege of any vendor to determine his own revenues …” - Pyrrho, THE CONNECTION 129, 28.7.85, p.55. – No forced purchases, not even for governmental “services”! – J.Z., 27.6.89.

VOLUNTARY TAXATION: To those who say that people would not cooperate in supporting government such as we now have, I say, 'Exactly!' They would not." - , Karl Hess, Dear America, p.268,

VOLUNTARY TAXATION: Voluntary taxation would put an end to rule by fiscal robbery. (Freiwillige Steuern würden der fiscalischen Kleptokratie ein Ende bereiten.)_ - Uwe Timm, in espero, September 2009, S.3.

VOLUNTARY TAXATION: Voluntary taxation would reduce most governments to harmlessness. It could be achieved via voluntary membership in governments that are only exterritorially autonomous. – J.Z., 28.12.92. – It could also be achived via an ideal and complete declaration of individual rights and liberties or, if still necessary, through an ideal militia for the protection of these rights and liberties. Perhaps it could even be realized through a well-organized tax strike. – J.Z., 18.8.08. - PANARCHISM, HUMAN RIGHTS DECLARATION, MILITIA, TAX STRIKE

VOLUNTARY TAXATION: When the income tax season arrives, one man has a system to save time and worry. I just put down at the bottom of the form the amount I reckon I can afford to pay the government,' he explains, 'and work back from there’.” – CORONET, quoted in READER’S DIGEST, 6/64. - That still assumes that government spending is basically rightful and rational and that people ought to contribute to it according to their ability to pay or the communist principle from the able to the needy. Charity is not a sound method to finance anything, as is currently demonstrated once again by the corruption revealed in Australia's large foreign aid program. - J.Z., 3.4.11.

VOLUNTARY TAXATION: You want something – you pays your way!” - - “Pay Your Way!” “User Pays!” – Proverbial wisdom. – Probably almost all languages have some such remarks. Which one is the best one? – J.Z., 1.8.75.

VOLUNTARY TAXATION: You write that Nozick did not succeed in deriving the just minimal state. Then you write that if an institution does not tax, it is not a state. Since taxation itself is not just, then the “just state” is a logical impossibility. - - My own definition of a ‘state’ does not necessarily include taxation. If the state were financed by user fees, for example, and it still had an enforced uniform law, why would it not be a ‘state’? The essence of a state is centralized use of ultimate force, not taxation.” - Fred Foldvary to T.-R., in THE CONNECTION 107, 23.10.82, p.6. - - “Centralized use of ultimate force” is characterized by territorial sovereignty, i.e. by involuntary membership or subordination, an imposed constitution, laws, jurisdiction and other statist institutions, the suppression of at least some individual rights and liberties, especially individual and group secessionism, voluntary taxation, and monetary freedom and of the exterritorial autonomy of alternative societies of volunteers on the basis of personal laws, and of any competition in spheres which a territorial government imagines are subject to its own monopoly claims. – J.Z., 29.6.89, 28.8.08. - STATE, TAXES

VOLUNTARYIST, THE: FED: Fed up with the Federal Reserve | Voluntaryist, The | Find ... -About the failure of Braun's firm: "A free market money or free market money firm may fail just as miserably as any government currency or government. ... - Some unsound free experiments would, indeed, fail and this rather soon. However, these failures would occur only at the expense of their voluntary participants. And their losses might be cheap for the important lessons they could learn thereby, e.g. when issuing "currency", supposedly "based" upon the value of real estate, mortgages, shares or bonds, raw materials still in the ground. - J.Z., 24.7.11.

VOTING: 12: Voting in a free market, with one's own dollars, on one's own affairs, and voting in the political "market", with the dollars of others, on the affairs of others. – J.Z.

VOTING: 38: Voting on one's own affairs under conditions of monetary freedom and voting under the limited private affairs and freedom spheres that remain under a system of monetary despotism. – J.Z.

VOTING: I vote only for the liberty of each adult individual to shop around, with his dollars only, and at his own risk and expense alone, even for the political “goods” and “services” or non-profit self-help options that he or she wants for himself or herself, just like consumers do in a supermarket or shopping centre. – J.Z., 2.3.96, 18.8.08. - Even his own dollars should become either freely issued or freely chosen by himself. - J.Z., 5.4.11.

VOTING: I would rather vote only with my dollars in a free market. - J.Z., 14.9.91. - Alas, the government allows me only to earn and use its depreciated, forced and monopoly paper dollars. - J.Z., 7.6.04.

VOTING: Let people vote their own money only, unless they are individually authorized to vote with some specific funds of others. - J.Z. 21.11.82, 2.12.87. This requires voluntary communities, without any territorial powers, and each having its own budget for the voluntary contributions of its members, for its own aims and purposes, as fully in agreement with its voluntary members as is humanly possible. Always losing them to competing free communities that offer better or cheaper services or more wanted services, if they can no longer satisfy them. Just like businesses lose customers. In short, introduce free market and individual rights and liberty relationships in all spheres, with any remaining restrictions confined to their voluntary subscribers. To each his own kind of community! No one to be any longer a territorial tax slave and subject against his will, unless he has committed crimes upon involuntary victims. – J.Z., 21.4.09. – PANARCHISM, VOLUNTARISM, PERSONAL LAWS, SEPARATE TAX- CONTRIBUTION-, BUDGET- & EVEN SEPARATE AND COMPETING MONEY- CLEARING-, VALUE STANDARD- AND CREDIT SYSTEMS, IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE WIDELY DIVERSE VIEWS ON THESE SUBJECTS. ONE SYSTEM HAS NEVER SATISFIED ALL PEACEFUL & PRODUCTIVE PEOPLE. LET THEM VOTE WITH THEIR OWN PAYMENT SYSTEMS, SAVINGS & EARNINGS FOR WHATEVER THEY WANT.

VOTING: The polls are places where you stand in line for a chance to decide who will spend your money.” – Anonymous. - POLITICIANS, TAXES & REPRESENTATIVES

VOTING: The vote is the politician's licence to steal.” - Free after D.C. Stone in THE NEW BANNER, 25.9.72.

VOTING: The vote, as a "right" to decide upon the affairs of others, is usually just used as a declaration of a war of plunder against them. - J.Z., 3/73.

VOTING: The voters, as well as those voted-in, are looters, at least by their intentions. And they loot not only money but rights and liberties. – J.Z. - TERRITORIALISM & ITS COLLECTIVISM & ENFORCED COMMUNISM

VOTING: those who empower an agent - vote for a government - to do their robbing, are as guilty of sin as those who steal on their own.” – Leonard E. Read, "NOTES FROM FEE", 3/79.

VOTING: Vote with your own dollars only and never vote away the dollars of others. - J.Z., 6.1.95. - VOTING WITH DOLLARS

VOTING: Voting means participating in what Bastiat called a "plunder bund". – J.Z.

VOTING: Why should a self-respecting citizen endorse an institution grounded in thievery? For that is what one does when one votes. (*) If it be argued that we must let bygones be bygones, see what we can do toward cleaning up the institution, so that it can be used for the maintenance of an orderly existence, the answer is that it cannot be done; we have been voting for one "good government" after another, and what have we got?” - Frank Chodorov, "Fugitive Essays", p.205. – (*) “Why should any self-respecting citizen endorse an institution grounded on thievery? For that is what one does when one votes.” - Frank Chodorov, "Out of Step", 48.

VRIJHOF, ROB, Swiss Bank Secrecy Lives - July 27, 2003. - "The Swiss government and its people will continue to stand up for financial freedom, self-determination and our long standing tradition and legal principal of bank secrecy. That's one important reason why more than one third of the world's offshore funds are entrusted to Swiss management." - Roy Halliday, in section on International Banking.




WAGES: all legislation dealing with labor-employer relations – are concessions to the communist conception of wages. - Our immigration-restriction laws pay homage to this idea, for these laws, translated into economics, simply say that there are just so many jobs that capitalists have at their disposal, that any increase in the working population will lower the wage level by simple division; the idea that the immigrant makes his own wages is rejected offhand. Birth control (*) is likewise advocated as a means of raising the wage level, and Malthusianism borrows all its economics from communism.” – Frank Chodorov, Fugitive Essays, p.167/68. – Capitalists and businessmen are likewise inclined to argue that each job costs so and so much in capital and, since the capital supply is limited, all jobs would thus be limited in number. They forget, that the ready-for sale goods and services, that are in daily demand, are the main and continuous turn-over capital required for full employment and that this capital, in normal times, in developed countries, and, especially in times of unemployment, is not only abundant but over-abundant and often offered at emergency sales prices. And this capital can mostly be fast produced and replenished, so that if its owners were legally allowed to turn it into the cover and redemption fund for their own “shop currencies”, then enough means of payment would be available to make all wage and salary payments with them possible and thus keep sellers and producers going continuously, without sales- and employment stoppages or difficulties. – That a shortage of real capital, like tools, factories and machines, is not involved is proven by the fact that before and after periods of mass unemployment largely the same quantity of this real capital did exist and that during period of unemployment only the degree of its usage would be diminished. - (*) and prolonged school years and, formerly, keeping women out of the work force! – J.Z., 19.8.08. - Moreover, most of this productive building and machine capital is not utilized every day for 24 hours, in shift work. - J.Z., 8.4.11. - COMMUNISM, MALTHUSIANISM, COMPULSORY SCHOOLING, MALTHUSIANISM, IMMIGRATION RESTRICTIONS, TRYING TO KEEP FOREIGNERS OUT OF JOBS, ATTEMPTS TO “RATION” ACCESS TO JOBS, ASSUMING THAT THERE ARE AND CAN BE ONLY A LIMITED NUMBER OF THEM, CAPITAL VIEW OF UNEMPLOYMENT

WAGES: Give the laborer his wage before his perspiration be dry.” – Mohammed, 570-632. – Actually, apart from a few day-laborers, as wage- and salary payments have developed, the employee is mostly giving credit to his employer until the weekly or monthly payday. If employees had pondered this fact then they could e.g. have provided their employer with wage payment means through establishing their own consumer cooperative, issuing its own shop foundation currency and agreeing that they would be satisfied with being paid with the money issued by their consumer cooperative. The consumer cooperative would then have discounted the claims their employer had against wholesalers and used these claims to restock their store. (Real Bills Doctrine principle, which always implied sound value standard reckoning.) Thus they could have rendered themselves and their employer largely independent from the “monetary policies”, of their government, i.e., from the usual monetary mismanagement characteristic for most governments most of the time. – No more means of payment and value standard crises for them! - J.Z., 19.8.08.

WAGES: In the USA between 1900-1909 and 1970 the share of the national income taken by owners of capital fell from 32.7% to 11.2%, while the share of the national income taken by employees rose from 55 % to 75%”.U.S. Statistical Abstracts, 1971. – The tax and Welfare State figures should be added here, too. – J.Z., 19.8.08. - Who will compile a good computer program for this, in which only the particular details of an existing enterprise will have to be entered to tell each employee his monthly or weekly installment rate at different interest rates - for the industrial bonds used in their take-over bid (for the enterprise they work in) and for different repayment periods for them? – J.Z., 22.4.09. - DIVIDENDS, PROFITS, INTEREST RATES, CAPITAL RETURNS COMPARED WITH LABOR RETURNS, DIS., POVERTY, WEALTH, RICH, CAPITALISTS VS. PROLETARIANS, EXPLOITATION, PURCHASE OF ENTERPRISES BY EMPLOYEES ON TERMS.

WAGES: It is not the employer who pays wages – he only handles the money. It is the product that pays wages.” – Henry Ford. - Rather, the buyers of the product. – Even Henry Ford did not always get it right. – If the products themselves paid wages then the storekeepers would not even have to sell any of the products, they would not need any customers and workers, employers, wholesalers and shopkeepers would simply be paid by the consumer goods produced! – But then even Say, in Say’s Law, imagined that the products would automatically produce the purchasing power needed to sell them! – There isn’t any economically nonsensical idea that isn’t at least upheld by some. - The being "paid" by one's products happens only for people who produce everything that they consumer and not in a society based upon the division of labour and free as well as monetary exchanges. - Only freedom to monetize one's consumer products and services comes close to that situation. - J.Z., 19.8.08, 8.4.11. – DIS.

WAGES: Just as people can price themselves out of jobs, they can price themselves into jobs.” – Sir Keith Joseph, quoted in THE BULLETIN, 22.7.80. – Especially when they are prepared to realize and utilize their monetary freedom options for the payment of their wages. – J.Z., 22.409. EMPLOYMENT, UNEMPLOYMENT, JOBS, PRICING

WAGES: Labor, like all other goods, is scarce, and therefore always in demand at its appropriate free-market price. As with any form of price control, attempts by governments to impose artificially low or artificially high wage rates will always result in either a shortage, or a surplus of labor.” – Donald H. Carpenter, NEW GUARD, July-August 1978. – The supply of sufficient exchange media and of sound value standards should never be taken for granted under monetary despotism. - J.Z., 8.4.11. - WAGE CONTROL

WAGES: Like all other contracts, wages should be left to the fair and free competition of the market and should never be controlled by the interference of the legislatures.” - David Ricardo, 1772-1823, Principles of Political Economy and Taxation, V, 1817, quoted in Seldes. - Too often it is overlooked how important it is with which means of payment wages may be paid. If they can only be paid with monopoly money, a money that tends to be either under-supplied, as in deflation, or over-supplied, as in inflation, trouble will always occur. If means of payment for wages and salaries can be competitively supplied by those most suitable for such issues being free and acting within their natural rights, then anti-industrial warfare and political strife arising from it - and from the crises arising from monetary despotism - will be minimized. - J.Z., n.d. & 25.11.02. - & FREEDOM OF CONTRACT, WAGE CONTROLS, COLLECTIVE BARGAINING, LAISSEZ FAIRE, UNIONS, MONETARY FREEDOM

WAGES: Maintain your rage – about your inflation and taxation reduced wages. – J.Z., 12/75. – “Maintain your rage!” was an appeal by a Labour Party leader (Whitlam), after they lost an election, in a landslide vote against them, after their government had been recalled, by the Governor General of Australia, Mr. Kerr, himself nominated by the Labour Party, when this party had made a mess of the Australian economy and yet wanted to remain in power. – J.Z., 19.8.08. – Alas, most people still have to become enraged about these official robberies and all the other wrongs and harm done by territorial politics! – J.Z., 22.4.09, 8.4.11.

WAGES: Mr. Fraser said people were beginning to realize that money paid in excessive wage increases was not available to create new jobs or even to support the existing jobs.” – THE SYDNEY MORNING HERALD, 13.3.76. - As if there could exist only a fixed amount of sound currency, quite independent of the quantity of consumer goods and consumer services ready for sale to redeem the currencies in. - All the primitive, false and flawed notions on political, economic and social subjects are still not systematically collected and confronted with their best refutations, as they should be and could be, especially with modern digital options. - J.Z., 8.4.11.

WAGES: now it seems to be universally accepted in the West that no money wage rate must ever fall. People must be told that sometimes it is in the interest of wage earners that their wages should fall, because if they do fall they may get employment opportunities they would otherwise not have. Every businessman in the centuries that the market economy has lasted has known that sometimes it pays him to reduce the prices of the goods he sells. Why should workers be exempt from that? This I regard as one of the most insidious dogmas that we must now live with, the dogmas that no money wage rate must ever be allowed to fall. The implication, of course, is that if real wages are too high, - uneconomically so, causing significant unemployment – then they should be lowered by means of inflation, by reducing the real value of money wages. The alternative would be a straightforward reduction of wage rates whenever the value of work does not justify the continued payment of the former wage. This would lead to needed economic readjustments and to a realistically-conceived ‘full employment’”. – Prof. Ludwig Lachman, in LIBERTARIAN REVIEW, 4/78. – While this is true, as far as it goes, like so many of the recognized experts, L. L. overlooked that the primary task consists in always keeping up the supply of sound currencies to the amounts required at any time to make turnovers of labor, services and goods relatively easy and certain, at free market prices, measured in sound value standards. – J.Z., 19.8.08. - In this and many other respects we never had a completely free market economy, far less so for centuries already! - J.Z., 8.4.11. - DIS.

WAGES: Soon you might as well agree to be paid in animal manure instead of in rotten and depreciating government paper money. Ask for gold or gold value currency instead. – J.Z., 15.10.74. – What fraction of its value has the A $ dollar retained over the last almost quarter of its century? And over the last century, taken into consideration the different denomination and purchasing power of the prior Australian Pound? And most of this happened under the “guardianship” of the currency by Australia’s central monopoly bank for note issues and coins, the “Reserve Bank”! - If the government would have dared to similarly interfere with weight, length, volume and time measures, depreciating all of them correspondingly, we would have had a revolution in Australia long ago. But who thinks seriously about money and private, cooperative, sound and competitive alternatives to government money? Certainly not most of those “educated” in government controlled schools and universities. – J.Z., 19.8.08, 8.4.11. – GOLD-VALUE CLEARING OR GOLD-VALUE ACCOUNTING CURRENCIES, PRICES, WAGES, RENTS, FEES, CENTRAL BANKING, MONETARY DESPOTISM, INFLATION, MONETARY FREEDOM

WAGES: The fact is that wages are determined by supply and demand, and not in a general way, but in each case, by branches of production, by enterprises within each one of these branches, and by individuals within each enterprise, on the basis of the existing need for labor, its abundance or scarcity, and the productive capability of each particular worker. This holds true not only in countries with a system of free enterprise but also in those with a more or less interventionist policy, like Mexico, …” - Ballvé, Economics, p.37. – Nowhere does there exist as yet fully free banking or monetary freedom and thus no fully free market, free trade and free enterprise. But I was surprised to read today that in Afghanistan, in spite of all the anti-rights and anti-freedom and intolerant actions of these “freedom-fighters”, according to a report by Paul McGeough, in THE SYDNEY MORNING HERALD, of Aug. 9-10,08, p. 27, there exist 3 currencies in the Taliban area. Alas, details were not given. Nor was the unemployment rate in the Taliban and governmental areas or the inflation rate of the official currency. According to another source the unemployment rate in A. is extremely high. Much of its total income seems to be still due to drug production and drug trade. – If the three competing currencies there were issued and streaming back on a quite sound foundation, then the unemployment rate might be as low as it can be in a country in the middle of a civil war. – If the Talibans can be tolerant towards the coexistence of 3 currencies, why can’t they be tolerant in other respects as well? If they confined their “reforms” to volunteers only, they could be much more successful and would not provoke as much resistance as they do. E.g., according to the above newspaper report suicide bombings are on the rise and the killed 40 humanitarian workers and abducted 89. – So my sympathies are certainly not with their violent actions. – Any peace-plan, to be effective, should concede them their own panarchy – but not any territorial monopoly. Nor should such a monopoly be granted to any other group, movement or faith in Afghanistan – or anywhere else. -J.Z., 19.8.08. – A DEGREE OF MONETARY FREEDOM IN AFGHANISTAN? PANARCHISM, TALIBANS

WAGES: The height of wage rates at which all those eager to get jobs can be employed depends on the marginal productivity of labor. The more capital – other things being equal – is invested, the high wages climb on the free labor market, i.e. on the labor market not manipulated by the government and the unions. At these market wage rates all those eager to employ workers can hire as many as they want. At these market wage rates all those who want to be employed can get a job. There prevails on a free labor market a tendency toward full employment. In fact, the policy of letting the free market determine the height of wage rates is the only reasonable and successful full-employment policy. If wage rates, either by union pressure and compulsion or by government decree, are raised above this height, lasting unemployment of a part of the potential labor force develops.” – Ludwig von Mises, Planning for Freedom, p. 153. - - Correct, as far as he went. - Alas, here, too, he ignored the facts of the means of payment supply problem under monetary despotism, which would not be sufficiently overcome by the kind of exclusive currency that he favored, namely one redeemable by the issuer in gold coins, upon demand by the note holder. – Even under this kind of exclusive currency the demand for labor, expressed in sound alternative, competitive, market rated and refusable but freely competing exchange media, all using sound and agreed upon value standards, and redeemable only in goods and services or through clearing, with their competition driving out all inferior ones, would not be free to exert their demand for labor. – Under any exclusive currency labor and sellers of goods and services tend to ”hunt” for that elusive currency, all too often in short supply, sometimes even when it is rapidly depreciated. (Then the note printing presses cannot keep up with the price increases that anticipate further inflation. - J.Z., 8.4.11.) Under full monetary freedom, sound and optional as well as market-rated alternative currencies, mostly standing at par with their nominal value, always accepted in payment at 100 % by their issuers, would, so to speak, hunt up and engage all available labor. – The involuntarily unemployed would soon become - an extinct species. - J.Z., 19.8.08, 8.4.11.

WAGES: The higher the wages, the higher the production.” – Frank Chodorov, One Is a Crowd, p.127. – Rather: The higher production, the higher the wages that become, thereby, possible and likely. – Provided only that the sale of the products and services is assured – through full monetary freedom and free trade. - J.Z., 13.7.94, 20.8.08.

WAGES: The hours are long, the pay is small, // So take your time and buck them all.” – Unknown, an IWW poster. – How much smaller would they be without good tools, machines and management? How much larger could their earned incomes become under self-management? How could self-management be achieved, in a rightful and businesslike way, via a take-over bid of the employees, using industrial bonds, issued and guaranteed by them, as their means of payment? How many or how few years would it take them to pay off this debt? Could they largely or completely pay it off, in installments, from the thus achieved extra incomes? - Alas, people with the usual trade-union mentality of class warfare do only very rarely ask themselves such questions and still more rarely act upon the answers. It is always so much easier to criticize and do nothing than to act rightfully and constructively. – J.Z., 19.8.08. – How often have trade unionists considered alternative means of payment and alternative value standards for their wages and salaries? - J.Z., 8.4.11. – DIS., UNIONS, CLASS WARFARE NOTIONS

WAGES: The inherent tendency of capitalist evolution is to raise real wage rates steadily. This outcome is the effect of the progressive accumulation of capital by means of which technological methods of production are improved. Whenever the accumulation of additional capital stops, this tendency comes to a standstill. If capital consumption is substituted for an increase of capital available, real wage rates must drop temporarily until the checks to a further increase in capital are removed. …” - Ludwig von Mises, Planning for Freedom, p.11. – Here, once again, he ignores the means of payment and the clearing aspect, just like the trade unionists and the employers and retailers do. - J.Z., 8.4.11. - CAPITAL, TAXATION, DIS.

WAGES: The level of wages is determined by the level of production , and political intervention in the economy always has the effect of depressing production.” – Frank Chodorov, One Is a Crowd, p.127. - As if the problem of the means of wage payments, and for sales and purchases were already sufficiently solved. No matter how high the production is and the accumulated stocks of ready for sale consumer goods are and the capacity to supply consumer services, their sale, in a monetary economy, is not assured, especially not under monetary and financial despotism. How can the employers pay their employees any wages or salaries, if they do not achieved sufficient sales to keep them going? Has monetary and financial despotism assured their sales? - J.Z., 8.4.11.

WAGES: The most inelastic factor in a free society of responsible individuals is likely to be in the supply of wage earners (job seekers). Therefore, they benefit most from the competition of capital seeking investment, and they get an increasing share of the total product. Wages and wage rates tend to rise therefore, while rates of interest fail. (Footnote: The rise in interest rates during the past 60 years has been due to the anti-capitalistic policies of governments – wars, inflation of currencies, waste of resources, and forced redistribution of wealth and income.)” – V. Orval Watts, THE FREEMAN, 10/75. – The greatest supply of productive capital is useless if the sale of its products and services is not sufficiently assured in a sound and monetary way, which can, apparently, not be achieved under a forced and exclusive currency, which is, inherently, all too manipulated, resulting in deflations, stagflations and inflations. It is not just a matter of interest rates, taxation "policies" and wars. - J.Z., 8.4.11. - INTEREST RATES

WAGES: The second cause of unemployment is when legislation or trade union pressure are used to attempt to force employers to pay workers more than the goods they produce are worth. There is an economic law which has been known for over 200 years which says that if the price demanded for any goods or services is too high, i.e. above the equilibrium, then some of those goods or services will remain unsold. This law holds true for wheat, motor cars and labour. If the price demanded for labour is too high there will be unemployment.” – PROGRESS, Melbourne, Vic., 1/78. – Typically, the kind of money in which the wages are to be paid, and the demand and supply condition for this money, are not taken into consideration. - As if unemployment did not already exist long before there were trade unions and even in cases where wages, by law, were fixed below their market rates in “normal” times, if, in cases of an exclusive currency, legally and juridically upheld, although it is in insufficient supply, one could speak of a really “free” market and “normal” times. – J.Z., 19.8.08. – UNEMPLOYMENT, DIS.

WAGES: The simplest of all economic facts is that wages have to come from production; the aggregate production is all the pie there is. When some forcibly take a disproportionate share of the pie for themselves, there are only smaller pieces for the others.” – Leonard E. Read, Talking to Myself, p.77. - By now the trade union workers, often privileged by special pro-union laws, are more likely to do that than the employers are. – J.Z., 19.8.08. – Production and service capacity can pay free market wages, salaries and profits, as well as rents, interest rates or dividends only to the extent that the production of services offered can be SOLD! That requires a sufficient exchange media supply or enough free clearing options and good enough value standards. Can these conditions be expected to be lastingly fulfilled under monetary despotism? - J.Z., 8.4.11. - UNIONS, COLLECTIVE BARGAINING, LABOR LAWS

WAGES: The surplus value theory had it that capitalists paid labor subsistence wages and retained as profits all that labor produced above this subsistence level; but capitalism proved that wages come out of production, and that the more capital is used in production, the greater the output of labor and therefore the greater its rewards. Capitalism has raised wages, no lowered them, as Marx predicted. So much so, that the worker with a washing machine and automobile has lost every vestige of “working-class consciousness”. He even plays golf.” – Frank Chodorov, Fugitive Essays, p.133. - Both, workers and employers suffer under monetary and financial despotism and, nevertheless, are insufficiently interested in its replacement by monetary and financial freedom. - Neither has as yet experienced fully free enterprise capitalism or a laissez faire economy. Thus they concentrate blaming each other rather than the wrongful conditions that make it difficult for both of them. - J.Z., 8.4.11. - DIS., EXPLOITATION, MARXISM, COMMUNISM, UNIONISM, CLASS WARFARE, CLASS CONSCIOUSNESS, PROFITS, CAPITALISM

WAGES: There is no such thing as a ‘right’ to a job. We have only the right to offer jobs (as employers) or to seek jobs (as employees). We cannot demand that someone be forced to provide us with a job.” – John Singleton withBob Howard, Rip Van Australia, p.255/56. – But we can and should demand the right to supply ourselves with jobs, without depriving anybody of his jobs, by taking all the monetary, clearing, value-measuring, and organizational steps required for this purpose, while ignoring all artificial and imposed monopolies on the way to realizing this rightful aim. - Here, once again, the supply of and the search for means of payment in this process was ignored by these two authors, just like it is by most others on this subject, although a very significant monopoly and power, namely monetary despotism, with its central note-issuing bank monopoly and its legal tender power (compulsory acceptance at a forced value) are involved here, instead of a competitive supply exchange and clearing media, limited by freedom to refuse or discount them, the self-interest of the issuers and the self-chosen value standards involved in full monetary freedom, under which “redemption” in wanted consumer goods and services is essential, while redemption by the issuer in rare metals is superfluous. – Only stable value reckoning or accounting is required for prices, notes, clearing certificates and clearing accounts and the determination of wages, salaries, profits, rents, interest rates etc. - J.Z., 19.8.08, 8.4.11. – FULL EMPLOYMENT, MONETARY FREEDOM, FREE CHOICE OF VALUE STANDARDS, FREE PRICING ALSO FOR VALUE STANDARDS & EXCHANGE MEDIA, TRANSFORMING SUPPLY INTO EFFECTIVE DEMAND, SAY’S LAW

WAGES: Wage-Price Spiral? The “wage-price-spiral” has to be continuously fed by the note printing press to keep going. – J.Z., 31.7.82. And the result of this inflation seems to make frequent interventions by trade unionists necessary. Already automatic wage indexing would make unions appear largely unnecessary. Free choice in value standards, for wages and salaries would be even better. Its combination with self-management schemes and free competition for the supply of sound exchange media, for wage payments, would be optimal. – However, obviously, the unions do not want to make themselves superfluous. So their anti-industrial warfare goes on and on. - Since wages constitute only a part of all prices the supposedly endless wage-price spiral comes soon to an end, rather than continuing endlessly. – I find it more and more astonishing how primitive and false many to most of the popular beliefs in the “social sciences” really are. Almost as if e.g. chess- and football players could only think one move ahead. In their view of the social sciences, upon one primitive notion or premise they jump to false conclusions and, thereby, they may contribute to the messing up of their own whole lives. – J.Z., 19.8.08, 9.4.11. - WAGE-PRICE SPIRAL? UNIONS, DIS.

WAGES: Wages rise when two employers run after one labourer, and fall when two labourers run after one employer. There is no law fixing the level of wages but the old law of supply and demand.” … Yves Guyot, Labour, Socialism and Strikes, p.100, ascribing the formula to Cobden. – Only under free banking or full monetary freedom would we come close to the situation of 2 employers chasing after 1 employee. Much of the ready for sale goods and services – just walk through a shopping centre in one of the relatively free and developed countries and see what is on offer, immediately - could be turned immediately into sound purchasing power for more labor - by the retail shops and their association, acting as issuers of shop currencies, in short-term loans for the payment of wages and salaries, to pay for all the available labor, employ it and keep it producing. The present retail displays do not even show the large stocks available for immediate delivery at wholesalers, or the stocks ready for sale at the factories to wholesalers. – Each could be busy working – to the limits of his ability to work and to his ability to consume or to accumulate riches. While there is a limit to our immediate consumption capacity, is there one for the accumulation of riches and of productive capital? - Those consumer goods and services which are not needed to produce more consumer goods and services, could and would then be utilized to produce capital goods, which would increase future productivity. - J.Z., 19.8.08, 9.4.11.

WALLS: No western nations has to build a wall round itself to keep its people in.” – Mrs. Margaret Thatcher, 1975. – But their immigration barriers are almost as dishonorable and immoral as the pens of the totalitarian States. They demonstrate that their freedom, especially their monetary and financial freedom, is not large enough to cope with any influx of people able and willing to work. – J.Z., 7.9.08. - BERLIN WALL, IRON CURTAIN, FRONTIERS, TOTALITARIANISM, REFUGEES, IMMIGRATION RESTRICTIONS

WAR & PEACE AIMS: A “war to end all war” must not only be “fought” militarily, but fought with motives, organizations, methods, weapons and aims that are suitable and would suffice to end if not all then at least most wars or to reduce them to mere rightful police actions against the war criminals. – J.Z., 18.4.89, 28.8.08. - People who are obviously exploited and suppressed by their own territorial government will not fanatically fight and work for it against other governments or societies that do offer them a much better deal, possibly even quite rightful and attractive peace aims. They could change sides rather suddenly, "voting with their feet" and embrace as much in freedom, rights and opportunities as they manage to find immediately acceptable to them, in their own panarchies, provided the better side does not hold them collectively responsible for the actions of their despotic rulers, e.g. by bombing or nuking them or treating them as POWs, or as refugees herded and kept in refugee camps, instead of as liberated subjects. - Naturally, this requires that the liberating side is prepared, mainly through monetary and financial freedom, to provide millions of deserters, defectors and refugees quite rapidly with productive and self-supporting jobs. - J.Z., 9.4.11.

WAR & PEACE AIMS: Declaration of quite rightful war aims by the people. – Governmental promises do not deserve to be trusted. They cannot even be trusted not to devalue their own currency, no matter how solemn their promise was or its legal "guaranty" through its central bank. – J.Z., n.d. & 27.8.08. – PEOPLE, GOVERNMENTS, TRUST, PROMISES

WAR ECONOMY: War economy is a contradictio in adjecto. War is the negation of economy. It is destructive and wasteful, and it cannot be checked by economic considerations. …” – Gustav Stolper, This Age of Fable, p.95. - How many wars could still be financed and conducted without taxation, monetary despotism, public debt powers, conscription and forced labor? - Admittedly, all of these are negations of economy and they should be checked by economic considerations and the fundamental rights, liberties and institutions required to uphold these rights and liberties. - J.Z., 9.4.11. - DIS.

WAR: Every war is fought with current wealth. There is no way of shooting off cannons that have not yet been made, no way of feeding soldiers with the produce of the next generation. The argument that a future generation can be made to pay the costs of a present war is both specious and deceptive; it cannot be done. All the labor and all the materials expended in the struggle are current, not future, labor and materials. We pay as we fight.” – Frank Chodorov, The Income Tax. - PUBLIC DEBT, WAR BONDS, WAR LOANS, FINANCING WARS, DIS., PUBLIC DEBT,

WAR: Going to war accelerated the move from indirect to direct rule. Almost any state that makes war finds that it cannot pay for the effort from its accumulated reserves and current revenues. Almost all war-making states borrow extensively, raise taxes, and seize the means of combat – including men – from reluctant citizens who have other uses for their resources.” – Charles Tilly - & TERRITORIAL GOVERNMENTS

WAREHOUSE RECEIPTS: But, of course, there’s no reason on earth why the issuance of warehouse receipts should be a governmental function.” – Leonard E. Read, the Love of Liberty, p.35. - Indeed, but for currency purposes one should distinguish between warehouses that contain merely single or a few raw materials in large quantities and e.g. department stores or supermarkets or shopping centers that offer masses of daily required consumer goods in a vast variety. Ticket-money or goods- and service vouchers for consumer goods and services should be distinguished, at least for currency purposes from “asset” “currency” which are current at best only among a few merchants. – J.Z., 8.9.08. - MONETARY FREEDOM, FREE BANKING.

WARFARE: Encourage deserters and mutineers, disobedience and insurrections towards their dictatorial regimes – e.g. through quite rightful war and peace aims, and by recognizing all kinds of governments in exile for them, to be freely chosen by them as alternatives to their ruling territorial regime. And do treat prisoners, deserters and refugees as potential allies or neutrals, rather than as enemies. Make sure they are freely integrated in the process of production and exchange, in accordance with their preferences and abilities. Preparations should be made, as Ulrich von Beckerath suggested, providing millions of such people, arriving quite suddenly, with productive jobs. Full monetary and financial freedom has the potential to achieve that. The technical and economic details of such measures should be studied and already employed in peace time – to overcome then any involuntary unemployment, under-development and sales difficulties or economic crisis, all of them all too frequent and likely under monetary and financial despotism. – J.Z., 16.4.82, 28.8.08.

WASHINGTON: Did Washington raise a flag to which the wise and honest did repair? Did he oppose legal tender paper money? Did he demand honest payments for his soldiers or did he help to cheat them out of much of their pay and prevented their effective protest? Did he himself pay with depreciated paper money while demanding payment in rare metals from his tenants? Did he help to get Thomas Paine out of his death cell in Paris and Lafayette out of imprisonment in Austria? What was his stand on slavery, decentralization, individual rights? - J.Z., 4.1.96. - "Let us raise up a standard to which the wise and honest can repair." - George Washington. – DIS.

WATNER, CARL, Hard Money in the Voluntaryist Tradition, - "Hard Money" in the Voluntaryist Tradition - "In the Southeast during the Civil War it became customary to specify the settlement of monetary obligations in "Becthler gold" rather than Union coin or Confederate or state currencies. A similar preference manifested itself in Colorado, where Clark, Gruber & Co. coins were the preferred media of exchange during the same era." - Roy Halliday, in section on Genuine Money.

WEALTH CYCLE VIDEOS: Wealth Cycle Videos - Economic Wealth Cycles Investment Education ... - - Cached - What do you mean, free markets don't work? You can't have a “free market” without free market money! Part 3: Here and Now ...

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WEALTH: A short description of the wealth tax is that it is not a tax on money earned or money spent but a tax on what, if anything, remains.” – Max Hollingworth, in THE AUSTRALIAN, 13.9.75. - By thus reducing savings and productive investments the production of wealth is also reduced. To the extent that taxes are used to maintain an unproductive or even counter-productive bureaucracy and keeps able and willing workers in idleness, living off the dole, wealth production is further reduced. Most State-owned capital is also mismanaged and leads to losses or overpriced services, thus further reducing our standard of living. If all the government owned capital assets in some countries were privatized then most of their subjects could become rich in capital assets. See PEACE PLANS 19 C. - J.Z., 12.4.11. - DIS., TAXATION, WEALTH, VOLUNTARY TAXATION

WEALTH: abolishing major taxes and removing excessive regulations could triple or quadruple the average person’s wealth virtually overnight.” - Jarret Wollstein, in talk: “Who Needs Uncle Sam?” - As reviewed in FREEDOM NETWORK NEWS. 12/07, p.19. – Whether that much or less, it would certainly be increased considerably. – But freedom options go much further than that. How far? Panarchies should be free to demonstrate that to all the doubting Thomas’s. - J.Z., 10.9.08.

WEALTH: Above all, governments are by nature incompetent at organizing or stimulating the production of wealth.” – From the cover of Prof. H. S. Ferns, The Disease of Government. - Also its free exchange. - J.Z., 12.4.11. - TERRITORIALISM, GOVERNMENTS

WEALTH: Every man who is worth thirty millions and is not wedded to them, is dangerous to the government.”– Napoleon I, Maxims, 1804-15. – Alas, we have now numerous millionaires and even billionaires. Most of them are statists and as such no danger to the territorial State. On the contrary, they help to strengthen it in order to get more privileges from it and be it only patent- and copyrights privileges. – Nor does the financing of rightful revolutions or of a great enlightenment campaign necessarily need a large capital. Revolutionaries could, e.g. anticipate, financially, the privatization of all government assets by a bond issue of their own. They could also issue their own revolution tax foundation money for current expenses. Probably, all freedom writings could by now become fitted onto a single and by cheap external HD of one TB (*), which could, once all the texts are digitized and properly compiled on one, together with a search engine, could be endlessly and cheaply duplicated. Millions of freedom lovers, electronically equipped and connected, could make short work of that job. – A wealth of ideas can be even more influential than a wealth of cash or productive capital. - J.Z., 18.11.85, 30.8.08. (*) 1.5 TB from Western Digital, April 11, down to A$89. - J.Z., 12.4.11.

WEALTH: If a man saves $ 15 a week and invests in common stocks and allows the dividends and rights to accumulate, at the end of twenty years he will have at least $ 80.000. He will have an income from investments of around $ 400 a month. He will be rich. And because income can do that, I am firm in my belief that anyone not only can be rich but ought to be rich.” – John J. Raskob, 1928, quoted in N.Y. Times. – At 15% interest for very productive, confiscation and inflation-proof investments, which are credit-insured, everyone could easily be a millionaire after 40 years of work. The government prevents ordinary working people from becoming millionaires at least in their old age, from their productively invested savings, through a proper old age insurance scheme of their own free choice, quite uninterfered with! - J.Z. n.d. – In other words, on another day: - If relatively small savings could be and were invested, tax free, confiscation-free, on a stable value basis, as maximum rates of productivity, say, at 15 % p.a., then everybody, after 40 years, could be a multi-millionaire, if one capitalized his income after retirement for the next 20 years. That can be shown with a short table, giving returns from zero interest to 15% interest, for an annual contribution of $ 1500 for 40 years, to get an income for 20 years afterwards. - I reproduced that table by Ulrich von Beckerath in this collection, under: PENSIONS: “High old age pensions through high interest-bearing productive investments, as soon as they territorial State is put out of the way in this sphere. Consider the effects of high interest on accumulated premiums, for a fixed aimed at old age pension for an initially assumed very moderate old age pension. The figures were supplied to me by Ulrich von Beckerath, long-time insurance and banking mathematician, 1882-1969 and taken from the Foster/Spitzer Tables, to which he had also make a contribution: - A simple and assumed case: If a person insured for an old page pension after 40 years of contributions were to collect an old age pension for 20 years, one of $ 3000 p.a., then he would have to pay in savings or premiums according to the interest rate received for his premiums, with the accumulated premiums all productively invested and in our simple case simply omitting the administration costs. He would have to pay annually: (1.) $ 1500 at 0 % interest; - (2.) $ 1107 at 1 %; - (3.) 812 at 2 %; - (4.) $ 592 at 3 % t; - (5.) $ 429 at 4 %; - (6.) $ 309 at 5 %; - (7.) $ 222 at 6 %; - (8.) $ 159 at 7 %, - (9.) $ 114 at 8 %; - (10.) $ 81 at 9 %; - (11.) $ 58 at 10 %; - (12.) $ 41 at 11 %; - (13.) $ 29 at 12 %, - (14.) $ 21 at 13 %; - (15) $ 14 at 14 %; - (16) $ 11 at 15 %. – Now assume, further, that it would be possible to achieve, in the average, a return of 15 % or even higher, and this without bankrupting the debtor but merely as a share in his return on the borrowed capital. What would or could this mean, then? - - All this assumes, naturally, that the government would not regulate the interest rate, would not confiscate such capital or subject it to taxes and that it would not be destroyed via inflation or deflation caused by the government’s monetary despotism, also that credits at such a high return rate could be credit insured. – Then we could take it as a very safe assumption, that the insured would not be satisfied with $ 3000 p.a. at their current purchasing power but would wish for more. Well, at that 15 % interest rate, an annual pension for 20 years, at $ 30 000 p.a., not negligible even in Australian dollars, at this stage, would cost him in premiums just $ 110 per annum! Which working person could not afford to pay as much in somewhat developed countries, p.a.? - And if he would really want to splurge money in his old age, he could achieve a tenfold increase of his pension to $ 300 000 p.a., merely by increasing his annual premium payment to $ 1100. (Now he is probably paying more and what will his annual pension be for that, in the government scheme?) The assumed annual pay-out of $ 300 000, for 20 years, capitalized, would already turn him into a multi-millionaire. - A lot of IF’s are involved still. Admitted! - For some more thoughts on the subject see the rest of my notes under PENSIONS. - People aware of such possibilities would no longer tolerate governments that prevent them from becoming multi-millionaires in their old age. – And this is only one of several ways in which ordinary people could become very rich under full freedom – Another one, for Australians, I described in detail in PEACE PLANS 19c. – Productivity has often been increased in properly conducted coops by 15 % p.a., which would also mean a corresponding potential income or capital increase of the cooperators. – without exploiting anyone. – The enemies of what they call “usury”, even if it is merely a fair share in the additional productivity achieved, have not taken such possibilities into consideration. - J.Z., 29.8.08. - RICHES, OLD AGE PENSIONS, SAVINGS, INVESTMENTS, INSURANCE, HIGH INTEREST RATES FROM VERY HIGHLY PRODUCTIVE INVESTMENTS – FOR OLD AGE SECURITY, EVEN OLD AGE, INTEREST RATE, USURY

WEALTH: James Gwartny in his Freedom Index explained the Prosperity is dependent on: Private property and the rule of law. Peruvian Hernando de Soto noted that 50 to 90% of people in 3rd world countries can’t get clear title to their land property. When the U.S. West was settled, property rights were settled by common law. They drew up deeds among themselves and when government did come it they accepted those deeds as legitimate. In 3rd world countries this hasn’t happened yet, which means the government can seize land and homes at any time. This makes property less valuable and prevents individuals form getting bank loans, etc.” - Mary Ruwart in speech: “How Any Country Can Become Rich”, as reviewed in: FREEDOM NETWORK NEWS. 12/07, p.15. – Again, if individuals and minorities were free to secede, this difficulty would also disappear. - Individual secessionism and exterritorial autonomy associationism are two individual rights to be included in an ideal declaration of individual rights and liberties – for which, so far, no one has shown any interest to me! Will you be one of the exceptions? – J.Z., 10.9.08.

WEALTH: James Gwartny in his Freedom Index explained the Prosperity is dependent on: The size of government and taxation. When government spending is less than 25% wealth creation is very high, but when it exceeds 60% wealth creation drops. When governments cut spending in Ireland, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom, GDP accelerated rapidly. All were hailed as economic ‘miracles’ but of course the outcome was quite predictable. Unfortunately in all three of these countries, once wealth creation rose, the politicians reversed their reforms – once again killing the geese that laid the golden eggs. - .” – Mary Ruwart in speech: “How Any Country Can Become Rich”, as reviewed in: FREEDOM NETWORK NEWS. 12/07, p.15. – Alas, in these States, too, individuals and minorities were not free to secede. When tax payers are free to do so, taxes will go down or may even disappear altogether. Panarchism! – J.Z., 10.9.08. - TAXATION, SECESSIONISM

WEALTH: Smith decided that the proper way for a policeman to provide for “plenty” or “opulence” was to get out of the way of the producer.” – John Chamberlain, THE FREEMAN, 12/78. – On Adam Smith. - The State should also get out of the way of the exchanger and out of the way of those who provide means of exchange, avenues for clearing, sound value standards and credit, insurance and transport options, to mention just a few more examples. – J.Z., 29.8.08. – GOVERNMENT, POLICE POWER, INTERVENTIONISM, RESTRICTIONISM, REGULATIONS, TAXATION, MONOPOLIES, PROTECTIONISM, MONETARY DESPOTISM, CENTRAL BANKING, FORCED & EXCLUSIVE CURRENCIES, LAISSEZ FAIRE, FREE ENTERPRISE, FREE EXCHANGE,MONETARY & FINANCIAL FREEDOM

WEALTH: The possession of gold has ruined fewer men than the lack of it. (*) What noble enterprises have been checked and what fine souls have been blighted in the gloom of poverty the world will never know.” – Thomas Bailey Aldrich, “Leaves from a Notebook”, “Ponkapok Papers”, 1903. - (*) But the belief that the possession of gold is required to issue sound exchange media, whose value is expressed in gold weight units, has ruined many and retarded free economic development, based on the competitive supply of sound exchange media - for many centuries. Sound exchange media can be multiplied without depreciating them, just like yards of cloths and pounds of meat can be multiplied without depreciating the length of the yard or the weight of the pound or the use value or even the market value of either. Mass produced cloth and meat can become cheaper in their retail prices without depreciating sound value standard measures. Or, at the same prices, they can clothe and feed more people. Their production and exchange should not be stopped because there are not sufficient gold stocks to back every exchange medium needed to purchase them. Only the measuring of these goods and of exchange media in gold weight units (or other optional value standard units), would be necessary. Not a single additional gold coins would have to be minted or moved. Just like there are enough yard sticks and pound weights to turn over ten times as many goods. As long as the free market rate for exchange media keeps them at par with their nominal value, their issue is sound. The first discount restrains both issuers and potential acceptors, until that discount has disappeared. No one is obliged to accept exchange media standing at a discount – except the issuer, who must always accept his own IOUs at par for the goods and services he offers, priced out on gold weight units. A wide-spread refusal to accept exchange media with a discount against their nominal gold weight value would rapidly result. People prefer money that stands at par with its value standard. Good monies drive out bad monies under free market rating for them, competitive issues and voluntary acceptance for them. A considerable discount or disagio would make it difficult to impossible for the issuer of such exchange media to engage successfully in new issues of their own exchange media, at least for a considerable time. Their brand of money would be branded thereby, at least temporarily. Voluntary exchange and free pricing work for exchange media and value standards, too. – Over 100 years later all too many people still suffer from the belief that gold has to back, cover and redeem every form of paper money to make that paper money sound and stable enough. Admittedly, the forced and exclusive paper monies of governments have set bad examples. But enterprises were not free to set good examples of free note-issuing banks, not subject to governmental laws, regulations and controls but only to the natural laws for exchange media (essentially clearing facilitators) and value standards. - J.Z., 30.8.08, 12.4.11.

WEALTH: The root source of wealth is human ingenuity. This has no known bounds, so the amount of wealth in existence can always be increased. That’s why capitalism is called "making money".Marc Geddes - - Making one's own money or clearing certificates and accepting those of others as money is actually outlawed. We are only allowed to try to earn the government's monopoly money or claims to it. - J.Z., 25. 11. 06. - THROUGH INGENUITY & THEREBY, POTENTIALLY, IT IS UNLIMITED, CAPITALISM & MAKING MONEY & MONETARY DESPOTISM RATHER THAN MONETARY FREEDOM, DIS.

WEALTH: We shall never solve the paradox of want in the midst of plenty by doing away with plenty.” – Ogden Mills, Speech, New York, 21 March, 1934. - Those who have plenty cannot easily sell their surplus production and service capacity to those who are unemployed and not supplied with exchange media - in the absence of a sufficient supply of exchange media or clearing certificates, which happens frequently under central banking, with its money issue monopolism. However, if the providers of goods and services are free to themselves monetize some of their ready for sale offers then, with that money, they can, indirectly, buy the additional productive labor of the presently unemployed or under-employed, potentially in very large numbers, in all countries with large stocks of ready for sale consumer goods and service capacity, via short term loans, made with their shop foundation money, used in the payment of this additional labor, achieve extra sales to these thus productively employed and paid workers and then, finally, and within a few weeks to a few months at most, get their short-term loans repaid out of the sales proceeds of the additional and sold production and services, which could also become monetized, to assure their sales. The exchange of goods, services and labor for other goods, services and labor could then take place easily, without too much friction, via additional exchange media or clearing transactions, competitively provided, always using sound value standards and free pricing for goods, services and labor. All these issues or account credits would have a corresponding cover and reflux, i.e., the redemption in the wanted consumer goods and services, which were freely monetized. These alternative exchange media or clearing certificates or account credits would not stay permanently in circulation but return fast to the issuers, in exchange for the wanted goods or services, to be there and then destroyed or cancelled, like used tickets to performances and replaced by new issues, to the extent that they are required. Thus shop foundation monies or ticket monies are not unsuitable terms for them. - They would, rather, oscillate than permanently circulate. - J.Z., 12.4.11. - REDEMPTIONISM IN WANTED CONSUMER GOODS SERVICES RATHER THAN RARE METALS.

WEALTH: Wealth consists in an abundance of commodities.” – Bastiat, quoted by G. C. Roche III, Frederic Bastiat, A Man Alone, p.219.. – To visualize that existing wealth, in the already somewhat developed countries, just walk through any large shopping centre. And remember that these riches are frequently sold, bit by bit and rapidly replaced. They can also serve to soundly found, stable value goods- and service warrants, in monetary denominations, with which wages and salaries for productive labors can be paid. The goods and services offered ready for sale in the shops are the main and real current working capital in any country, being continuously turned over and permitting continuous further production, with the use of the more permanent capital in form of machines, buildings, roads etc. No gold redemption is needed for shop currency redeemable in such goods and services. Such private money issues could be expanded to the extent that people still need or want such goods services, without such money depreciating, as long as it uses a sound value standard and the goods and services are also priced out in this standard. Only the issuers would be legally and juridically obliged to accept their private currencies always at par with their nominal value. That and the right of potential acceptors to discount them or to refuse them altogether, would keep the issuers from over-issuing. All their potential acceptors would accept no more of such currencies than they would expect to be able to use soon. They would not get them free: the employers just as short term loans, their employers as earned wages and salaries. They could or would not be over- issued and excessively accept by potential acceptors, just like they do not buy any more telephone credits on cards, or postage stamps or railway tickets than they do need. These money issues would have to be earned like the present monopoly money. Thus the quantity of such sound exchange media would be self-regulating and self-limiting – just like the issue of sound shares, sound mortgages and sound industrial bonds – or sound tickets to performances. – Such ticket-money or purchasing vouchers (goods warrants) could also be time-limited. They are only meant to be turn-over credit tokens. But they could be used to purchase capital certificates and to redeem capital certificate when they are due, or to pay interest on them. – Such turnover-credit money is essential to achieve and assure sales, savings, full employment and further capital growth. Without easy sales and easy wage payment options further development and employment slows down or comes to a stop, and the fixed production capital becomes partly useless for the time being. Without a sufficient supply of sound exchange media the economy might even go in reverse for a while. – Easy and cheap money tokens can still be quite sound money tokens and under full monetary freedom will be, contrary to the predictions and expectations of most of the gold bugs, who do not sufficiently distinguish between value standards and value carriers. – Swedish people once called banknotes aptly “transport tickets”. The gold bugs seem to think that transport facilities with all their exchange options are valuable only when they are redeemable in gold, instead of providing transport services, reckoned and priced in gold weight values, and paid for in any suitable and acceptable means of exchange, e.g. in railway money or bus money, also expressed in gold weight units but not promising any gold, but just wanted services worth so and so much in gold weight value units. – With goods and services thus turned by their owners into purchasing power or clearing certificates, economic development can advance very fast and can utilize any available productive labor and other productive potential, if necessary in three shifts a day. - Most of what we consume has been produced during the last 12 months. While we cannot double our food intake, if we are already well fed, we can multiply our consumption of other consumer goods and services, almost without limits. - We can also multiply these goods and services almost without limits through free and willing labor, quite productively employed. - J.Z., 29.8.08, 12.4.11.

WEALTH: Wealth is in reality as indispensable to mankind for purposes of growth as water to the soil. It is not the fault of the water if its natural circulation is interfered with, if certain portions of the land are drowned while others are left completely dry. Wealth in all countries of the ancient world was artificially confined to a certain class. More than half the area of the Greek and Roman world was shut off by slavery from the fertilizing stream. This single fact is sufficient to explain how that old civilization, in some respects so splendid, was yet too one-sided and incomplete.” – Winwood Reade, The Martyrdom of Man, p.25. - Interference with exchange media, clearing facilities and value standards is just as harmful and wrong as interference with the transfer of capital, e.g. via credit, gifts or inheritance and with the self-ownership of man. – J.Z., 29.8.08. - SLAVERY, TAXATION, NATIONALIZATION

WEAPONS: Governments are afraid of guns in the hands of the people – because the people might use them against their authoritarian governments. Surely, most governments have given the people enough reasons for resisting their government, effectively, not only with ineffective territorial votes, or cases before government courts, which hardly ever stopped any legalized or illegal crime committed by any territorial government. – The first governmental wrong they ought to abolish, after its weapons monopoly is done away with, is the government’s territorial monopoly. It must be replaced by individual and group secessionism, combined with exterritorial autonomy for all kinds of voluntary communities. This would still leave some statist communities but only for their remaining statists and without any territorial monopoly or power. This would, by the way, also eliminate targets for mass murder devices. It would also abolish monetary despotism and with it inflations, deflations, stagflations and involuntary mass unemployment. – J.Z., 29.8.08, 8.8.11. – GUN CONTROL LAWS, VICTIM DISARMAMENT, TERRITORIALISM, PANARCHISM, MILITIA, VOTING, PANARCHISM

WEAPONS: Taxation is robbery, based on monopoly of weapons.” – Robert Anton Wilson, Illuminati Papers, p.21.

WELFARE STATE: A bit of all our assets and incomes is pinched when the money is printed. (*) And the ironic thing is this. Printing is carried out to finance massive welfare programmes. But who suffers most from printing? – Why those very people who have saved money not things. The small saver with his cash in a bank or a building society or National Savings is the one that’s hit. The savings of the welfare recipients are wiped out.” – Terry Arthur, 95% Is Crap, p.204/5. - (*) Only the central banks, with a note-issue monopoly and legal tender power can print more “fiat money” than the economy really needs and force it into circulation at its nominal value. Under competitive money issue and free market rating of its optional exchange media against their self-chosen and competitive value standards only sound monies could survive and as much of them could and would be produced and accepted as would be economically needed for the time being. – Only the printing of the wrongful kind of money is wrong and can do the predictable harm and wrong. - J.Z., 6.9.08, 13.4.11. – MONETARY DESPOTISM, MONETARY FREEDOM

WELFARE STATE: a compulsory system for taking in one another’s inadequate income. – IEA, quoted in GOOD GOVERNMENT, Oct. 66. - As if only the poor were taxed! - The worst tax upon the poor consists in depriving them of many of their genuine individual rights and liberties that they could and would use, in most cases, for productive self-help activities. - The only work, unwanted and also unpaid-for, that the territorial governments do provide is mountains of laws and regulations, which no one has the time and energy to read, not even the legislators themselves and those bureaucrats and politicians, who are supposed to apply all these laws. But the latter are paid, at the expense of the taxpayers, for unproductive or counterproductive work, or over-priced monopoly services, whether they read these laws and apply them or not. - All the other jobs which governments seem to provide, at the expense of taxpayers, mean merely a shift of jobs from some people to other people. - J.Z., 13.4.11. - DIS., LAWS, LEGISLATION, JOBS THROUGH GOVERNMENTS? UNEMPLOYMENT, TAXATION, EMPLOYMENT POLICIES

WELFARE STATE: A society that robs an individual of the product of his effort … is not strictly speaking a society, but a mob held together by institutionalized gang violence.” – Ayn Rand - TRANSFER SOCIETY, TAXATION, SOCIAL JUSTICE

WELFARE STATE: a society that supposedly values work has created a welfare system that strongly discourages it.” – Joseph F. Johnston, Jr., The Limits of Government, Regnery Gateway, Chicago, 1984, p.296. – Unfortunately, he continues: “One possible solution to this problem is to impose a work requirement for all those who are able to work …” - I would rather like to see family members and friends having to act as guarantors for repayments of help granted. – J.Z., 9.11.04. - Better still: competitive insurance and credit services. Under full economic freedom, including monetary freedom, there would be plenty of productive work even for most of the somewhat handicapped people, i.e. much less need for any welfare or insurance. – J.Z., 2.10.07. SOCIETY & WORK

WELFARE STATE: A study for the Association of Life Underwriters relates that for a dollar to reach the needy, churches spend 8 cents, charitable organizations spend 27cents, and the federal government spends $ 3.” - Dr. Laurance J. Peter. The territorial State is the least suitable institution to make any financial, monetary and currency decisions. Why should we assume its competence in this sphere when it is a failure in all others? - J.Z., 13.4.11. - CHARITIES, CHURCHES, FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, TERRITORIALISM, STATISM, BUREAUCRACY

WELFARE STATE: A welfare state is what happens when you let a government of the people and for the people buy the people.” – Slogan by “Libertarian Information Service”, quoted in REASON, 12/73. – Also in: IDEA OM FRIHET, Nr. 1, 1993, p.23. And this with the money which it has first stolen from them! – Compare: “I can understand people letting themselves be bribed, but I cannot understand people letting themselves be bribed with their own money.” –Sir Robert Menzies, once Liberal Prime Minister of Australia, on his Labour Party competitors, making great hand-out promises. Here I quote him only from my flawed memory. - Alas, the modern “liberals” usually outdid their competitors with such bribery attempts. J.Z., 5.9.08. – - They should have added: And this with the money the people themselves were forced to contribute to the State, or with the State’s forced and exclusive fiat money, the only one they were allowed to receive for their goods and services and which, as a result, is almost continuously depreciated and to that extent amounts only to requisitioning certificates. – But, governments do “generously” allow them to pay their taxes with this forced, exclusive and depreciating currency. - J.Z., 7.9.08. - TAXATION, MONETARY DESPOTISM, THE INFLATION TAX, IMPOSITION OF PUBLIC DEBTS UPON FUTURE TAX PAYERS, FORCED LOANS, INVESTMENTS IN GOVERNMENTAL INSECURITIES OR IN TAX SLAVES.

WELFARE STATE: According to Heinz Peter Neumann the administrative costs in the German old age insurance workers in Berlin was down to 2 % in 1986. However, seeing that the sums involved are huge, this is still very much. And the whole system was still largely built upon the levy-system rather than upon highly productive and high interest bearing investments. To the extent that investments took place, they were usually, by law, in government securities – subject to the inflation risk and repayable by the insured or their descendants themselves, in taxes - after the money, supposedly to be spend only for social insurance payouts, had been spent as general revenue! – To call such a system an insurance system rather than a tax system is quite wrong. - J.Z., 7.9.08. - SOCIAL INSURANCE

WELFARE STATE: All the supposedly good causes ought to be paid for only by those volunteers who selected them for themselves, not by tax slaves. – J.Z., 21.1.98. – VOLUNTARISM, PANARCHISM

WELFARE STATE: and restricted by quotas the numbers of them permitted to disembark in Rhode Islands ports. – Governments had always protected their subjects in precisely this way. This is the only way in which Government’s us of force can protect any man’s economic welfare – by preventing other men’s economic activities; that is, by stopping economic progress.” - Rose Wilder Lane, The Discovery of Freedom, p.234. - Much against popular errors and prejudices, immigration restrictions are also impoverishing those, who think that they do benefit from them. - The GNP and also the per head earnings are reduced thereby. There is no inherent limit to the number of people that can be productively employed or employ themselves productively, if only the exchange of their output (goods, services, labor) is free. - J.Z., 13.4.11. - IMMIGRATION RESTRICITONS, EMPLOYMENT, UNEMPLOYMENT, JOBS, FREE EXCHANGE. PROTECTIONISM

WELFARE STATE: As a rule, even most of the working poor pay or paid more in direct or indirect taxes than they get in hand-outs, so even they would be better off without hand-outs and without taxes. – J.Z., 13.8.80. - THE WAR AGAINST POVERTY IS A WAR AGAINST THE POOR.

WELFARE STATE: AUSTRALIA: All told, the Federal Government collects about $ 260 billion a year in taxes, the states collect almost 50 billion a year and local government a bit less than 10 billion. – Against that are about 40 different cash transfers flowing the other way, worth about $ 70 billion a year. – The main transfers  are obvious: pensions, unemployment benefits, family tax benefits and the youth allowance.” – Ross Gittins, the Herald’s economics editor, THE SYDNEY MORNING HERALD, - Aug. 9-10, 08, p.41. – So for a total of $ 320 billion in taxes we get a total of about $ 70 billion back. The rest of $ 250 billion would, largely, have to consist of salaries for bureaucrats, politicians and other administrative costs, like buildings, roads, arms etc. So, to get the “benefit” of $ 70 billions, apart from some capital expenditure, supposedly for our benefit, we have to spend $ 320 billion, hardly a bargain of great benefit to all of us, especially the taxpayers, which include, at least via indirect, if not also direct taxes, most of the beneficiaries of the $ 70 billion. - If the voters kept that proportion in mind, would they still vote for more government action and imagine they could get good bargains this way? - Moreover, if all the politicians and bureaucrats, their laws and institutions, were dismissed and their manpower, instead of outlawing or obstructing the productivity of the rest, were productively employed in the economy, then by how much would the average standard of living become increased? – What economic damage is altogether done by the total of taxes, which Ross Gittins, in the same article, sums up with: “… Australia has at least 125 taxes, but just 10 of them account for 90 per cent of the total taxation collected. – The top 10 are, in descending order: income tax, fuel excise, payroll tax, conveyancing duty, local government rates, superannuation taxes, tobacco excise and land tax. Of the remaining 115 taxes, 93 are levied by the feds and 22 by the states. …” – J.Z., 19.8.08. – STATISM, GOVERNMENT, BUDGET, GOVERNMENT SPENDING, WELFARE STATE, DIS., TAXATION, TAX SLAVERY

WELFARE STATE: Bastiat was certainly correct when he wrote in “The Law” that government should not be allowed to do any act which would be a crime if done by an individual citizen. We do not permit even the neediest to steal. Neither should we permit the government to play Robin Hood.” – George . Leef, THE FREEMAN, Sep.78. – Alas, a few lines above he wrote: “… the best policy is to rely upon individual charity… “ - - For me it is still a riddle how otherwise intelligent writers can manage to forget about insurance, credit and mutual aid in this connection. – J.Z., 4.9.08. – Christian notions still seem to block all too many minds. - J.Z., 13.4.11. - CHARITY, INSURANCE, CREDIT, MUTUAL AID

WELFARE STATE: Bear in mind that a slave is not a prisoner. A slave is viewed by its master as a unit of production. Prisoners go to jail; slaves to go work. And the characteristic of any slave is that some of what he produces is taken by his master, not as the slave but as the master wishes. And no master takes it all, for in that case the slave would die. We are slaves precisely to the degree that what we earn is taken from us by those who own us. And those who own us invariably act as proprietors, being concerned with our good health, our useful skills, our longevity, and our ability to reproduce so that more slaves can be provided.” – LEFEVRE’S JOURNAL, Fall 75. – SELF-OWNERSHIP VS. PEOPLE OWNED & EXPLOITED BY THE TERRITORIAL GOVERNMENTS, TAXATION, TRIBUTE EXTORTION, SLAVERY

WELFARE STATE: Benevolence is a natural instinct of the human mind; when A sees B in distress, his conscience always urges him to entreat C. to help him.” – Sydney Smith, 1771-1845. – The muddle-heads mis-educated in government-controlled schools cannot even clearly distinguish between compulsory and voluntary charity, compulsory and voluntary education, compulsory and voluntary military service, compulsory and voluntary taxation, compulsory and optional and competing monies, compulsory and voluntary voting, compulsory and voluntary membership in States and societies, territorial laws and personal laws, bills of rights and liberties declared by territorial governments and those declared by rights and freedom loving individuals and groups. – No wonder, that they find themselves in a mess, almost anywhere, at least partly wit