John Zube





These are further clarifications for all those who want to understand what panarchies/polyarchies are about and want to start implementing this beautiful methodological praxis.



The panarchist/polyarchic spectrum in some short diverse wordings

All individual rights & liberties, clearly declared and widely appreciated and respected vs. governmental bills of rights, human rights declarations like that of the UN, including wrongful but legalized claims against others, in “Welfare States”, as if they were basic rights or liberties.

All individual rights and liberties for all peaceful volunteers, all practiced to any freely chosen extent vs. any imposed territorial uniformity and obedience to majority supported territorial legislation, regulations and institutions, government orders, programs, methods and actions, all at best somewhat restrained through government legislation and court decisions and its bill of rights, including many mere claims against other people as if they were genuine rights.

Bottoms up organizations vs. top down organizations. However, volunteers might also organize themselves – not others – in totalitarian ways. Compare the restrictions monks and nuns imposed upon their lives.

Choosing and freely doing the own things vs. being under the orders and threats of others, mostly power addicts, their legislation and institutions, commands and penalties for disobedience, i.e. enforced obedience to others and their preferences, as tax slaves, forced laborers or conscripts.

Competing and subscribed-to protection services vs. monopoly police forces, supported by compulsory taxation of whole populations. 

Competing protection services, privately subscribed to by individuals and groups or networks of volunteers vs. more or less monopolized territorial and statist police forces “financed” by  compulsory tribute levies.

Competition of sovereign individuals and groups and networks of volunteers vs. monopolism, collectivism and coercion of the territorial and statist type. 

Consentism or voluntarism and freedom of contract & exchange vs. territorial and statist impositions, however constitutionally, legally and juridically introduced and maintained. 

Decentralization down to individual sovereignty under exterritorial autonomy and personal law or social contract choices vs. territorial and statist centralization, at best only under federalism.

Defence forces or militias of volunteers vs. armed forces of conscripts, in standing armies of Warfare States. (Both would become largely superfluous through the peace-promoting effects of exterritorially autonomous diverse panarchies all only for their volunteers and at their risk and expense.)

Exterritoriale autonomy for groups and networks of like-minded volunteers, all kinds of minorities and majorities vs. territorial statism, its majority or minority governmentalism, domination or despotism. 

Financial freedom vs. financial despotism of e.g. compulsory taxation and imposed “public debts”. 

Free and therefore peaceful relationships vs. compulsory relationships and their frictions and clashes. 

Free and voluntary exchanges vs. centrally planned and controlled compulsory ones. 

Free capitalist enterprises or cooperative or self-managed ones, and forms of voluntary socialism vs. State socialism or totalitarian regimes in which all people and resources are treated and used or abused as mere property of the State, under the false pretense of thus serving best the rightful interest of all the subjects, of “the people” or “the public”.

Free choices also for value standards vs. flawed “value standards” imposed by the central bank’s monopoly money and legal tender power for it. 

Free competition and choices for volunteers vs. monopolies, compulsory collectivism, statism, with enforced legislation, regulations, orders, subjugation, domineering and monopolistic territorial and statist institutions, however legalized and constitutional. 

Free vs. governmental or State or national and “public services”.

Free individual choices for the own lives and affairs, responsibly minding the own businesses and political or social groups, while tolerating the same in all other groups of volunteers, as opposed to territorialist and statist monopolism, its collectivism and compulsion, jurisdiction, policing, legislation, public services and constitutions for whole populations, without the consent of peaceful dissenters.

Free pricing for goods, services, wages, rents, interest rates and fees or subscriptions, also for all kinds of public services, all kinds of public services, competitively offered, vs. price-, wage-, rent- and interest rate controls, compulsory taxes and tribute levies for imposed public services.

Free private enterprises or cooperative or self-managed ones of productive and exchange or public service organizations of volunteers and their competition in every sphere vs. State Socialist “enterprises” or “national” territorial monopolies or  “public services” in a centrally planned, run and controlled “economy”, “financed by” compulsory taxation or tribute levies for imposed public territorial “services.

Freedom of association under exterritorial autonomy or personal law or social contract choices, vs. compulsory membership and domineering territorial and statist subjugation, under monopolistic leadership power, including compulsory tribute levies or tax slavery and prohibition of individual and group secessions.

Freedom of contract, association and experimentation in every sphere, but only for and among volunteers vs. territorially imposed constitutions, laws and institutions for whole populations, i.e. territorial statism, nationalism and compulsory collectivism, more or less centralized by territorial governments with their kind of legislative and juridical foundation. (Freedom of contract vs. territorially imposed constitutions, legislation and jurisdiction.)

Freedom vs. monopolies, compulsion and coercion for all public services that are now territorial monopolies.

Full liberation of peaceful dissenters, free to do their own things among themselves, at their own risk and expense vs. suppression of peaceful dissenters by “democratic” majority despotism, other forms of authoritarianism, dictatorships, tyrannies and even totalitarian regimes.

Individual rights and liberties vs. legalized claims and entitlements against others, in “Welfare States”.

Individual sovereignty and secessions or voluntarism, vs. compulsory membership, “national” or collectivist, monopolistic, compulsory, statists and territorial or geographic sovereignty, practiced by governments and parliaments, monopolistically for whole populations.
Subordination, domination and enforced obedience or declarations of secessions for a whole population, without the consent of all its adult individuals. These people may be very diverse but are still considered to be “the people”, a united people, or a nation. The subjects are more and more treated as if they were the mere property of their current territorial governments, based on the representation fictions of territorial voting and majority voting for “representatives”, or “democracies” whose “representation” does at best amounts only to majority despotism. In none of them, either, are so far all individual rights and liberties declared, known and respected.

Individual vs. collective responsibility. However, if a panarchy as such offends against any members of another panarchy, for one ideological reason or motive or the other, which is part of its principles or ideals, then there would be a case for the collective responsibility of its members, who were not prevented by it from intervening with the members, rights, liberties, institutions and affairs of other panarchies.

Individualism and voluntarism vs. collectivism and compulsion.

Leadership for volunteers only, operating their systems by free choices and merely setting attractive or deterrent examples to outsiders, in both cases somewhat enlightening to outsiders, vs. territorial and statist leadership imposed upon whole populations.

Make your choices, take your pick and pay your way vs. obey and pay us or else …!

Minority autonomy, exterritorial, under personal law or social contract options vs. majority despotism for whole territories and their populations.

Monetary freedom vs. monetary despotism.

Mutual tolerance for tolerant actions among volunteers in any personal law organizations, panarchy or polyarchy vs. intolerant territorial power blocks and their constitutions, imposing their kinds of constitutions or social contracts, “laws” and jurisdictions upon whole populations, considered to be a uniform or united, “the people”, but amounting at best only majority despotisms, suppressing individual sovereignty and individual and group secessions of peaceful dissenters, i.e. being all tooo intolerant towards them.

Optionality and free competition for all kinds of volunteers, merely doing their own things among themselves, vs. monopolistic coercion and enforced uniformity, the usual territorial statism. - (Optionality & competition vs. compulsion, monopolism and  centralisation.)

Panarchies require openness and publicity for their liberation or other reform steps rather than secrecy (e.g. secret diplomacy and secret treaties) to succeed and spread their successes among like-minded volunteers rather than mere subjects and voters. Territorial States require power, lies, propaganda, censorship or secrecy for the introduction and continuance of their wrongs and mistakes, wrongful powers, laws, institutions and actions to be indefinitely continued and conspiracies, putsches, civil wars, military insurrections, revolutions and terrorism for their “changes” which are rarely improvements and mostly further deteriorations in the direction of territorial totalitarianism.

Peacefully coexisting and competing free societies, communities and governance systems of like-minded volunteers, personal law and social contract systems freely chosen by them and only for themselves vs. Warfare States, civil wars, violent revolutions, imposed territorial monopoly constitutions, laws and institutions, leading to constant party- and leadership struggles if not even open violence.

Personal law and social contract choices for individuals and groups of volunteers vs. territorially imposed constitutions, legislations and jurisdictions and their monopolistic and compulsory institutions for whole populations.

Planning: Free and competitive private planning by free enterprises and competitive execution of plans among like-minded volunteers vs. centralized, monopolized and compulsory planning and execution of such plans by powerful officials at the expense and risk of whole populations. (However, some panarchies with forms of central economic planning and controls would also occur, at least for a while under panarchy/polyarchy. State socialist panarchies would not be outlawed for the networks of their volunteers.)

Protectionism, voluntary, vs. free trade options: Even unilateral free trade vs. “protectionism” with its legalized monopolies, exploitation and compulsion. However, protectionists would be free to live under their kind of “protectionism” – but only at their own risk and expense.

Racial tolerance or voluntary integration or segregation vs. racial intolerance and compulsory segregation or integration leading to racist clashes.

Self-planning and direction, self-responsibility, doing the own things, quite freely, together with like-minded volunteers. Freedom, under individual rights and liberties and their diverse choices vs. being ordered or commanded by government officials, directed, forced, dominated and controlled as well as exploited, legally or illegally, by territorial and statist voters and elected power-holders, representatives at best of the majority, under governance systems, constitutions and legislation imposed by the majority of territorial statists in every country.

Sovereign individuals vs. mere subjects of territorial and statist institutions, constitutions, legislation and regulations and xyz bureaucratic and monopolistic institutions imposed upon whole territorial populations.

Uniformity & unity: Each panarchy is united via like-minded volunteers, although only for its network, not via a national, territorial and statist compulsion and monopoly. Uniformity only via like-minded volunteers, freely doing their particular things among themselves.

Value standards freely chosen and used vs. the officially imposed, unreliable and false pretense but legalized exclusive governmental “value standard”, via legal tender power for governmental monopoly monies, with and their “value standard” being imposed upon all private pricing and contracts.

Voluntary and competitive private and public social insurance systems under monetary and financial freedom vs. compulsory and monopolistic governmental “insurance” of “social security” (being neither social nor secure) systems, which have nothing in common with genuine insurance systems and are, usually, run under monetary and financial despotism.

Voluntary contributions, subscriptions or voluntary tax systems vs. compulsory taxation, voluntary rather than forced obedience, and compulsory legislation and institutions for whole territorial populations.

Voluntary labors vs. conscripted or forced or taxed labors.

Voluntary military defence forces vs. standing armies of tax-paid volunteers or conscripts.

Voluntary progressive steps, freely taken by volunteers, in their networks of governance systems, societies and communities, while others, in the same country or even world-wide, would stagnate as conservatives or even go backwards as reactionaries, in their choices for their lives and affairs. A peaceful coexistence between these diverse and exterritorially autonomous communities, societies and governance systems is thus made possible and even likely. Full publicity of their pros and cons will cover all of them. Some exchanges are still likely to occur between them but not all of them under multilateral free trade conditions. In the long run those with the greatest degrees of individual rights and liberties will be most successful and thus become widely copied. However, relapses into popular errors and prejudices will occur, at least among new generations. They could then be freely practiced at their expense and risk alone. Compulsion, monopolies, compulsory collectivism and monetary and financial despotism could then no longer be enforced for the whole populations of diverse territories. The lovers of liberties and rights would and could then defend them much more effectively than they can now under statist territorialism.

Voluntary segregation or integration vs. compulsory segregation or integration.

Voluntary subscriptions, contributions or fees for wanted or needed services, competitively supplied vs. compulsory taxation or tribute levies for constitutionally, legally and governmentally determined and run “public services”.


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